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R2

K. Biss, R. Chien, F. Stahl
1971 Proceedings of the May 18-20, 1971, spring joint computer conference on - AFIPS '71 (Spring)  
It accepts a wide range of input sentences in English and deduces answers to input questions based upon available information.  ...  A recursive goaloriented theorem-proving algorithm is used to deduce answers to questions posed to the system.  ...  It accepts a wide range of input sentences in English and deduces answers to input questions based upon available information.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1478786.1478829 dblp:conf/afips/BissCS71 fatcat:mij6jjjrqner5h2db6hxpwferq

Arabic Question Answering: A Study on Challenges, Systems, and Techniques

Heba Samy, Ehab E., Khaled Shaalan
2019 International Journal of Computer Applications  
A general architecture is represented for the Question Answering task on both structured and unstructured data. Then, an overview of the work done in Arabic Question Answering Systems is presented.  ...  The enormous increase of the amount of information available on the web creates the need for systems like Question Answering to bridge the gap between general end users and the web with its different data  ...  It was designed to search for answers found in structured data only, but failed to extract an answer from unstructured data. No evaluation reported for this system.  ... 
doi:10.5120/ijca2019918524 fatcat:zdncecxa4bhxnjnstdzyotkn3m

The use of theorem-proving techniques in question-answering systems

C. Cordell Green, Bertram Raphael
1968 Proceedings of the 1968 23rd ACM national conference on -  
The authors are indebted to Robert A. Yates for h substantial contributions to the design and progran ming of system QA2.  ...  We have constructed two question-answering systems that use list-structured data bases and formal theorem-proving techniques to store facts, extract relevant data, and deduce logical answers to questions  ...  These groups are developing ways for a question answerer to accept subsets of natural English as the input language.  ... 
doi:10.1145/800186.810578 fatcat:hovlkc35wzfrbfutc7fxr7li2m

IBEREVAL OM: Mining Opinions from the new textual genres

Alexandra Balahur, Ester Boldrini, Andrés Montoyo, Patricio Martínez-Barco
2010 Revista de Procesamiento de Lenguaje Natural (SEPLN)  
The increasing amount of subjective data on the Web is creating the need to develop effective Question Answering systems able to discriminate such information from factual data, and subsequently process  ...  They will also be provided with a collection of blog posts, extracted using the Technorati blog search engine (in Spanish and English), in which the answers to the opinion questions should be found The  ...  used to understand what we can deduce from the author (politic orientation, preferences) thanks to the words and language s/he chooses.  ... 
dblp:journals/pdln/BalahurBMM10 fatcat:p7wasu5h3jhezocb34puxmqcvq

Machine Reading Comprehension: Methods and Trends of Low Resource Languages

2021 jecet  
This is due to the unavailability of large-scale training datasets in low resource languages. Several studies on Machine Reading Comprehension (MRC) have proposed MRC models based on English.  ...  The survey demonstrates that available MRC models are ineffective in low resource languages, such as Hindi, Arabic, and Urdu, mainly due to large datasets and language structure unavailability.  ...  Multi-lingual QA Framework for English and Hindi A QA system aims to develop a model to automatically generate the answer for a given question from the data repository.  ... 
doi:10.24214/jecet.b.10.2.05775 fatcat:fto7t3avmzexzn6nfsuu4k2emm

The Effect of a Proposed Training Program Based on the Reflective Model on the Development of the Ninth Grade Students' English Reading Comprehension Skills in Mafraq

Fawwaz Al-Abed Al-Haq Asma Ahmed Alimoush
2016 US-China Foreign Language  
This study aimed at investigating the effect of a proposed EFL (English as a Foreign Language) training program based on the reflective model on the development of the ninth grade students' English reading  ...  To achieve the purposes of the study, the researcher designed a pre and post achievement test for students.  ...  These procedures recommend teachers to brainstorm students and answer the student's book pre-reading questions before reading, then answer the student's book while-reading questions.  ... 
doi:10.17265/1539-8080/2016.01.001 fatcat:wrtkqiemubc57d7kws5btfqa2q

Page 163 of Contemporary Psychology Vol. 21, Issue 3 [page]

1976 Contemporary Psychology  
But since the interpretation of the data is precisely what is at issue between Piaget and those who differ from him, it is hard to see how the matter can be resolved by an appeal to data.  ...  But Piaget believes they can be properly answered only by a “genetic epistemology” based on em- pirical data.  ... 

