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Dysregulation of Astrocyte Ion Homeostasis and Its Relevance for Stroke-Induced Brain Damage

Michel J. A. M. van Putten, Christoph Fahlke, Karl W. Kafitz, Jeannette Hofmeijer, Christine R. Rose
2021 International Journal of Molecular Sciences  
Either recovery or progression towards irreversible failure of neurons and astrocytes occurs within minutes to days, depending on remaining perfusion levels.  ...  Special emphasis is put on the homeostasis and stroke-induced dysregulation of the major monovalent ions, namely Na+, K+, H+, and Cl-, and their involvement in maintenance of cellular volume and generation  ...  Scheme of a glutamatergic synapse and main ion transport mechanisms across the plasma membrane of neurons and astrocytes.  ... 
doi:10.3390/ijms22115679 pmid:34073593 fatcat:wffg64zzajef7e2javwqfjl2ia

Mechanisms of glutamate release from astrocytes

Erik B. Malarkey, Vladimir Parpura
2008 Neurochemistry International  
The source of Ca 2+ for the Ca 2+ -dependent exocytotic release of glutamate from astrocytes predominately comes from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stores; both inositol trisphoshphate (IP 3 )-and ryanodine-sensitive  ...  Taken together, ER, extracellular space and mitochondria, can vary concentration of cytosolic Ca 2+ which in turn can regulate Ca 2+ -dependent vesicular glutamate release from astrocytes.  ...  Certain heterozygote mutants exhibit altered wing posture, flight defects, increased spontaneous firing in the Dorso-longitudinal muscles (DLMs) and loss of rhythmic flight patterns (both initiation and  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.neuint.2007.06.005 pmid:17669556 pmcid:PMC2267911 fatcat:iiq26i4eizaynhfaejnxo43l2a

Extrasynaptic GABA waves underlie epileptiform rhythms in the hippocampal network [article]

Vincent Magloire, Leonid P Savtchenko, Sergyi Sylantyev, Thomas P Jensen, Nicholas Cole, Jonathan S Marvin, Loren L Looger, Dimitri M Kullmann, Matthew C Walker, Ivan Pavlov, Dmitri A Rusakov
2021 bioRxiv   pre-print
We have earlier reported a bell-shape dependence of spiking activity of interneuronal populations on tonic GABAA receptor conductance (Gtonic), suggesting an innate mechanism to enable slow self-sustained  ...  The cellular and circuit mechanisms that trigger and maintain epileptiform discharges remain the subject of intense debate.  ...  Optimization and parallelization of ARACHNE algorithms for extended neural network simulations was provided by Andrey Galkin and team at AMC Bridge (Waltham, MA).  ... 
doi:10.1101/2021.03.25.437016 fatcat:5zflirioofgynjdv5rna4ia6uy

Astrocytic extracellular vesicles modulate neuronal calcium homeostasis via transglutaminase-2 [article]

Elisa Tonoli, Ivan Verduci, Ilaria Prada, Greta Forcaia, Martina Gabrielli, Clare Coveney, Maria Pia Savoca, David J Boocock, Giulio Sancini, Michele Mazzanti, Claudia Verderio, Elisabetta A.M. Verderio
2021 bioRxiv   pre-print
Patch-clamp and calcium imaging recordings revealed TG2-dependent neuronal membrane depolarisation and activation of inward currents, due to the opening of L-type-VOCCs and to Na+/Ca2+-exchanger (NCX)  ...  Exposure of neurons or brain slices to extracellular TG2 promoted a [Ca2+]i rise, which was reversible upon TG2 removal and was dependent on Ca2+ influx through the plasma membrane.  ...  We are grateful to Dr Giulia D'Arrigo (CNR Institute of Neuroscience, Italy) for her help in maintaining the primary cell cultures and we gratefully acknowledge the NTU Imaging Suite and Dr Graham J.  ... 
doi:10.1101/2021.09.30.462507 fatcat:tanxpeyrpbfcbbas2sb5om5ppy

Stimulated Efflux of Amino Acids and Glutathione from Cultured Hippocampal Slices by Omission of Extracellular Calcium

