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An evaluation of the income tax treatment of client loyalty programme transactions by South African suppliers

Sophia Brink
2015 Journal of Economic and Financial Sciences  
by supplier for purposes of the client loyalty programme.  ...  The main objective of the research was to determine whether South African client loyalty programme suppliers treat client loyalty programme transactions correctly for income tax purposes.  ...  The basic functioning of client loyalty programmes is as follows: Members of the general public can apply for membership by completing an application form where personal information is provided.  ... 
doi:10.4102/jef.v8i1.88 fatcat:bg363uowubf5xevcqadd4eus3i

Low back pain (chronic)

Hamilton Hall, Greg McIntosh
2008 Clinical evidence  
We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.  ...  , back schools, behavioural therapy, electromyographic biofeedback, exercise, injections (epidural steroid injections, facet joint injections, local injections), intensive multidisciplinary treatment programmes  ...  Directness point deducted for variations in exercise programmes Quality point deducted for incomplete reporting of results.  ... 
pmid:19445791 pmcid:PMC2908004 fatcat:yvc7q32ugzdynppcxd4zajytly

Low back pain (chronic)

Roger Chou
2010 Clinical evidence  
We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.  ...  schools, behavioural therapy, electromyographic biofeedback, exercise, injections (epidural corticosteroid injections, facet joint injections, local injections), intensive multidisciplinary treatment programmes  ...  Directness point deducted for variations in exercise programmes Quality point deducted for incomplete reporting of results.  ... 
pmid:21418678 pmcid:PMC3217809 fatcat:wdhqrygqpraqbhgpwbbqxehgga

Adding deductive logic to a COTS spreadsheet

MARCELO TALLIS, RAND WALTZMAN, ROBERT BLAZER
2007 Knowledge engineering review (Print)  
In particular, we show how the function-based problem-solving capabilities of spreadsheets can be extended to include logical deductive methods in a way that is consistent with the existing spreadsheet  ...  We exploit the spreadsheet metaphor to make deductive problem-solving methods available to the vast population of spreadsheet end users.  ...  Introduction End-user programmers (Nardi 1993 ) are people who write programs for their own use but are not employed as programmers and are usually not, in fact, trained programmers at all.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0269888907001166 fatcat:cd5pbuetrvey7jjbk3g4tqcc6y

Structure and Dynamics of Darwinian Evolutionary Theory

J. Tuomi
1981 Systematic Biology  
Theorizing proceeds through deductive and inductive inferences.  ...  However, this logical conclusion has little value as a critical prediction for testing the theory of natural selection (Tuomi and Haukioja, 1979a) .  ...  Stearns, and Paavo Voipio for critical comments, and Miss Terttu Laurikainen for drawing the figures. The work was supported by the Academy of Finland.  ... 
doi:10.1093/sysbio/30.1.22 fatcat:jdlyj2psurefvfhhxrbphik4u4

What we can learn from how programmers debug their code [article]

Thomas Hirsch, Birgit Hofer
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Programmers often use only IDE build-in tools for debugging. Furthermore, programmers frequently use a replication-observation-deduction pattern when debugging.  ...  These results suggest that debugging support is particularly valuable for memory and concurrency bugs.  ...  Programmers follow a replication-observation-deduction pattern when debugging because this pattern allows them to build a mental model of the program flow.  ... 
arXiv:2103.12447v1 fatcat:6dc2gxlqn5fsbdlrom4jbxxhre

Copd

Robert Andrew McIvor, Marcel Tunks, David Charles Todd
2011 Clinical evidence  
The main risk factor for the development and deterioration of COPD is smoking.  ...  We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.  ...  Directness point deducted for possible drug-drug interactions Low 0 -1 0 -1 4 Prophylactic antibiotics versus placebo Lung function and exercise capacity 1 (109) [77] Consistency point deducted for conflicting  ... 
pmid:21639960 pmcid:PMC3275305 fatcat:2q26dkotajcbjl4mdfl6ltdppq

Distributive Impact of Czech Social Security and Tax Systems: Dynamics in Early 2000s

