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Exploring the "continuous combat function" concept in armed conflicts: Time for an extended application?

Sabrina Henry
2019 International Review of the Red Cross  
Secondly, the paper will look at the extension of this concept in order to determine individual membership in State armed forces in the context of a NIAC, while arguing that the notion of "armed forces  ...  First, the article will demonstrate that the continuous combat function concept should be extended to certain members of organized armed groups in cases where those groups do not belong to any of the parties  ...  that, as their membership in the armed forces is not regulated by domestic law, it can only be reliably determined "on the basis of the same functional criteria that apply to organized armed groups of  ... 
doi:10.1017/s1816383119000298 fatcat:il2jr33sobglbctucokd3gdifi

Postoperative control in deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic region: the contact membership concept

Simone Hemm, François Caire, Jérôme Coste, François Vassal, Christophe Nuti, Philippe Derost, Lemlih Ouchchane, Laurent Sarry, Franck Durif, Jean-Jacques Lemaire
2008 International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery  
We propose a new semi-quantitative approach (contact membership concept) considering patient's individual anatomy, contact size , and extent of involvement of STN and neighboring structures.  ...  Analysis of the position of effective contacts (n=20) for the ten patients (right R and left L electrodes) by the membership concept (considering contact size).  ...  the membership concept and that this structure corresponds to the one involved according to the binary concept.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11548-008-0152-6 fatcat:jpvxqmaqcnbuhkjfgshsuqwobq

Representing Distributed Groups with d g FOAF [chapter]

Felix Schwagereit, Ansgar Scherp, Steffen Staab
2010 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Managing one's memberships in different online communities increasingly becomes a cumbersome task.  ...  Applications of dg FOAF range from access restriction to trust support based on community membership.  ...  This research has been co-funded by the EU in FP7 in the WeKnowIt project (215453).  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-13489-0_13 fatcat:lkp7tlmogvex7htzw7m4wjz2ri

When won't membership queries help?

Dana Angluin, Michael Kharitonov
1991 Proceedings of the twenty-third annual ACM symposium on Theory of computing - STOC '91  
We investigate cryptographic limitations on the power of membership queries to help with concept learning. Address:  ...  Consider the distribution D on strings x induced by flipping a coin to determine b and then running E((PK, SK), b) to determine S. This assigns probability zero to strings longer than p(n).  ...  Also, if all the membership queries of A" were correctly answered, then by the correctness of A', the predictions of A' for the signed version of a concept c (and therefore, the predictions of A for the  ... 
doi:10.1145/103418.103420 dblp:conf/stoc/AngluinK91 fatcat:u5rvynnr2rdynd2uktioq6oary

Evolving fuzzy decision tree structure that adapts in real-time

James F. Smith
2005 Proceedings of the 2005 conference on Genetic and evolutionary computation - GECCO '05  
Genetic algorithm based optimization is conducted to determine the form of the membership functions for the fuzzy root concepts.  ...  A comparison to subtrees obtained using a genetic program and those constructed by hand from rules is made.  ...  Each root concept membership function has parameters that are determined by optimization [6, 7] . For each root concept, a fuzzy membership function must be specified.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1068009.1068298 dblp:conf/gecco/Smith05 fatcat:rqqrpxerk5d67jsiazgme5hczy

Page 680 of Political Studies Vol. 49, Issue 4 [page]

2001 Political Studies  
by a related slide from a collective to a corporate conception of national self-determination.  ...  680 than by the individuals jointly as a group.  ... 

Pathway Distiller - multisource biological pathway consolidation

Mark S Doderer, Zachry Anguiano, Uthra Suresh, Ravi Dashnamoorthy, Alexander JR Bishop, Yidong Chen
2012 BMC Genomics  
For HPD, we determined 20 pathways that group together into 6 clusters. By manual name comparison, we determined pathways similar to 9 of HPD's pathways.  ...  and the number of concepts to determine.  ... 
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-13-s6-s18 pmid:23134636 pmcid:PMC3481446 fatcat:bat32mt4kbhnlhoqvvo7fac5ky

Page 206 of Political Studies Vol. 51, Issue 1 [page]

2003 Political Studies  
That is, under this Hayekian conception answers to ques- tions concerning cultural membership, like questions concerning resource alloca- tion, are given not by an epistemologically truncated process of  ...  Vagueness, then, is here a virtue, for just as a social group is not specifi- able in terms of a determinate essence, ‘a social perspective’, Young writes, ‘does not contain a determinate specific content  ... 