Malin H. Stridh, Mattias Tranberg, Stephen G. Weber, Fredrik Blomstrand, Mats Sandberg
2008 Journal of Biological Chemistry  
, on efflux of neurotoxic and neuroprotective substances.  ...  The extracellular neurochemistry determines normal brain function and the faith of neurons after insults such as stroke.  ...  Glutathione synthesis depends on the intracellular availability of its building blocks, glutamate, glycine and cysteine.  ... 
doi:10.1074/jbc.m704153200 pmid:18272524 pmcid:PMC2447665 fatcat:gh6eih4n65a5reldv6no3fa3nm

Astrocyte and Neuronal Plasticity in the Somatosensory System

Robert E. Sims, John B. Butcher, H. Rheinallt Parri, Stanislaw Glazewski
2015 Neural Plasticity  
Indeed, astrocytes appear as necessary partners of neurons at the core of the mechanisms of coding and homeostatic plasticity recorded in neurons.  ...  Changing the whisker complement on a rodent's snout can lead to two forms of experience-dependent plasticity (EDP) in the neurons of the barrel cortex, where whiskers are somatotopically represented.  ...  Glazewski and BB/J017809/1 to H. R. Parri.  ... 
doi:10.1155/2015/732014 pmid:26345481 pmcid:PMC4539490 fatcat:fbrrdngblvgb7l4buwiqeulveu

The Regulation of Astrocytic Glutamate Transporters in Health and Neurodegenerative Diseases

Alison C. Todd, Giles E. Hardingham
2020 International Journal of Molecular Sciences  
Recent evidence has shown a prominent role for contact-dependent neuron-to-astrocyte and/or endothelial cell-to-astrocyte Notch signalling for inducing and maintaining the expression of these astrocytic  ...  The relevance of this non-cell-autonomous dependence to age- and neurodegenerative disease-associated decline in astrocytic EAAT expression is discussed, plus the implications for disease progression and  ...  The glutamate transporters that are found in the plasma membranes of brain cells consist of five sodium-dependent co-transporters, and one sodium-independent exchanger [17, 25, 26] .  ... 
doi:10.3390/ijms21249607 pmid:33348528 pmcid:PMC7766851 fatcat:witbu7rr35hb5ipoyv3g5abpay

Astroglia in Autism Spectrum Disorder

Kinga Gzielo, Agnieszka Nikiforuk
2021 International Journal of Molecular Sciences  
The number of diagnosed cases is growing, but the main cause and mechanism leading to ASD is still uncertain.  ...  It is characterised by the occurrence of distinct deficits in social behaviour and communication and repetitive patterns of behaviour.  ...  Acknowledgments: I would like to thank Michal Kielbinski and Kamil Pradel for their valuable comments. Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.  ... 
doi:10.3390/ijms222111544 pmid:34768975 pmcid:PMC8583956 fatcat:rlgkrrxpufajtccefyot637d5i

Astrocyte calcium signaling and epilepsy

Giorgio Carmignoto, Philip G. Haydon
2012 Glia  
The specific aim of this review is on the one hand, to provide an overview of the experimental findings that hinted at a direct role of Ca 2+dependent gliotransmission in the generation of seizure-like  ...  More recent studies, however, reappraised the role of neurons in epileptogenesis and suggested that Ca 2+ -dependent gliotransmission directly contributes to the excessive neuronal synchronization that  ...  Acknowledgments The original work described in this review was supported by European Union HEALTH-F2-2007-202167, Telethon Italy and Cariparo Foundation to GC, Grants R01 NS037585 and R01 NS043142 to PGH  ... 
doi:10.1002/glia.22318 pmid:22389222 pmcid:PMC4532388 fatcat:twqr7vk56nfkph253pzmfptupq

P2X7 receptors in the nervous system

B SPERLAGH, E VIZI, K WIRKNER, P ILLES
2006 Progress in Neurobiology  
Subsequently, the participation of P2X 7 receptors in distinct neuronal, astroglial and microglial functions are described.  ...  In this paper, we review the present knowledge on the structural and pharmacological features of the P2X 7 receptor, as well as its cell-type specific localization in the nervous system.  ...  the receptor also overexpressed in neurons and astrocytes of the perinfarct area in spontaneously hypertensive rats, as revealed by co-localization studies with neuronal, astroglial and microglial markers  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2006.03.007 pmid:16697102 fatcat:rxaaqapcyffvpfxbqxftjg52sq

