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Key Concepts for Informed Health Choices: a framework for helping people learn how to assess treatment claims and make informed choices

Iain Chalmers, Andrew D Oxman, Astrid Austvoll-Dahlgren, Selena Ryan-Vig, Sarah Pannell, Nelson Sewankambo, Daniel Semakula, Allen Nsangi, Loai Albarqouni, Paul Glasziou, Kamal Mahtani, David Nunan (+2 others)
2018 BMJ evidence-based medicine  
Acknowledgements The authors are grateful to Jeremy Howick for inviting IC, SR-V, SP, AA-D and ADO to present these ideas at the conference 'Too much medicine: exploring the relevance of philosophy of  ...  medicine to medical research and practice', 20 April 2017, Kellogg College, University of Oxford; and to Ruth Davis and David Spiegelhalter for comments on previous drafts of this manuscript.  ...  However, criteria for making causal inferences about interventions and choices are similar for other types of interventions.  ... 
doi:10.1136/ebmed-2017-110829 pmid:29367324 fatcat:cb775btawfcqnmzsyrikergo6e

A Perspective on the Toxicity of Low Concentrations of Petroleum-Derived Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons to Early Life Stages of Herring and Salmon

David S. Page, Peter M. Chapman, Peter F. Landrum, Jerry Neff, Ralph Elston
2012 Human and Ecological Risk Assessment  
not establish consistent dose (concentration) response or causality and thus do not demonstrate that dissolved PAH alone from the weathered oil resulted in the claimed effects on fish embryos at low µg  ...  Based on a review of the evidence from published project reports, peer-reviewed publications, chemistry data in a public database, and unpublished reports and laboratory records, the reviewed studies did  ...  Karen Humphrey of Aquatechnics Inc. for her excellent critical review of a draft of this article. Funding for this work was provided by Exxon Mobil Corporation, Houston, TX.  ... 
doi:10.1080/10807039.2012.650569 pmid:22754275 pmcid:PMC3379735 fatcat:zhydvgon6fem5e35ia5llhlrcq

Using Statistical Evidence to Prove Causality to Non-Statisticians

Palmer Morrel-Samuels, Peter D. Jacobson
2007 Social Science Research Network  
We close with guidelines for using causal graphs in court.  ...  We outline a new theory explaining comprehension of causal graphs, and claim four hallmarks of causality are critical: Association, Prediction, Exclusion of Alternative Explanations, and Dose Dependence  ...  use statistics to make inferences about causality.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.995841 fatcat:7ogoaohpgjfmjjvxhwiv35dwje

Knowledge based question answering

Michael J. Pazzani, Carl Engelman
1983 Proceedings of the first conference on Applied natural language processing -  
primitives, scripts which contain stereotypical knowledge about planning tasks used to infer states enabling or resulting from actions, and two production system rule bases for the inference of implicit  ...  developing a powerful mechanism for the disambiguatiou of words with multiple meanings and the determination of pronoun referents, answering questions which require inferences to be understood, and interpreting  ...  The answer produced by KNOBS, "Y-15s can reach BE70701 from Hahn.", requires a causal inference and a concept completion inference.  ... 
doi:10.3115/974194.974208 dblp:conf/anlp/PazzaniE83 fatcat:d2dzaapbujbo7pdfuxzwmtnbbq

Causal Discovery in Radiographic Markers of Knee Osteoarthritis and Prediction for Knee Osteoarthritis Severity With Attention–Long Short-Term Memory

Yanfei Wang, Lei You, Jacqueline Chyr, Lan Lan, Weiling Zhao, Yujia Zhou, Hua Xu, Philip Noble, Xiaobo Zhou
2020 Frontiers in Public Health  
We also employed a fast causal inference (FCI) algorithm to estimate the causal relation of key variables, which will aid in clinical interpretability.  ...  Based on the clinical information of current visits, we accurately predicted the KL grade of the patient's next visits with 90% accuracy.  ...  Finally, we use causal inference to interpret the inside connection of variables. To validate our predictive model, we used the OAI database in conjunction with the Cerner Health Facts database.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpubh.2020.604654 pmid:33409263 pmcid:PMC7779681 fatcat:yhpjeypezfftzjsh6tz5zbvlxq

