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Deep Learning Identifies Morphological Determinants of Sex Differences in the Pre-Adolescent Brain

Ehsan Adeli, Qingyu Zhao, Natalie M. Zahr, Aimee Goldstone, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Edith V. Sullivan, Kilian M. Pohl
2020 NeuroImage  
The application of data-driven deep learning to identify sex differences in developing brain structures of pre-adolescents has heretofore not been accomplished.  ...  The predictive power of this score and the constellation of identified brain structures provide evidence for sex differences in pre-adolescent neurodevelopment and may augment understanding of sex-specific  ...  Acknowledgments Funding for this study was received from the U.S.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.117293 pmid:32841716 pmcid:PMC7780846 fatcat:er2iljiwuvcy7iamev4oadtebq

Adolescent development of neuron structure in dentate gyrus granule cells of male syrian hamsters

Julia L. Zehr, Liana R. Nichols, Kalynn M. Schulz, Cheryl L. Sisk
2008 Developmental Neurobiology  
We found that the structure of neurons in the lower, but not upper, blade of the dentate gyrus changed during adolescence.  ...  Sholl analysis determined the number of intersections and total dendritic length contained in concentric spheres set at 25 μm increments from the soma.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors thank the members of the Sisk laboratory for their valuable discussions of data analysis and early versions of this manuscript.  ... 
doi:10.1002/dneu.20675 pmid:18792070 pmcid:PMC2676582 fatcat:rsps66cuozdsvpi3oumepufecm

Training confounder-free deep learning models for medical applications

Qingyu Zhao, Ehsan Adeli, Kilian M. Pohl
2020 Nature Communications  
We evaluate the method on predicting the diagnosis of HIV solely from Magnetic Resonance Images (MRIs), identifying morphological sex differences in adolescence from those of the National Consortium on  ...  Alcohol and Neurodevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA), and determining the bone age from X-ray images of children.  ...  Code availability Custom scripts, including those for generating the synthetic dataset, have been made available at https://github.com/qingyuzhao/br-net/(https://doi.org/10.5281/ zenodo.4122448).  ... 
doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19784-9 pmid:33243992 fatcat:eracdyglfjhmtfugabwtgacl2a

Morphometrical brain markers of sex difference [article]

Daniel Brennan, TingTing Wu, Jin Fan
2020 bioRxiv   pre-print
The results demonstrate the existence of morphometrical brain markers of sex difference.  ...  Utilizing a large dataset collected through the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study, we investigated the differences of adolescent (9-10 years old) male and female brains (n = 8325) by using a  ...  Determining whether brain markers for biological sex exist in adolescence is a crucial step for understanding differences in brain development between males and females.  ... 
doi:10.1101/2020.08.01.232165 fatcat:43rktti7z5fztpzfbfijx3n62u

Association between Hippocampal Volume and Working Memory in 10,000+ 9–10-Year-Old Children: Sex Differences

Shervin Assari, Shanika Boyce, Tanja Jovanovic
2021 Children  
Research is needed on the role of socialization, sex hormones, and brain functional connectivity as potential mechanisms that may explain the observed sex differences in the role of hippocampal volume  ...  Aim: This study tested sex differences in the association between hippocampal volume and working memory of a national sample of 9–10-year-old children in the US.  ...  The sex differences in the current study are notable as they were observed in a narrow pre-adolescent age range (9-10 years).  ... 
doi:10.3390/children8050411 pmid:34070074 fatcat:b4lrb2obyrcbndmcmpsz3shpoq

Postnatal brain development [chapter]

Terry L. Jernigan, William F.C. Baaré, Joan Stiles, Kathrine Skak Madsen
2011 Progress in Brain Research  
Finally, we discuss evidence for effects on the brain of several factors that may play a role in mediating these brain-behavior associations in children, including genetic variation, behavioral interventions  ...  This is a protracted process, beginning in the third week of gestation and continuing into early adulthood.  ...  Acknowledgments This work was supported by grants from the Lundbeck Foundation and by grants from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the National Institute of Drug Abuse:  ... 
doi:10.1016/b978-0-444-53884-0.00019-1 pmid:21489384 pmcid:PMC3690327 fatcat:6ixlcg6z4naqnh7rmjgjda7nlu

Microglia dynamics in adolescent traumatic brain injury

Eric Eyolfson, Asher Khan, Richelle Mychasiuk, Alexander W Lohman
2020 Journal of Neuroinflammation  
Repetitive, mild traumatic brain injuries (RmTBIs) are increasingly common in adolescents and encompass one of the largest neurological health concerns in the world.  ...  To date, however, little is known regarding the impact of RmTBIs on microglia function during adolescent brain development.  ...  Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, the Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, Canadian Institute of Health Research, and Natural Sciences and Engineering  ... 
doi:10.1186/s12974-020-01994-z pmid:33121516 pmcid:PMC7597018 fatcat:xg74ielz5fhcxgkkyzgabferty

Maturation of the adolescent brain

Sushil Sharma, Arain, Mathur, Rais, Nel, Sandhu, Haque, Johal
2013 Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment  
The maturation of the adolescent brain is also influenced by heredity, environment, and sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone), which play a crucial role in myelination.  ...  Since several factors, including age, sex, disease, nutritional status, and substance abuse have a significant impact on the maturation of the adolescent brain, we have highlighted the influence of these  ...  Acknowledgments The moral support and encouragement of President Kallol Guha is gratefully acknowledged. Disclosure The authors report no conflicts of interest in this report.  ... 
doi:10.2147/ndt.s39776 pmid:23579318 pmcid:PMC3621648 fatcat:3sosisormvgxdo3vv74cmttkea