A numerical taxonomy of the pan species ofCrinumbased on morphological characters

Ezekeil G. Kwembeya, Brita Stedje
2007 Nordic Journal of Botany  
Additionally, fuzzy analysis calculates a measure of the degree of group membership.  ...  Expanding our toolkit to include fuzzy set analysis can help us determine how crisp or fuzzy are our putative taxonomic groups.  ...  Access to collections was granted by the British Museum of Natural History, Tel Aviv University, and the Rockefeller Museum.  ... 
doi:10.1111/j.0107-055x.2007.00031.x fatcat:kclmeerjtfhmjgre6u3igwno2e

Raimo Tuomela's Social Ontology

J. Angelo Corlett, Julia Lyons Strobel
2017 Social Epistemology  
It is concluded that the core of Tuomela's social ontology is a sociology of membership.  ...  account with that of the other founders of the analysis of collective intentionality (Bratman, Gilbert, and Searle), and their related topics, for example I-mode and we-mode, collective commitment, social groups  ...  Group membership presupposes mutual knowledge of this membership (on the concept of social group, (Tuomela 2007) , chapter 1, and (Tuomela 2013), chapter 2; on the concept of social group in sociological  ... 
doi:10.1080/02691728.2017.1346724 fatcat:yl4sfij5jffzfa3ayh2jfxy2ai

Adoption of Fuzzy Clustering Techniques to Determine the Genetic Characteristics of Some Dates Varieties

Nima Abdullah AL-Fakhry, Ramadan Mahmood Ramo
2021 Zenodo  
These patterns are understandable and useful to their users by employing a range of automated extraction of knowledge from hideaways This Research is a step to illustrate the concept of clustering technique  ...  The practical side applied the application of the nearest neighboring algorithm to determine the extent of convergence between some date varieties from the adoption of Fructose and and Glucose in Dates  ...  based on the concept of Fuzzy membership.  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.5112199 fatcat:4ae73inykbdydbaritcypslbiq

Visualizing the Uncertainty of Urban Ontology Terms [chapter]

Hyowon Ban, Ola Ahlqvist
2007 Studies in Computational Intelligence  
The concept of exurban is an example of a term likely to find its way into urban development ontologies.  ...  We argue that exurban boundaries are not crisp, hence, a series of fuzzy-set theory membership functions help define the uncertainty of the empirical exurban boundaries.  ...  The final membership value for the Daniels definition is determined by calculating the average of the two membership values MF (D) and MF (P) .  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-71976-2_8 fatcat:ofnxwssjjnhq3hndbqgbu4r3dq

A Fuzzy-based Prior Knowledge Diagnostic Model with Multiple Attribute Evaluation

Yi-Chun Lin, Yueh-Min Huang
2013 Educational Technology & Society  
Nevertheless, one of the major problems when applying the PKD model is that it only uses correctness rates answered by students to determine their level of understanding with regard to particular concepts  ...  Consequently, with the intervals for α = 0 and 1, the resulting membership function is determined and is plotted in Figure 9.  ...  Appendix The EFWA algorithm  Definition: the input a, b, c, and d are the intervals of fuzzy membership functions, and the outputs are the intervals of the result fuzzy membership function.  ... 
dblp:journals/ets/LinH13 fatcat:s2csxlfccbaszh75f2fliijnwa

The New Approach on Fuzzy Decision Trees [article]

Jooyeol Yun, Jun won Seo, Taeseon Yoon
2014 arXiv   pre-print
the test determined group 1 from the real group 2 Group C: the number of cases, when the test determined group 2 from the real group 1 Group D: the number of cases, when the test determined group 2 from  ...  Decision trees apply this conception to eliminate the most entropy and choose the order of attributes. Many algorithms are devised for decision tree construction by using this conception.  ... 
arXiv:1408.3002v1 fatcat:6izd4afgizfxjpu4q45fq4vx5y

Corpus-Driven Contextualized Categorization

Tony Veale, Yanfen Hao
2006 European Conference on Artificial Intelligence  
By learning from corpora about how people creatively actually use categories in different contexts, we can train our ontologies to creatively adapt themselves to these contexts.  ...  This can be done by determining the frequency of occurrence of each concept within the category, and this, in turn, can be estimated by looking to a large corpus to see how each concept is actually employed  ...  Thus, to estimate the membership level of the word-concept butcher|屠 夫 in the category kill-agent, we first determine the corpus-frequency of the phrase "butcher who kills/killed".  ... 
dblp:conf/ecai/VealeH06 fatcat:h4evatvgsbg5dgkwyo3qo32y4e
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