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Detecting races in relay ladder logic programs [chapter]

Alexander Aiken, Manuel Fähndrich, Zhendong Su
1998 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Relay Ladder Logic (RLL) [4] is a programming language widely used for complex embedded control applications such as manufacturing and amusement park rides.  ...  We demonstrate that our analysis is useful in detecting some flaws in production RLL programs that are difficult to find by other techniques.  ...  We would also like to thank Anthony Barrett for information on RLL, providing us with abstract syntax trees of RLL programs, and running some experiments to validate our results.  ... 
doi:10.1007/bfb0054172 fatcat:pyn47nqmx5bthkvjgczzsfoawq

Detecting races in Relay Ladder Logic programs

Alexander Aiken, Manuel Fähndrich, Zhendong Su
2000 International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer (STTT)  
Relay Ladder Logic (RLL) [5] is a programming language widely used for complex embedded control applications such as manufacturing and amusement park rides.  ...  We demonstrate that our analysis is useful in detecting some flaws in production RLL programs that are difficult to find by other techniques.  ...  We would also like to thank Anthony Barrett for information on RLL, providing us with abstract syntax trees of RLL programs, and running some experiments to validate our results.  ... 
doi:10.1007/pl00010810 fatcat:5okyxuriz5b2vcj74xof3nlj5u

Automated Deductive Verification for Ladder Programming

Denis Cousineau, David Mentré, Hiroaki Inoue
2019 Electronic Proceedings in Theoretical Computer Science  
Ladder Logics is a programming language standardized in IEC 61131-3 and widely used for programming industrial Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC).  ...  Due to the graphical form of Ladder programs, and the amount of inputs and outputs in typical industrial programs, debugging such programs is time-consuming and error-prone.  ...  Ladder Logic Ladder Logic is a graphical programming language using relay logics diagrams to represent a PLC program.  ... 
doi:10.4204/eptcs.310.2 fatcat:yscepjwoczhyfd5cvibvpixmcy

Logic-Based Programming for Wireless Sensor-Activator Networks

Yizhi Wu, Anthony Rowe
2011 2011 IEEE/ACM Second International Conference on Cyber-Physical Systems  
In this paper we present SAN-Logic, a lightweight logic-based programming paradigm that enables the dynamic progammability and configuration of sensor-actuator interactions in wireless sensor networks  ...  In contrast to sensor networking paradigms that distribute an application into individual sub-programs, SAN-Logic models the system as a set of boolean expressions which can be partitioned across the network  ...  This approach is commonly used in industrial automation to configure PLCs using Relay Ladder Logic (RLL).  ... 
doi:10.1109/iccps.2011.31 dblp:conf/iccps/WuR11 fatcat:mf2fgat5gbfb7hoymkmydvbrke

Auto-Guide Vehicle with Contactless Power Transfer Principle Using PLC and SCADA

T. Pushpaganeshan
2017 International Journal for Research in Applied Science and Engineering Technology  
The operation of AGV is fully automated using PLC programming. SCADA is used to control and monitor the machine.  ...  High demands on manufacturers have left their shipping warehouses in havoc. In addition, human error has a negative effect on safety, efficiency, and quality.  ...  Early PLCs were designed to replace relay logic systems. These PLCs were programmed in "ladder logic", which strongly resembles a schematic diagram of relay logic.  ... 
doi:10.22214/ijraset.2017.11318 fatcat:5sz6se3w7jbcxit3bmctmpnene

Automation Strategy for Black Tea Production Line

N Kaushik
2019 Journal of Physics, Conference Series  
India enjoyed supremacy in its production till a significant period. But, recently it is lagging behind in the race being surpassed by some neighbouring countries.  ...  The automation is designed on Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) based control of the CTC (Crush, Tear & Curl) tea manufacturing processes.  ...  The most popular language to program a PLC is ladder logic which strongly resembles relay-logic.  ... 
doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1240/1/012144 fatcat:l3fd64eizjfmffs7wu5qbcsfpi

A retrofit network transaction data logger and intrusion detection system for transmission and distribution substations

Thomas Morris, Kalyan Pavurapu
2010 2010 IEEE International Conference on Power and Energy  
Substation based intrusion detection supports a defense in depth approach to cyber security in which multiple overlapping layers of security are used to protect critical cyber assets.  ...  The retrofit data logger allows existing control systems to be updated to log network transactions in support of substation based network intrusion detection.  ...  IED, such as protection relays, store control parameters and execute algorithmic code (such as ladder logic or C programs) to directly control subcircuits in the transmission system.  ... 
doi:10.1109/pecon.2010.5697717 fatcat:5xkmhpzskzh4dm55rqdwf2tjzi

Methods of measuring the size and complexity of PLC programs in different logic control design methodologies

M.R. Lucas, D.M. Tilbury
2005 The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology  
We demonstrate these methods of measurement using four program samples that perform similar functions on the same machine, written in four logic control design methodologies: ladder diagrams, Petri nets  ...  Currently there is a wide variety of logic control design methodologies used in industrial logic design.  ...  Ladder diagrams Ladder diagrams are the primary industrial logic control design methodology used in American industry today [3] .  ... 
doi:10.1007/s00170-003-1996-0 fatcat:tj7j3cgdobctnip7osehzaajmu