Part II: Strain- and sex-specific effects of adolescent exposure to THC on adult brain and behaviour: Variants of learning, anxiety and volumetric estimates

R.J. Keeley, J. Trow, C. Bye, R.J. McDonald
2015 Behavioural Brain Research  
Marijuana is one of the most highly used psychoactive substances in the world, and its use typically begins during adolescence, a period of substantial brain development.  ...  Performance on all tasks, except motor learning, and the volume of associated brain areas were altered with injection or THC administration, although these effects varied by strain and sex group.  ...  Part II: Strain-and sex-specific effects of adolescent exposure to THC on adult brain and behaviour: Variants of learning, anxiety and volumetric estimates.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2015.01.001 pmid:25591471 fatcat:whujgerk6ja6dpnufmkjhfqkai

Single-participant structural similarity matrices lead to greater accuracy in classification of participants than function in autism in MRI

Matthew J. Leming, Simon Baron-Cohen, John Suckling
2021 Molecular Autism  
Our methods revealed a unique emphasis of the deep learning model on the structure of the bilateral Heschl's gyrus when characterizing autism.  ...  Background Autism has previously been characterized by both structural and functional differences in brain connectivity.  ...  ABCD Acknowledgement: Data used in the preparation of this article were obtained from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study (https:// abcdstudy.org), held in the NIMH Data Archive (NDA  ... 
doi:10.1186/s13229-021-00439-5 pmid:33971956 pmcid:PMC8112019 fatcat:laabfxnspvayjj3bubzgqihxb4

Microglia: Ally and Enemy in Deep Space

Kira D.A. Rienecker, Maria Serena Paladini, Katherine Grue, Karen Krukowski, Susanna Rosi
2021 Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews  
Multiple studies have shown that GCR simulation induces a maladaptive activation of microglia - the brain-resident immune cells.  ...  Manipulating microglia can prevent the development of cognitive deficits in male mice exposed to components of GCR.  ...  Acknowledgements This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health: NIH/ National Institute on Aging Grant R01AG056770 (to S.R.); NIH/National Cancer Institute Grants R01 CA213441 and R01 CA246722  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2021.03.036 pmid:33862064 fatcat:dob6idkcnrdsxkkpydqhylfkzm

Microglial Function in the Effects of Early-Life Stress on Brain and Behavioral Development

Catale, Gironda, Iacono, Carola
2020 Journal of Clinical Medicine  
Recently, microglia have been implicated in mediating some of the effects of ELS on behavior.  ...  effects are extremely dependent on the time point at which the investigation is carried out; and (4) both pre- and postnatal ELS can prime microglial reactivity, indicating a long-lasting alteration,  ...  Funding: The APC was funded by Sapienza University of Rome, grant number RG11916B50652E41 to V.C. Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.  ... 
doi:10.3390/jcm9020468 pmid:32046333 pmcid:PMC7074320 fatcat:uxjfqwywongkbkprc7wjqel7yy

Cerebral Asymmetry and Dominance in Man

Heshmat S W Haroun
2015 Academia Anatomica International  
The most striking differences in right-handed people are Broca's motor areas of speech in the left inferior frontal gyrus and Wernicke's area for language comprehension and speech production in the left  ...  Cerebral asymmetries are thought to play an essential role in the pathogenesis of clinical disorders as aphasia, unilateral left brain lesion, adiadochokinesa, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), corticobasal  ...  obvious differences in 24% of brains.  ... 
doi:10.21276/aanat.2015.1.1.3 fatcat:xzl7a6tl7fbdxoq6pe7y563eki

Predicting Body Mass Index From Structural MRI Brain Images Using a Deep Convolutional Neural Network

Pál Vakli, Regina J. Deák-Meszlényi, Tibor Auer, Zoltán Vidnyánszky
2020 Frontiers in Neuroinformatics  
In recent years, deep learning (DL) has become more widespread in the fields of cognitive and clinical neuroimaging.  ...  differences in body weight and provide a new scope for future investigations regarding the potential clinical utility of brain-predicted BMI.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This research has been conducted using the UK Biobank Resource under Application Number 27236.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fninf.2020.00010 pmid:32265681 pmcid:PMC7104804 fatcat:itza63l2xzdizf3w76q2vl37iy

New insights into the dynamic development of the cerebral cortex in childhood and adolescence: Integrating macro- and microstructural MRI findings

Linn B. Norbom, Lia Ferschmann, Nadine Parker, Ingrid Agartz, Ole A. Andreassen, Tomáš Paus, Lars T. Westlye, Christian K. Tamnes
2021 Progress in Neurobiology  
Great progress has been made recently in mapping the typical development of cortical morphology.  ...  Through dynamic transactional processes between genetic and environmental factors, childhood and adolescence involve reorganization and optimization of the cerebral cortex.  ...  brain morphology and microstructure in children and adolescents.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2021.102109 pmid:34147583 fatcat:7fjrapj5xnbsjkmltjqblhmwuu
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