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A Closed-Form Expression for Static Worm-Scanning Strategies

Z. Chen, C. Chen
2008 2008 IEEE International Conference on Communications  
This work presents a closed-form expression for characterizing the spread of static worm-scanning strategies through a mean-field approximation.  ...  Therefore, our model can help defenders design better detection and defense systems and provide a stepping stone towards obtaining closed-form expressions for the propagation of dynamic worm-scanning strategies  ...  A CLOSED-FORM EXPRESSION FOR STATIC WORM-SCANNING STRATEGIES In this section, we derive a closed-form expression for modeling the spread of static worm-scanning strategies through a mean-field approximation  ... 
doi:10.1109/icc.2008.304 dblp:conf/icc/ChenC08 fatcat:ehfpwtkfs5ewdlzpqyrymz3yua

Measuring Network-Aware Worm Spreading Ability

Z. Chen, C. Ji
2007 IEEE INFOCOM 2007 - 26th IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications  
Our results demonstrate that counteracting network-aware worms is a significant challenge for the strategies that include host-based defense and IPv6.  ...  We show that a networkaware worm can increase the spreading speed by (nearly) a non-uniformity factor when compared to a random-scanning worm at the early stage of worm propagation.  ...  Second, while it is generally difficult to derive a close-form solution for dynamic worm propagation, we can obtain a close-form expression of the infection rate for different worm scanning methods.  ... 
doi:10.1109/infcom.2007.22 dblp:conf/infocom/ChenJ07 fatcat:w6timasxhfhcdho4cuh2r4zv5i

Characterizing Internet Worm Infection Structure [article]

Qian Wang, Zesheng Chen, Chao Chen
2010 arXiv   pre-print
Finally, we apply our findings to develop bot detection methods and study potential countermeasures for a botnet (e.g., Conficker C) that uses scan-based peer discovery to form a P2P-based botnet.  ...  Next, we empirically study the infection structure of localized-scanning worms and surprisingly find that most of the above observations also apply to localized-scanning worms.  ...  Approximation to the Joint Distribution Finally, we derive a closed-form approximation to the joint distribution p n (i, j).  ... 
arXiv:1001.1195v2 fatcat:vqguuiafzvavjhijcwjol5wdeq

A self-learning worm using importance scanning

Zesheng Chen, Chuanyi Ji
2005 Proceedings of the 2005 ACM workshop on Rapid malcode - WORM '05  
In this paper, we design a self-learning worm using importance scanning. An optimal yet practical importancescanning strategy is derived based on a new metric.  ...  This philosophy has been the basis for advanced worm scanning mechanisms such as hitlist scanning, routable scanning, and importance scanning.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments. Support from NSF ECS 0300605 is gratefully acknowledged.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1103626.1103632 dblp:conf/worm/ChenJ05 fatcat:bdyeuoizpzcqvic2xdf7c2btyu

A spatial stochastic model for worm propagation: scale effects

Markos Avlonitis, Emmanouil Magkos, Michalis Stefanidakis, Vassilis Chrissikopoulos
2007 Journal in Computer Virology  
Results concerning random scan strategies and local preference scan worms are presented. A comparison of the proposed model with simulation results is also presented.  ...  In this paper, we propose an evolution equation for worm propagation in a very small number of Internet hosts, hereinafter called a subnet and introduce a generalization of the classical epidemic model  ...  In [24] this is expressed as, β = η (12) where η is an average scan rate and is the total number of IP addresses, while for a local preference worm they introduce the following β and β pairwise rates  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11416-007-0048-y fatcat:z5phvastxzdzlgpewxoqqacc3i

Understanding Localized-Scanning Worms

Zesheng Chen, Chao Chen, Chuanyi Ji
2007 Performance, Computing and Communications Conference (IPCCC), IEEE International  
Localized scanning is a simple technique used by attackers to search for vulnerable hosts.  ...  As such a strategy is so simple yet effective in attacking the Internet, it is important that defenders understand the spreading ability and behaviors of localized-scanning worms.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors would like to thank CAIDA for making the Witty dataset available. The authors would also like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments.  ... 
doi:10.1109/pccc.2007.358894 dblp:conf/ipccc/ChenCJ07 fatcat:27deb22krjhvxfp3rspdfqmas4

Defending against the propagation of active worms

Xiang Fan, Yang Xiang
2009 Journal of Supercomputing  
The significance of target discovery techniques in shaping a worm's propagation characteristics is derived from the life cycle of a worm.  ...  Strategies that future active worms might employ to shorten the slow start phase in their propagation are studied. Their respective cost-effectiveness is assessed.  ...  To predict C t in a closed form (i.e., with no or very little iteration), mathematical analysis is usually employed.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11227-009-0283-8 fatcat:enzbtgou2renzbbkfrlmfdp224

Toward a living soft microrobot through optogenetic locomotion control of Caenorhabditis elegans