Colored resource-oriented Petri net based ladder diagrams for PLC implementation in reconfigurable manufacturing systems

Husam Kaid, Abdulrahman Al-Ahmari, Zhiwu Li
2020 IEEE Access  
[42] introduce an ordinary Petri net-based method for modeling and race-detection issues of programs for PLCs.  ...  Indeed, if the system is individual in type and multiproduct in heuristic approaches, writing down the ladder logic programs is impossible [26, 27] .  ...  CONCLUSIONS In this paper, a novel two-step approach is proposed for the implementation of ladder diagrams (LDs) for reconfigurable manufacturing systems (RMSs) with dynamic changes. 2) The obtained  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2020.3041408 fatcat:ow2tly2z7nc3bj2s4ynepe4oiq

An Electrical Mine Monitoring System Utilizing the IEC 61850 Standard

David C. Mazur, Joseph Sottile, Thomas Novak
2015 IEEE transactions on industry applications  
Motor control assets are foundational elements in many industrial operations.  ...  These advances have resulted in new standards, such as IEC 61850, that have embedded intelligence and a standard set of communication schemes by which IEDs can share information in a peer-to-peer or one-to-many  ...  Computer logic, known as ladder logic due to its similar form of a relay ladder diagram, was written to control the state of these devices [7] .  ... 
doi:10.1109/tia.2014.2339403 fatcat:46ggknyolffklpuj5enepixrge

Profiling primitives of networked embedded automation

Branden Archer, Shivakumar Sastry, Anthony Rowe, Ragunathan Rajkumar
2009 2009 IEEE International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering  
In the future, this work can be extended to larger scale systems with tighter temporal constraints.  ...  In NEA, devices perform local actions based on local sensing and communications with neighboring devices.  ...  This runtime is an expression evaluator similar in behavior to the Ladder logic language used in PACs.  ... 
doi:10.1109/coase.2009.5234124 dblp:conf/case/ArcherSRR09 fatcat:w3xvskvxcrbp3bx4kkwzac6vie

Vulnerabilities and Attacks Against Industrial Control Systems and Critical Infrastructures [article]

Georgios Michail Makrakis, Constantinos Kolias, Georgios Kambourakis, Craig Rieger, Jacob Benjamin
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Meanwhile, the inherent complexity of these systems, along with their advanced-in-age nature, prevents defenders from fully applying contemporary security controls in a timely manner.  ...  Furthermore, our survey exposes that existing vulnerabilities in the design and implementation of several of the OT-specific network protocols may easily grant adversaries the ability to decisively impact  ...  Ladder Logic Based Attacks Ladder logic is one of the IEC61131-3 compatible languages for programming control logic in PLCs.  ... 
arXiv:2109.03945v2 fatcat:5iyplw4lhrfnffhncykxz4hyzi

Operational experience, improvements, and performance of the CDF Run II silicon vertex detector

T. Aaltonen, S. Behari, A. Boveia, B. Brau, G. Bolla, D. Bortoletto, C. Calancha, S. Carron, S. Cihangir, M. Corbo, D. Clark, B. Di Ruzza (+48 others)
2013 Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A : Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment  
The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) pursues a broad physics program at Fermilab's Tevatron collider.  ...  program, including vertex resolution, heavy flavor tagging, and silicon vertex trigger performance.  ...  Zimmerman of Fermilab for useful discussions on radiation damage in silicon detectors and SVX3D chip functionalities, respectively.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.nima.2013.07.015 fatcat:b4gob3msuna75cv2wmftr7gigq

Detector control and data acquisition for the wide field infrared survey telescope (WFIRST) with a custom ASIC

Brian Smith, Markus Loose, Greg Alkire, Atul Joshi, Daniel Kelly, Eric Siskind, Dino Rossetti, Jonathan Mah, Edward Cheng, Laddawan Miko, Gerard Luppino, Harry Culver (+4 others)
2016 High Energy, Optical, and Infrared Detectors for Astronomy VII  
In particular, we appreciate the assistance from Augustyn Waczynski and Yiting Wen. Barry Starr provided excellent comments in his independent review of this work and this paper.  ...  ladder which is expected to be corrected in the next revision.  ...  These "glitches" were traced to parasitic capacitance on key clock signals producing a race condition in the SAR portion of the ADC.  ... 
doi:10.1117/12.2231060 fatcat:w5qglh2xjbcb3lnqxnutq2zwtm

Ladder Metamodeling and PLC Program Validation through Time Petri Nets [chapter]

Darlam Fabio Bender, Benoît Combemale, Xavier Crégut, Jean Marie Farines, Bernard Berthomieu, François Vernadat
Model Driven Architecture – Foundations and Applications  
We focus on race condition detection.  ...  Ladder Diagram (LD) is the most used programming language for Programmable Logical Controllers (PLCs). A PLC is a special purpose industrial computer used to automate industrial processes.  ...  In [5] a combination of probabilistic testing and program analysis has been used to detect race conditions in relay ladder programs.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-69100-6_9 dblp:conf/ecmdafa/BenderCCFBV08 fatcat:mdds5tgp4bdkxbiiqmot57xvpi
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