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Detecting semantic cloaking on the web

Baoning Wu, Brian D. Davison
2006 Proceedings of the 15th international conference on World Wide Web - WWW '06  
In this paper, we propose an automated two-step method to detect semantic cloaking pages based on different copies of the same page downloaded by a web crawler and a web browser.  ...  In the second step, a classifier is used to detect semantic cloaking pages from the candidates generated by the filtering step.  ...  We propose a two-step process to detect semantic cloaking on the Web. The filtering step will detect all candidates that may utilize semantic cloaking.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1135777.1135901 dblp:conf/www/WuD06 fatcat:ktenh5gpb5fv5ggtdgroopr3a4

A Reputation Based Detection Technique to Cloaked Web Spam

A.Naga Venkata Sunil, Anjali Sardana
2012 Procedia Technology - Elsevier  
Cloaking is a kind of hiding technique which is used to return different pages to the crawler and the user on their request to the cloaked web server.  ...  This paper also presents an abstract model to detect cloaking based on reputation.  ...  Based on these features a classifier is built and used to detect whether the page is semantically cloaked or not.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.protcy.2012.05.090 fatcat:pwgyblczbjfm7fukbo3fm4rdzq

A Survey on Web Spam Detection Methods: Taxonomy

Shekoofeh Ghiam
2012 International journal of network security and its applications  
This paper classifies web spam techniques and the related detection methods.  ...  Hence spam detection methods have been proposed as a solution for web spam in order to reduce negative effects of spam pages.  ...  C) Semantic Cloaking Wu and Davison [11] proposed a two-step cloaking detection method which detects semantic cloaking on the web. The first step is called filtering step.  ... 
doi:10.5121/ijnsa.2012.4510 fatcat:ql36fw6hl5ahfjctd4yfhdo4om

Detecting Cloaking Web Spam Using Hash Function

Shekoofeh Ghiam, Alireza Nemaney Pour
2013 Computer Science and Information Technology  
Previous cloaking detection methods based on terms/links differences between crawler and browser's copies are not accurate enough. The latest technique is tag-based method.  ...  Web spam is an attempt to boost the ranking of special pages in search engine results. Cloaking is a kind of spamming technique.  ...  [1] , proposed a two-step cloaking detection method, which detects semantic cloaking on the web. In the first step, C 1 and B 1 are compared.  ... 
doi:10.13189/csit.2013.010104 fatcat:rcef6wqwungtlfo6kenponzd3a

Fine-Grained Analysis of Compromised Websites with Redirection Graphs and JavaScript Traces

Yuta TAKATA, Mitsuaki AKIYAMA, Takeshi YAGI, Takeshi YADA, Shigeki GOTO
2017 IEICE transactions on information and systems  
The result shows that our system successfully identified malicious URL relations and compromised web content, and the number of URLs and the amount of web content to be analyzed were sufficient for incident  ...  An incident response organization such as a CSIRT contributes to preventing the spread of malware infection by analyzing compromised websites and sending abuse reports with detected URLs to webmasters.  ...  For example, original content is necessary for compromise detection, and these methods can detect only compromised web content on the web server under control.  ... 
doi:10.1587/transinf.2016icp0011 fatcat:kmdujk7fwrg25bjcutopiprtki

Cloak and dagger

David Y. Wang, Stefan Savage, Geoffrey M. Voelker
2011 Proceedings of the 18th ACM conference on Computer and communications security - CCS '11  
Cloaking is a common "bait-and-switch" technique used to hide the true nature of a Web site by delivering blatantly different semantic content to different user segments.  ...  In this paper, we measure and characterize the prevalence of cloaking on different search engines, how this behavior changes for targeted versus untargeted advertising and ultimately the response to site  ...  in-kind support from Google, Microsoft, Yahoo, Cisco, HP and the UCSD Center for Networked Systems (CNS).  ... 
doi:10.1145/2046707.2046763 dblp:conf/ccs/WangSV11 fatcat:zvofcjucf5au5axdh3gzfoaowq

Website Forensic Investigation to Identify Evidence and Impact of Compromise [chapter]

Yuta Takata, Mitsuaki Akiyama, Takeshi Yagi, Takeshi Yada, Shigeki Goto
2017 Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering  
As a result, our system successfully identified compromised web content and malicious URL relations, and the amount of web content and the number of URLs to be analyzed were sufficient for incident responders  ...  ., a CSIRT and a webmaster, because these websites change behavior depending on a client environment.  ...  For example, original content is necessary for compromise detection, and these methods can detect only compromised web content on the web server under control.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-59608-2_25 fatcat:g3birlugyneslaax6ba5z74lbm

Cloaker Catcher: A Client-based Cloaking Detection System [article]

Ruian Duan, Weiren Wang, Wenke Lee
2017 arXiv   pre-print
In addition, they focus on detecting and measuring cloaking on the server side, but the results are not visible to users to help them avoid frauds.  ...  Cloaking hides the true nature of a website by delivering blatantly different content to users versus web crawlers.  ...  In the feature extraction phase, these algorithms traverse the web pages and extract statistical and semantic features.  ... 
arXiv:1710.01387v1 fatcat:ghr6vhnafng6tl2yycssiqfaky