Xianke Dong, Sina Kheiri, Yangning Lu, Zhaoyi Xu, Mei Zhen, Xinyu Liu
2021 Science Robotics  
Learning from the locomotion of natural organisms is one of the most effective strategies for designing microrobots.  ...  Furthermore, with real-time visual feedback of the worm crawling, we realized closed-loop regulation of the movement direction and destination of single worms.  ...  Data and materials availability: The C++ image processing algorithm can be found at https://github.com/ BionDong/worm-locomotion-feature-analysis.  ... 
doi:10.1126/scirobotics.abe3950 pmid:34193562 fatcat:inrz4pl2yjg2vmk2od5utvxlue

Modeling and Detection of Camouflaging Worm

Wei Yu, Xun Wang, P Calyam, Dong Xuan, Wei Zhao
2011 IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing  
The C-Worm is different from traditional worms because of its ability to intelligently manipulate its scan traffic volume over time.  ...  In this paper, we investigate a new class of active worms, referred to as Camouflaging Worm (C-Worm in short).  ...  In the PRS form, a worm-infected computer continuously scans a set of random Internet IP addresses to find new vulnerable computers.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tdsc.2010.13 fatcat:kio52jalsjfvlagjl6qxymvmya

Modeling the Propagation of Worms in Networks: A Survey

Yini Wang, Sheng Wen, Yang Xiang, Wanlei Zhou
2014 IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials  
In this thesis, we present a microcosmic analysis of the propagation procedure for scanning worms. It is different from traditional models and can accurately reflect  ...  However, automatically scanning vulnerabilities and sending malicious email attachments (human involvement) are still the two main means for spreading worms.  ...  Then, based on the results, we derive a series of recommendations and provide advice for patch strategies.  ... 
doi:10.1109/surv.2013.100913.00195 fatcat:6nwmunzbg5byhda5job2krhqcq

Efficient Quarantining of Scanning Worms: Optimal Detection and Coordination

A. Ganesh, D. Gunawardena, P. Key, L. Massoulie, J. Scott
2006 Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM 2006. 25TH IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications  
Current generation worms have caused considerable damage, despite their use of unsophisticated scanning strategies for detecting vulnerable hosts.  ...  We then identify specific detection rules that are close to optimal, in some mathematically precise sense, against any scanning worm.  ...  We view the interaction between the worm and detector as a game; the detector chooses a strategy for quarantining, the worm chooses a scanning rate and the pay-off is the speed of spread (the growth exponent  ... 
doi:10.1109/infocom.2006.97 dblp:conf/infocom/GaneshGKMS06 fatcat:lajrmmf7anfpphzc5khqmqebsi

Self-Disciplinary Worms and Countermeasures: Modeling and Analysis

Wei Yu, Nan Zhang, Xinwen Fu, Wei Zhao
2010 IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems  
As such, we study a new class of worms, referred to as self-disciplinary worms.  ...  ., worm detection and forensics analysis) is critical for defending against self-disciplinary worms.  ...  Larisa Archer for her dedicated help to improve the paper.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tpds.2009.161 fatcat:fme7ylueczhtladsf374zbh6oa

Fast and Evasive Attacks: Highlighting the Challenges Ahead [chapter]

Moheeb Abu Rajab, Fabian Monrose, Andreas Terzis
2006 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Equally troubling is the fact that in doing so attackers can locate the "live" IP space clusters and divert malware scanning solely toward active networks.  ...  We thank DShield for graciously providing access to their IDS logs. We also extend our gratitude to the reviewers for their insightful comments and feedback.  ...  At a high level, these techniques boost worm spreading using various forms of collaboration among worm instances. For example, Staniford et.al.  ... 
doi:10.1007/11856214_11 fatcat:pxsh7alp3jf65c6jbj6kurcs3u

On the Convergence Rates of Learning-based Signature Generation Schemes to Contain Self-propagating Malware [article]

Saeed Valizadeh, Marten van Dijk
2019 arXiv   pre-print
halt as an adversarial containment strategy.  ...  In this paper, we investigate the importance of a defense system's learning rates to fight against the self-propagating class of malware such as worms and bots.  ...  Consequently, a straightforward way of assembling an army of infected hosts is spreading the malicious code in the form of a scanning worm.  ... 
arXiv:1905.00154v1 fatcat:fecfulwuurduze33fksrbgclje

Of Threats and Costs: A Game-Theoretic Approach to Security Risk Management [chapter]

Patrick Maillé, Peter Reichl, Bruno Tuffin
2010 Performance Models and Risk Management in Communications Systems  
In [11] , the strategy of players is to choose the best quarantining strategy for the detector, while the worm chooses a scanning rate.  ...  We focus here on scanning worms for which an infected node scans the address space at a given rate and infects nodes which it manages to locate.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-0534-5_2 fatcat:s37ykxheprb2vecjz53usg6zoe
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