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Dependence in IV-Related Bytes of RC4 Key Enhances Vulnerabilities in WPA [chapter]

Sourav Sen Gupta, Subhamoy Maitra, Willi Meier, Goutam Paul, Santanu Sarkar
2015 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
The first three bytes of the RC4 key in WPA are public as they are derived from the public parameter IV, and this derivation leads to a strong mutual dependence between the first two bytes of the RC4 key  ...  As we note, this sawtooth characteristics of these biases surface due to the dependence of the first two bytes of the RC4 key in WPA, both derived from the same byte of the IV.  ...  We are thankful to the anonymous reviewers of FSE 2014 for their detailed review reports containing invaluable feedback, which helped in substantially improving the technical and editorial quality of our  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-662-46706-0_18 fatcat:xbashw4gkbeedbsxmyvmgddnmm

Cryptanalysis for RC4 and Breaking WEP/WPA-TKIP

Masakatu MORII, Yosuke TODO
2011 IEICE transactions on information and systems  
Then we propose an attack that is executable in a realistic environment against WPA-TKIP. This attack exploits the vulnerability implementation in the QoS packet processing feature of IEEE 802.11e.  ...  However, these protocols have vulnerability for secure communication. In 2008, we proposed an efffective key recovery attack against WEP and it is called the TeAM-OK attack.  ...  Weak IVs of the FMS attack do not depend on values of the secret key, however weak IVs of the KoreK attack depend on values of the secret key.  ... 
doi:10.1587/transinf.e94.d.2087 fatcat:4niuidgmnfcfzmynhe5rrmwnjy

Wi-Fi Security Analysis

Tahar Mekhaznia, Abdelmadjid Zidani
2015 Procedia Computer Science  
We present also an overview of the FMS (Fluhrer, Mantin, Shamir), a recovery key attack and demonstrate its effectiveness in reducing the average number of intercept packets based on a well choice of IV  ...  In recent years, a significant increasing in development of Wireless networks is noticed; they become an entire part of the Internet and demonstrate effectiveness in handling communication for reduced  ...  This principle can come up in selection on all next bytes of key. As it indicates, the success of such idea depends on a weak-IV.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.procs.2015.12.009 fatcat:gzov77rqibb73jsfdhw5sqrpwa

A Survey on RC4 Stream Cipher

Poonam Jindal, Brahmjit Singh
2015 International Journal of Computer Network and Information Security  
biased bytes, key collisions, and key recovery attacks specifically on WEP and WPA.  ...  In this paper we have presented a chronological survey of RC4 stream cipher demonstrating its weaknesses followed by the various RC4 enhancements from the literature.  ...  IV. ENHANCEMENTS IN RC4 STREAM CIPHER Due to the RC4 weaknesses and related cryptanalytic attempts as discussed in section 3, many variants of RC4 have been proposed by researchers.  ... 
doi:10.5815/ijcnis.2015.07.05 fatcat:qksutfja6behxmg7ycsq3fea3e

Falsification Attacks against WPA-TKIP in a Realistic Environment

Yosuke TODO, Yuki OZAWA, Toshihiro OHIGASHI, Masakatu MORII
2012 IEICE transactions on information and systems  
In this paper, we propose two new falsification attacks against Wi-Fi Protected Access Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (WPA-TKIP).  ...  In addition, we discovered another vulnerability by which our attack succeeds under the condition that the chipset of the client supports IEEE 802.11e even if the client disables this standard through  ...  Acknowledgements This work was supported in part by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (KAKENHI 21700018, 23560455) of JSPS.  ... 
doi:10.1587/transinf.e95.d.588 fatcat:y53qpy7qsza5lnbo53r7vxdjue

RC4 stream cipher and possible attacks on WEP

Lazar Stošic, Milena Bogdanovic
2012 International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications  
Using examples from other papers, we show that RC4 is completely insecure in a common mode of operation which is used in the widely deployed Wired Equivalent Privacy protocol (WEP, which is part of the  ...  Also, we analyze the Key Scheduling Algorithm (KSA) which derives the initial state from a variable size key, and strengths and weaknesses of the RCS stream cipher.  ...  For the RC4 stream cipher, every key has a family of related keys which result in a substantially similar keystream.  ... 
doi:10.14569/ijacsa.2012.030319 fatcat:h4qwl7bohzbejc32nr4b3qdxaq

Experimental Evaluation of Different Penetration Security Levels in Wireless Local Area Network

Ali M. Alsahlany, Department of Communication Techniques Engineering, Al-Furat Al-Awsat Technical University, Al Najaf 31001, Iraq, Zainalabdin H. Alfatlawy, Alhassan R. Almusawy
2018 Journal of Communications  
The algorithm used in the WPA is Rivest Cipher 4 (RC4). The WPA is enhanced with 128 bits Temporal Key (TK) and 48 bits TKIP Sequence Counter (TSC) for crypto-graphic data.  ...  At first, the TSC, MAC destination address, and TK are entered into the key mixing, which operates as a hash function to change places of bytes at several times based on IV.  ... 
doi:10.12720/jcm.13.12.723-729 fatcat:ardjfa4s75fcfp66w2raqrjxyy

MRC4: A Modified RC4 Algorithm using Symmetric Random Function Generator for Improved Cryptographic Features