Fine-Grained Cloaking of Sensitive Positions in Location-Sharing Applications

M. L. Damiani, C. Silvestri, E. Bertino
2011 IEEE pervasive computing  
In this paper we elaborate on this inference attack, named semantic location identification, and present a comprehensive framework supporting semantic location cloaking.  ...  Typically the user discloses a cloaked region in place of the exact position.  ...  The operation can be executed on a properly equipped device or on a different system, such a laptop or a Web application [19] .  ... 
doi:10.1109/mprv.2011.18 fatcat:fcorv55tjzh2xde6clesya2srq

Characterizing Long-tail SEO Spam on Cloud Web Hosting Services

Xiaojing Liao, Chang Liu, Damon McCoy, Elaine Shi, Shuang Hao, Raheem Beyah
2016 Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on World Wide Web - WWW '16  
The emergence of cloud web hosting services provides a new and effective platform for longtail SEO spam attacks.  ...  One highlight of our findings is the effectiveness of the cloud-based long-tail SEO spam, with 6% of the doorway pages successfully appearing in the top 10 search results of the poisoned long-tail keywords  ...  Compared to client-side cloaking, server-side cloaking is more concealed and much more likely to circumvent detection [32] .  ... 
doi:10.1145/2872427.2883008 dblp:conf/www/LiaoLMSHB16 fatcat:ypcf7xuwi5fjnpeeerlb4zqcqy

User generated content

Ricardo Baeza-Yates
2009 Proceedings of the 3rd workshop on Information credibility on the web - WICOW '09  
Spam Challenge • Label "spam" nodes on the host level -agrees with existing granularity of Web spam • Based on a crawl of .uk domain from May 2006 • 77.9 million pages • 3 billion links • 11,400  ...  Clicks, Bids) 20 What is in the Web?  ...  / Barcelona • Similarity @1 is 1/2 because the longest shared path is "Regional/ Europe/ Spain" and the length of the longest is 6 Experimental Evaluation • We evaluated a 1000 thousand edges sample  ... 
doi:10.1145/1526993.1526995 dblp:conf/www/Baeza-Yates09 fatcat:bhmtz6f2pna6pk2lx2jtzwkepu

EvilSeed: A Guided Approach to Finding Malicious Web Pages

Luca Invernizzi, Paolo Milani Comparetti
2012 2012 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy  
To search for malicious web pages, the first step is typically to use a crawler to collect URLs that are live on the Internet.  ...  A key reason is that the crawler encounters many pages on the web that are benign, that is, the "toxicity" of the stream of URLs being analyzed is low.  ...  Acknowledgments This research draws on data provided by the University Research Program for Google Search, a service provided by Google to promote a greater common understanding of the web.  ... 
doi:10.1109/sp.2012.33 dblp:conf/sp/InvernizziC12 fatcat:vz5jv4kglze3fpdz6abddo4mza

Approaches for Web Spam Detection

Kanchan Hans, Laxmi Ahuja, S. K. Muttoo
2014 International Journal of Computer Applications  
We have categorized web spam detection with the primary focus on the approaches used for spam detection. The paper also gives the possible directions for future work.  ...  Web Security being a prime challenge for search engines has motivated the researchers in academia and industry to devise new techniques for web spam detection.  ...  Cloaking Cloaking is a technique by which a Web server provides to the crawler of a search engine a page that is different from the one shown to regular users.  ... 
doi:10.5120/17655-8467 fatcat:vjlkkwa6wbeupe6afkstqeeday

Detecting Web Spam Based on Novel Features from Web Page Source Code

Jiayong Liu, Yu Su, Shun Lv, Cheng Huang, Liguo Zhang
2020 Security and Communication Networks  
However, none of these techniques focused on semantic analysis of link and anchor text for detection.  ...  Experiment results show that the proposed model could effectively detect web spam.  ...  As the proposed method has features based on semantics, it is helpful to detect spam in web pages where links to spam content are easily injected into.  ... 
doi:10.1155/2020/6662166 fatcat:opknwyq3jfe2baaa33xg4vhdli

Cloak of Visibility: Detecting When Machines Browse a Different Web

Luca Invernizzi, Kurt Thomas, Alexandros Kapravelos, Oxana Comanescu, Jean-Michel Picod, Elie Bursztein
2016 2016 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP)  
These web cloaking techniques hinder the effectiveness of security crawlers and potentially expose Internet users to harmful content.  ...  In this work, we study the spectrum of blackhat cloaking techniques that target browser, network, or contextual cues to detect organic visitors.  ...  Web Cloaking Incentives Web cloaking refers to the set of techniques that a web server uses to fingerprint incoming visitors in order to customize page content.  ... 
doi:10.1109/sp.2016.50 dblp:conf/sp/InvernizziTKCPB16 fatcat:koc4b2yuvzauvak67dopisnkw4
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