Subjectivity in Complex Sentences: The Effects of Converbs to Causal Relations

Filiz Çetintaş Yıldırım
2015 Dil Eğitimi ve Araştırmaları Dergisi  
-DIĞINA göre, on the other hand, has its highest value with epistemic relations. There is not a complex sentence which has the causal relation of speech act in the database.  ...  as the examples below demonstrate (examples were quoted from Sweetser, 1990: 77) . (1) a.  ... 
doaj:5c0050dfaed7468491a7848bf62d4962 fatcat:n2qlvldwozfjfi22ngsrb3jw5m

The Failure to Measure Dietary Intake Engendered a Fictional Discourse on Diet-Disease Relations

Edward Archer, Carl J. Lavie, James O. Hill
2018 Frontiers in Nutrition  
., pseudo-quantified) into proxy-estimates of nutrient and caloric consumption via the assignment of "reference" values from databases of questionable validity and comprehensiveness.  ...  Controversies regarding the putative health effects of dietary sugar, salt, fat, and cholesterol are not driven by legitimate differences in scientific inference from valid evidence, but by a fictional  ...  These highlyreplicated results demonstrate that any conclusions regarding diet-disease relations inferred from M-BM-based research are not valid.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fnut.2018.00105 pmid:30483510 pmcid:PMC6243202 fatcat:3ideq3ozgjeoxgvmarx6srgpgm

Analysing the Direction of Emotional Influence in Nonverbal Dyadic Communication: A Facial-Expression Study [article]

Maha Shadaydeh, Lea Mueller, Dana Schneider, Martin Thuemmel, Thomas Kessler, Joachim Denzler
2020 arXiv   pre-print
We exploit computer vision capabilities along with causal inference theory for quantitative verification of hypotheses on the direction of emotional influence, i.e., causal effect relationships, in dyadic  ...  To this end, we propose a relevant interval selection approach that we use prior to causal inference to identify those transient intervals where causal inference should be applied.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors thank the Carl Zeiss Foundation for the financial support within the scope of the program line "Breakthroughs: Exploring Intelligent Systems" for "Digitization -explore the  ... 
arXiv:2012.08780v1 fatcat:ltxeztnwmjbsjflsoggaa6sedi

Network-based approaches for analysis of complex biological systems

Deborah Chasman, Alireza Fotuhi Siahpirani, Sushmita Roy
2016 Current Opinion in Biotechnology  
The goal of network reconstruction (also referred to as network inference) methods is to infer such connections from genome-scale measurements of genes, proteins and metabolites from multiple conditions  ...  Although the idea of inferring networks from expression alone is attractive, genome-scale inference of such networks using current methods is an open challenge.  ...  Oates et al, 2014 (CheMA) [46]*: Bayesian framework for inference of causal networks with non-linear, biochemical kinetic dependencies.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.copbio.2016.04.007 pmid:27115495 fatcat:3ppskhtoifbobayer5bzpqz6qq

Function-driven discovery of disease genes in zebrafish using an integrated genomics big data resource

Hongseok Shim, Ji Hyun Kim, Chan Yeong Kim, Sohyun Hwang, Hyojin Kim, Sunmo Yang, Ji Eun Lee, Insuk Lee
2016 Nucleic Acids Research  
We also validated the existence of heterozygous rare variants in the candidate genes of individuals with ciliopathies yet not in controls derived from the UK10K consortium, suggesting that these variants  ...  To demonstrate the feasibility of the function-driven disease gene discovery using DanioNet, we predicted genes for ciliopathies and performed experimental validation for eight candidate genes.  ...  A full list of the investigators who contributed to the generation of the data is available from Funding for UK10K was provided by the Wellcome Trust under award WT091310.  ... 
doi:10.1093/nar/gkw897 pmid:27903883 pmcid:PMC5175370 fatcat:ylar47k3b5gz5c755d6lgqcg5u