Cerebrospinal fluid dynamics and intracranial pressure elevation in neurological diseases

Steven William Bothwell, Damir Janigro, Adjanie Patabendige
2019 Fluids and Barriers of the CNS  
The traditional views and concepts of CSF secretion, flow and drainage have been challenged, also due to recent findings suggesting more complex mechanisms of brain fluid dynamics than previously proposed  ...  This review evaluates and summarises current hypotheses of CSF dynamics and presents evidence for the role of impaired CSF dynamics in elevated ICP, alongside discussion of the proteins that are potentially  ...  Because neuronal RMP depends significantly, but not exclusively on [K out ], the maintenance of homeostatic control for extracellular potassium plays a crucial role in the regulation of neuronal firing  ... 
doi:10.1186/s12987-019-0129-6 pmid:30967147 pmcid:PMC6456952 fatcat:oixi34djezdupm7koozcgfz4z4

Blockade of AMPA-receptors attenuates 4-aminopyridine seizures, decreases the activation of inhibitory neurons but is ineffective against seizure-related astrocytic swelling

Roland Weiczner, Beáta Krisztin-Péva, András Mihály
2008 Epilepsy Research  
GYKI 52466 was effective in prolonging the latency to generalised seizures and reduction of seizure mortality. However, the effects on neuronal c-fos expression and astrocyte swelling were complex.  ...  Our previous data proved the efficacy of the NMDA-receptor antagonists on the symptoms, survival and neuronal activation in the 4aminopyridine-(4-AP) induced seizures.  ...  On the basis of the electrophysiological investigations (Yang and Benardo, 2002) , one of the 4-AP-induced cortical spontaneous discharge components can be blocked by glutamate receptor antagonists, whereas  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2007.10.004 pmid:18036781 fatcat:jzsoskfwsfhrxdmdonf5pstv4e

Migraine Aura, Transient Ischemic Attacks, Stroke, and Dying of the Brain Share the Same Key Pathophysiological Process in Neurons Driven by Gibbs–Donnan Forces, Namely Spreading Depolarization

Coline L. Lemale, Janos Lückl, Viktor Horst, Clemens Reiffurth, Sebastian Major, Nils Hecht, Johannes Woitzik, Jens P. Dreier
2022 Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience  
Here, we review the basal mechanism underlying spreading depolarization and the associated activity changes.  ...  correlate of the initial, still reversible phase of neuronal cytotoxic edema.  ...  The simplest way to observe neural function is to measure changes in spontaneous activity. Spontaneous brain activity results from the firing of cortical neurons.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fncel.2022.837650 pmid:35237133 pmcid:PMC8884062 fatcat:u2id6dhqlbbuhh6xhs4ylwk2fm

29th Annual Computational Neuroscience Meeting: CNS*2020

2020 BMC Neuroscience  
This motivates a new framework that views vision as consisting of encoding, selection, and decoding stages, placing selection on center stage.  ...  I'll provide a high-level introduction to deep RL, discuss some recent neuroscience-oriented investigations from my group at DeepMind, and survey some wider implications for research on brain and behavior  ...  Acknowledgements: This research is funded by the National Science Foundation (grants #1822517 and #1921515 to SJ), the National Institute of Mental Health (grant #MH117488 to SJ), the California Nano-Systems  ... 
doi:10.1186/s12868-020-00593-1 pmid:33342424 fatcat:edosycf35zfifm552a2aogis7a

Abstracts for the 29th Annual Meeting of the Japan Neuroscience Society (Neuroscience2006)

2006 Neuroscience research  
Psychophysicists and sensory physiologists emphasize the effects of sensory stimuli on decision-making.  ...  Psychologists and economists, however, have long known that decision-making is influenced substantially by an organism's prior experience concerning the "value" of alternative choices, expressed in terms  ...  Research funds: A Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) (16500195) PS2P-H147 Mechanisms for processing of intellectual excitement Ai Fukushima 1 , Naoki Miura 2,3 , Shinya Uchida 2,4 , Motoaki Sugiura  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.neures.2006.04.004 fatcat:mja5yvu2tbcjrmfx3a7abvvicm
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