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Developing verified programs with Dafny

K. Rustan M. Leino
2012 Proceedings of the 2012 ACM conference on High integrity language technology - HILT '12  
Dafny is a programming language and program verifier. The language includes specification constructs and the verifier checks that the program lives up to its specifications.  ...  These tutorial notes give some Dafny programs used as examples in the tutorial.  ...  The Dafny verifier is invoked just like the Dafny compiler. That is, the input to the program verifier is the program text itself.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2402676.2402682 dblp:conf/sigada/Leino12 fatcat:wxbefuts2rdl5fvj3xhdinc2p4

Developing verified programs with Dafny

K. Rustan M. Leino
2013 2013 35th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE)  
Dafny is a programming language and program verifier. The language includes specification constructs and the verifier checks that the program lives up to its specifications.  ...  These tutorial notes give some Dafny programs used as examples in the tutorial.  ...  The Dafny verifier is invoked just like the Dafny compiler. That is, the input to the program verifier is the program text itself.  ... 
doi:10.1109/icse.2013.6606754 dblp:conf/icse/Leino04 fatcat:ftnfla2jurfq7hec3vd36x52km

Developing Verified Programs with Dafny [chapter]

K. Rustan, M. Leino
2012 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Dafny is a programming language and program verifier. The language includes specification constructs and the verifier checks that the program lives up to its specifications.  ...  These tutorial notes give some Dafny programs used as examples in the tutorial.  ...  The Dafny verifier is invoked just like the Dafny compiler. That is, the input to the program verifier is the program text itself.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-27705-4_7 fatcat:fymrexgexvcxzluw536xlwok24

A Method to Deduce and Synthesize the Dafny Programs

Changjing WANG, Xilong DING, Jiangfei HE, Xi CHEN, Qing HUANG, Haimei LUO, Zhengkang ZUO
2021 Wuhan University Journal of Natural Sciences  
Finally, the functional correctness of Dafny program is automatically verified by Dafny verifier or online tool.  ...  It proves that our method can effectively improve the correctness and reliability of Dafny program developed.  ...  The final developed programs are automatically verified by Dafny verifier. The main contributions are as follows: 1) We propose a system method to deduce and synthesize the Dafny programs.  ... 
doi:10.1051/wujns/2021266481 fatcat:4d26gyluqrbgffj5erx6v6uvvq

Dafny: Statically Verifying Functional Correctness [article]

Rachel Gauci
2014 arXiv   pre-print
This report presents the Dafny language and verifier, with a focus on describing the main features of the language, including pre- and postconditions, assertions, loop invariants, termination metrics,  ...  Examples of Dafny code are provided to illustrate the use of each feature, and an overview of how Dafny translates programming code into a mathematical proof of functional verification is presented.  ...  Conclusion Dafny originally started out as an exercise in encoding dynamic frames, and has now developed into a general-purpose programming language and a static verifier for functional correctness [1  ... 
arXiv:1412.4395v1 fatcat:ej7xuj3vwbh5dfvbnud75z5kxi

From Event-B Models to Dafny Code Contracts [chapter]

Mohammadsadegh Dalvandi, Michael Butler, Abdolbaghi Rezazadeh
2015 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
This approach combines the power of Event-B abstraction and its stepwise refinement with the verification capabilities of Dafny.  ...  Finally, a tool for automatic generation of Dafny contracts from Event-B formal models is presented.  ...  Programs written and specified in Dafny can be verified using the Dafny verifier which is based on an SMT-solver.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-24644-4_21 fatcat:mt5ms25bn5cj7mjovfmcvby5yu

The Dafny Integrated Development Environment

K. Rustan M. Leino, Valentin Wüstholz
2014 Electronic Proceedings in Theoretical Computer Science  
This paper presents an integrated development environment for Dafny-a programming language, verifier, and proof assistant-that addresses issues present in most state-of-the-art verifiers: low responsiveness  ...  In recent years, program verifiers and interactive theorem provers have become more powerful and more suitable for verifying large programs or proofs.  ...  Acknowledgments We are grateful to Nada Amin and Maria Christakis for providing benchmark programs, and to Michał Moskal for helping with the BVD integration.  ... 
doi:10.4204/eptcs.149.2 fatcat:jfjahqdmdjdsfcy3qgryfprlue

DAReing to reduce the annotation overheads of verified programs [article]