Geographic Clustering Of Diabetic Lower-Extremity Amputations In Low-Income Regions Of California

Carl D. Stevens, David L. Schriger, Brian Raffetto, Anna C. Davis, David Zingmond, Dylan H. Roby
2014 Health Affairs  
For patients suffering from diabetes and other chronic conditions, a large body of work demonstrates income-related disparities in access to coordinated preventive care.  ...  Our analysis does not support detailed causal inferences.  ...  Our analysis does not support detailed causal inferences.  ... 
doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2014.0148 pmid:25092840 pmcid:PMC4242846 fatcat:6dj7dtw6pjdirldrm7duxo46zi

Correspondences between Privacy and Nondiscrimination: Why They Should Be Studied Together [article]

Anupam Datta, Shayak Sen, Michael Carl Tschantz
2018 arXiv   pre-print
First, we show that both privacy and nondiscrimination have two versions, a causal version and a statical associative version, with each version corresponding to a competing view of the proper goal of  ...  We show how the introduced correspondence allows results from one area of research to be used for the other.  ...  We gratefully acknowledge funding support from the National Science Foundation (Grants 1514509, 1704845, and 1704985) .  ... 
arXiv:1808.01735v1 fatcat:goqyadvr5bhjxdkgzlkt7txhyu

How to Characterize the Function of a Brain Region

Sarah Genon, Andrew Reid, Robert Langner, Katrin Amunts, Simon B. Eickhoff
2018 Trends in Cognitive Sciences  
Current knowledge comes from various fields, which have diverse conceptions of 'functions'.  ...  Many brain regions have been defined, but a comprehensive formalization of each region's function in relation to human behavior is still lacking.  ...  This strength goes with the epistemological (see Glossary) limitation of being only quasi-experimental, as an experimental approach supporting causality implies the ability to demonstrate that alternative  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.tics.2018.01.010 pmid:29501326 pmcid:PMC7978486 fatcat:356vikzjsvej3hcjbqftwgjum4

Exploring conserved mRNA-miRNA interactions in colon and lung cancers

Fereshteh Izadi, Mona Zamanian-Azodi, Vahid Mansouri, Mahsa Khodadoostan, Nosratollah Naderi
2017 Gastroenterology and hepatology from bed to bench  
Our study uncovered correlated alterations in gene expression that may relate with colon and lung cancers and highlighted the potent common biomarker candidates for the two diseases.  ...  Colon cancer and lung cancer expression data were downloaded from Firehose and TCGA databases and varied genes extracted by DCGL software were subjected to build two gene regulatory networks by parmigene  ...  Furthermore, we inferred information-theoretic based undirected networks while connectivity between nodes does not mean the causal relationships; we then should be cautious about dynamic nature of cancers  ... 
pmid:29118934 pmcid:PMC5660268 fatcat:e6eu24a3czhz7ioaz2gxpr6sn4

Regularization and Hierarchical Prior Distributions for Adjustment with Health Care Claims Data: Rethinking Comorbidity Scores [article]

Jacob Spertus, Samrachana Adhikari, Sharon-Lise Normand
2017 arXiv   pre-print
In our application, regularization and a hierarchical prior improved over comorbidity scores in terms of prediction and causal inference, as evidenced by out-of-sample fit and the ability to meet falsifiability  ...  The specifications are designed to work with a large number of codes while controlling variance by shrinking coefficients towards zero or towards a group-level mean.  ...  Each of these methods has shown promise in estimating causal effects from large databases.  ... 
arXiv:1711.05243v1 fatcat:sf5qj3wjdnglxppvun74r52qfa
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