Ondřej Schneider, Tomáš Jelínek
2005 Prague Economic Papers  
We use regular household surveys, organized and published by the Czech Statistical Office (CSO), for years 1999 - 2002.  ...  We also find that spending on more focused programmes (social supplement and parental allowance) increased least.  ...  However, the government's welfare function remains unspecified so we can only guess which programmes best reflect government's priorities.  ... 
doi:10.18267/j.pep.263 fatcat:entvpyqfazhb5azqnu5jz5nnj4

Investigating differences between female and male athletic donors: a comparative study

Rodoula Tsiotsou
2006 International Journal of Nonprofit & Voluntary Sector Marketing  
Simple random techniques were used to gather data for the study. * The total sample size was 387 from which 115 were female and 272 were male donors of the athletic programmes of a large eastern state  ...  The purpose of the study was to identify differences between male and female donors of athletic programmes in order to improve fundraising effectiveness.  ...  The econometric models state that giving is a function of several variables such as income, frequency of messages for the public good and tax deductions (Okunade, 1994; Baade and Sunberg, 1996; Clotfelter  ... 
doi:10.1002/nvsm.34 fatcat:qotvvqr47ndllnvi2xrbb2hykq

A Functional Perspective on Machine Learning via Programmable Induction and Abduction [chapter]

Steven Cheung, Victor Darvariu, Dan R. Ghica, Koko Muroya, Reuben N. S. Rowe
2018 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We present a programming language for machine learning based on the concepts of 'induction' and 'abduction' as encountered in Peirce's logic of science.  ...  We think there is a case for the parameters to be abducted together, so that both functions have two parameters, not only in an attempt to conform to a beta law which is often expected by functional programmers  ...  Computation carried out in such deductive functional programming languages produces definitive results.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-90686-7_6 fatcat:in7f6outbbfttgvzajqhd6ke6q

Page 1028 of Mathematical Reviews Vol. , Issue 93b [page]

1993 Mathematical Reviews  
In a standard deductive database system as defined here, the con- trol component is totally fixed and the programmer has no control over the efficiency of the database algorithm.  ...  (The author does not consider deductive databases with control components like that of Prolog, in which SLD-resolution is applied to clauses in the workspace. ) The need for meta-level deductive control  ... 

XcelLog: a deductive spreadsheet system

C.R. RAMAKRISHNAN, I.V. RAMAKRISHNAN, DAVID S. WARREN
2007 Knowledge engineering review (Print)  
This paper describes the design and implementation of XcelLog, a user-centered deductive spreadsheet system, to empower non-programmers to specify and manipulate rule-based systems.  ...  Preliminary experience with using XcelLog indicates that it is indeed feasible to put the power of deductive spreadsheets for doing rule-based computing into the hands of end users and do so without the  ...  Our work on generating explanations for deduction [4, 21] and Excel's color-coded outlines denoting cell dependencies offers a suitable starting point for this problem.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s026988890700118x fatcat:77ui4chtmrha7pejxdoly3hsyu

Page 37 of Arena Vol. 19, Issue 1 [page]

1898 Arena  
Does the historical school, then, accept responsibility for any or all of this “selected” programme?  ...  We compel individual disputants to settle their quar- rels in courts of justice established for the purpose; would it be enlarging the judicial function beyond the possibilities of our present stage of  ... 

Cameleer: A Deductive Verification Tool for OCaml [chapter]

Mário Pereira, António Ravara
2021 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
AbstractWe present , an automated deductive verification tool for OCaml.  ...  The number of lines of ghost code in Fig. 4 stands for ghost fields in record types, ghost functions, and lemma functions.  ...  Why3 is a toolset for the deductive verification of software, clearly oriented towards automated proof.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-030-81688-9_31 fatcat:hcnbecwpiffppjbhj5dyu6y2q4

Deductive Object Programming [article]

Francois Colonna
2006 arXiv   pre-print
We propose some slight additions to O-O languages to implement the necessary features for using Deductive Object Programming (DOP).  ...  This function is true whenever some node of the production tree of attribute has been modified. an iteration counter Conclusion We have shown that combining deductive programming with making explicit  ...  Programming with Persistent Objects or Deductive Object Programming are a same thing : the programmer never cares of providing values to a functionattribute-persistent-object, he declares it as a builder  ... 
arXiv:cs/0601035v1 fatcat:5o6abyeqh5dxdhhox4az37r7au
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