Gudmund Grov, Duncan Cameron, Leon McGregor
2017 arXiv   pre-print
In this paper we introduce the DARe tool, which automatically removes as much unnecessary guidance as possible for the Dafny program verifier. The tool is integrated with the Dafny IDE.  ...  This can be high and is often seen as a hindrance for wider use of program verifiers, as development time is increased and the guidance may obfuscate the program text.  ...  Such studies will help inform the development of future releases of DARe. Finally, we could implement similar tools for other program verifiers and re-do the same experiments for them.  ... 
arXiv:1706.04023v1 fatcat:lk5k3pr2andkpfncqzggf7apr4

A Tutorial on Using Dafny to Construct Verified Software

Paqui Lucio
2017 Electronic Proceedings in Theoretical Computer Science  
In this paper, besides introducing the most basic features of the language and verifier Dafny, we place special emphasis on how to use Dafny as an assistant in the development of verified programs.  ...  This paper is a tutorial for newcomers to the field of automated verification tools, though we assume the reader to be relatively familiar with Hoare-style verification.  ...  This paper is a tutorial that -besides introducing into the most basic features of Dafny-places special emphasis on how to use Dafny as an assistant in the development of verified programs.  ... 
doi:10.4204/eptcs.237.1 fatcat:mby7tke3w5fvrjborrpgdz5rby

Integrated Environment for Diagnosing Verification Errors [chapter]

Maria Christakis, K. Rustan M. Leino, Peter Müller, Valentin Wüstholz
2016 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
To help a user with this task, this paper presents an extension of the Dafny IDE that seamlessly integrates the Dafny verifier, a dynamic symbolic execution engine, a verification debugger, and a technique  ...  A failed attempt to verify a program's correctness can result in reports of genuine errors, spurious warnings, and timeouts.  ...  Dafny has always had a program verifier.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-662-49674-9_25 fatcat:wj3x2pop75gwtiwfg6s5z6sboq

Programming Language Features for Refinement

Jason Koenig, K. Rustan M. Leino
2016 Electronic Proceedings in Theoretical Computer Science  
To experiment with the combination of refinement, automated verification, and language design, refinement features have been added to the verification-aware programming language Dafny.  ...  Program refinements are performed in the context of some programming language, but mainstream languages lack features for recording the sequence of refinement steps in the program text.  ...  Dafny has a program verifier that checks that a program meets its given specifications.  ... 
doi:10.4204/eptcs.209.7 fatcat:aoqwz3u4xng6bm5illugrc2tg4

Verifying Time Complexity of Binary Search using Dafny

Shiri Morshtein, Ran Ettinger, Shmuel Tyszberowicz
2021 Electronic Proceedings in Theoretical Computer Science  
We present a proof of concept for using the Dafny verification tool to specify and verify the worst-case time complexity of binary search.  ...  However, nonfunctional properties such as time complexity are usually carried out with pen and paper.  ...  Using Dafny, this property can then be verified alongside the functional properties. The concept was demonstrated on an algorithm of a non-trivial time-complexity class, namely a logarithmic one.  ... 
doi:10.4204/eptcs.338.9 fatcat:c5vwofu27ngoneqfvtpii4a6fu

Transforming Event-B Models to Dafny Contracts

Mohammadsadegh Dalvandi, Michael Butler, Abdolbaghi Rezazadeh
2015 Electronic Communications of the EASST  
This method combines Event-B abstraction and refinement with the code-level verification features of Dafny.  ...  The paper also defines and proves a formal link between property verification in Event-B and Dafny. Our approach is illustrated with a small case study.  ...  Dafny is a programming language and verifier. Given a program code and its formal specification, the Dafny tool [LW14] (which is an SMT-based verifier) can verify the program against its contract.  ... 
doi:10.14279/tuj.eceasst.72.1021 dblp:journals/eceasst/DalvandiBR15 fatcat:hwweobnyifgplpvylzwtprb32y

Using Dafny, an Automatic Program Verifier [chapter]

Luke Herbert, K. Rustan M. Leino, Jose Quaresma
2012 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
The key language constructs, and various system limits, are illustrated through the development of a simple Dafny program.  ...  These lecture notes present Dafny, an automated program verication system that is based on the concept of dynamic frames and is capable of producing .NET executables.  ...  being developed.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-35746-6_6 fatcat:haqtso2chjfi7d7aydebidsofy

Fine-Grained Caching of Verification Results [chapter]

K. Rustan M. Leino, Valentin Wüstholz
2015 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Developing provably correct programs is an incremental process that often involves a series of interactions with a program verifier.  ...  environment for the Dafny programming language.  ...  We are grateful to the users of the Dafny IDE-notably, Nada Amin, Maria Christakis, Arjun Narayan, and Bryan Parno-for providing feedback on its caching system.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-21690-4_22 fatcat:kppunm4xdbf3bmhpx2gdnbrye4
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