Rahul Saha, G. Geetha, Gulshan Kumar, Tai-Hoon Kim, William J Buchanan
2019 IEEE Access  
Though RC4 uses pseudorandom features with an initialisation vector and a seed value, the use of true randomness in RC4 is novel in this domain.  ...  The Rivest Cipher 4 (RC4) has been one of the most popular stream ciphers for providing symmetric key encryption, and is now proposed as an efficient cipher within light-weight cryptography.  ...  The small size of the key made it vulnerable to brute force attack, and the small size of the IV caused the same IV value to be rolled-over after a relatively short time.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2019.2956160 fatcat:nf3vnenbafb3tb55zq674egq4a

A New Chaotic Encryption Algorithm to Enhance the Security of ZigBee and Wi-Fi networks

Bassem Bakhache, Kassem Ahmad, Safwan el Assad
2012 International Journal of Intelligent Computing Research  
In this paper, we will explain briefly the design of our proposed generator and show its efficiency through encryption tests.  ...  These protocols are secure but they don't respect the real-time requirement of industrial control.  ...  RC4 has weaknesses [5] , and it is especially vulnerable when: the beginning of the output R is not discarded, nonrandom or related keys are used, or a sequence is used twice.  ... 
doi:10.20533/ijicr.2042.4655.2012.0027 fatcat:k6hfbpxzt5fkhj4qw4i5abk4iy

On the Impact of Security on the Performance of WLANs

Ezedin Barka, Mohammed Boulmalf
2007 Journal of Communications  
This paper also addresses the different issues related to the security protocols currently used in WLAN IEEE 802.11g and demonstrates how these issues affect the final results of the experiments conducted  ...  More specifically, it analyzes the impact of different implementations of encryption techniques used by two security protocols, namely Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) and Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) on  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors wish to thank the following students: Amal Alteniji, Hanadi Al Suwaidi, Huda Khazaimy, and Meera Al Mansouri for their support in conducting the experiment for this project.  ... 
doi:10.4304/jcm.2.4.10-17 fatcat:hako2joaqjc3pmmlaa2fhsqxma

Wireless LAN Security – Challenges and Solutions

Rathnakar, Vityanathan, Pethur Raj
2009 International Journal of Computer and Electrical Engineering  
attack, Dictionary attack, session hijacking and DoS followed by the existing and proposed viable solutions such as WEP based security using RC4 algorithms and the issues related to the same.  ...  Fortunately Mobile Internet / Wireless Web is a larger part of the grand vision of ubiquitous Computing (providing information and services on demand in a secure manner for any one at any time, at the  ...  IV. WI-FI PROTECTED ACCESS (WPA) WPA addresses the security vulnerabilities found in WEP-enabled 802.11 [4] WLANs.  ... 
doi:10.7763/ijcee.2009.v1.39 fatcat:it4zahqmdfgpvhmi2ytpsaqsre

A Secure Energy-saving Communication and Encrypted Storage Model Based on RC4 for EHR

Jinquan Zhang, Haoran Liu, Lina Ni
2020 IEEE Access  
The algorithm not only maintains the RC4 encryption efficiency, reduces the amount of cipher text data, but also improves confidentiality, randomness and security of the key stream.  ...  In the algorithm, the two communication parties can complete the key establishment and identity authentication only after one communication, which effectively balances the resource overhead of the key  ...  And formation is related to the correlation or deviation of the key bytes.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2020.2975208 fatcat:imwx3lnmuncqthzvo6i72cmvfe

Security and Dynamic Encryption System in Mobile Ad-Hoc Network [chapter]

Peter H., Udo W.
2011 Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks: Protocol Design  
In this chapter, we introduced a new, efficient, low-bandwidth cost and security-enhancing data encryption i-key protocol for mobile ad-hoc wireless networks via dynamic re-keying during end-to-end communication  ...  able to decrypt the message using the unique i-key in their possession, which ensures the privacy of their communication.  ...  The key management and cipher stream system in i-key architecture is similar to Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) used in WPA/ WPA2 and RC4 used in Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) (Lansford & Bahl  ... 
doi:10.5772/12843 fatcat:yzmbahi2kvhwbkwxjmjhe5pera

WiFi and WiMAX Secure Deployments

Panagiotis Trimintzios, George Georgiou
2010 Journal of Computer Systems, Networks, and Communications  
In order to achieve these features standardisation was achieved for Wireless LAN (WLANs) and Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks (WMANs) with the advent of IEEE802.11 and IEEE802.16 family of standards  ...  One serious concern in the rapidly developing wireless networking market has been the security of the deployments since the information is delivered freely in the air and therefore privacy and integrity  ...  Acknowledgments The author acknowledges that this article reflects personal opinion and it does not in any way represent the opinion of ENISA or any other person or an ENISA body in any way whatsoever.  ... 
doi:10.1155/2010/423281 fatcat:muqqqdcu7vc63izwqtdwi4dy7q

Cryptographic Algorithms [chapter]

2015 Applied Cryptography, Second Edition  
On the other hand, for symmetric ciphers, the relations that have to be satisfied between sub-round key bits in the key schedule always correspond to a set of nonlinear Boolean equations.  ...  In the second part of this thesis, we present an obfuscated implementation of RC4.  ...  In its software form, implementations of RC4 appear in many protocols such as SSL, TLS, WEP and WPA.  ... 
doi:10.1002/9781119183471.part3 fatcat:rvk3izmftvebbkajuc7xzha6fe
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