WASHBACK EFFECT OF YEMENI GENERAL SECONDARY SCHOOL CERTIFICATE ENGLISH EXAMINATION ON TEACHERS' TEACHING PRACTICES AND CLASSROOM TESTING

Intisar Saleh Ahmed Albondoq
2021 Electronic Journal of University of Aden for Humanity and Social Sciences  
This study aims to investigate the washback effect of Yemeni General Secondary School Certificate English Examination (YGSSCEE) on teachers' teaching practices and classroom testing.  ...  Most of the teachers adapted the classroom tests from the past YGSSCEE papers.  ...  Discussion of the Results This part presents and discusses the results of the data analysis for each of the research questions that were answered by conducting structured interview.  ... 
doi:10.47372/ejua-hs.2021.3.111 fatcat:fvgb6juxq5fvpgkf5d7qpx5hm4

Experiments on Cross–Linguality and Question–Type Driven Strategy Selection for Open–Domain QA [chapter]

Günter Neumann, Bogdan Sacaleanu
2006 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We describe the extensions made to our 2004 QA@CLEF German/English QA-system, toward a fully German-English/English-German cross-language system with answer validation through web usage.  ...  Details concerning the processing of factoid, definition and temporal questions are given and the results obtained in the monolingual German, bilingual English-German and German-English tasks are briefly  ...  For example, for a question of type abbreviation, possible answers are looked-up in special data bases (automatically filled with data from the Clef-corpus), where for questions of type completion the  ... 
doi:10.1007/11878773_48 fatcat:pkvtvayq2nc6loil4u5sx5kgmu

ENGLISH TEACHERS' OPINIONS AND EXPERIENCES REGARDING TEACHING PRINCIPLES AND METHODS

Hüma BAL NAYMAN- Sertel ALTUN
2020 Kesit Akademi  
The data were obtained by semi-structured interview questions. The data were analyzed in accordance with the content analysis.  ...  In this study, it is aimed to investigate the opinions and experiences of English teachers in teaching principles and methods.  ...  Interview questions are shown as follows; Data Collection Process In this study the data collection process took 6 months. It lasted about from May 2019 to November 2019.  ... 
doi:10.29228/kesit.47845 fatcat:6ep75ucptrfy7jlyrcc245aoay

An inferential processor for interacting with biomedical data using restricted natural language

Dale W. Isner
1971 Proceedings of the November 16-18, 1971, fall joint computer conference on - AFIPS '71 (Fall)  
the data base, for deducing answers from this subset to meet the request. structures which are to be used for its semantic basis.  ...  to answer such questions from the literature.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1478873.1479021 dblp:conf/afips/Isner72 fatcat:yjmyeznwurezddbnoigc6wqopa

DFKI's LT-lab at the CLEF 2005 Multiple Language Question Answering Track

Günter Neumann, Bogdan Sacaleanu
2005 Conference and Labs of the Evaluation Forum  
We describe the extensions made to our 2004 QA@CLEF German/English QA-system, especially the question-type driven selection of answer strategies.  ...  Furthermore, details concerning the processing of definition and temporal questions are described, as well as the results obtained in the monolingual German, bilingual English/German, and bilingual German  ...  Many thanks to Rob Basten for his support in the development of the component for handling temporally restricted questions, Yuan Ye for his support in data collection and annotation for the definition  ... 
dblp:conf/clef/NeumannS05b fatcat:j2jpp55sqre2xd5miyp3azfbxe

Reasoning in Attempto Controlled English: Non-monotonicity [chapter]

Norbert E. Fuchs
2016 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
RACE is a first-order reasoner with equality for Attempto Controlled English (ACE) that can show the consistency of a set of ACE axioms and deduce ACE theorems and ACE queries from ACE axioms.  ...  I would like to thank the three anonymous reviewers of the first version of this paper for their constructive comments.  ...  Many thanks go to the Department of Informatics and the Institute of Computational Linguistics, University of Zurich, for their hospitality.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-41498-0_2 fatcat:6i2zxlybc5cqba277uoe4b76ey

Perception of the attitudinal function of intonation in responding to Yes/No questions: A study of non-native English language teachers

Noor Alhusna Madzlan, Che Ton binti Mahmud
2018 Studies in English language and education  
to yes/no questions.  ...  It was carried out to ascertain non-native English language teachers' awareness of the attitudinal functions that intonation carries in responding to yes/no questions.  ...  To establish validity of the instrument, the audio conversations and answers to the multiple choice questions were verified by a native speaker of Standard British English.  ... 
doi:10.24815/siele.v5i2.10476 fatcat:przpdyck4fdvnpt7uubuplkgwa

Procedural semantics for a question-answering machine

W. A. Woods
1968 Proceedings of the December 9-11, 1968, fall joint computer conference, part I on - AFIPS '68 (Fall, part I)  
. * The rem.aining phase consists of procedures for either retrieving the answer directly from the data base, or else deducing the answer from information contained in the data base.  ...  These systems take input questions in. natural English (subject to' varying constraints) and attempt to answer the questions on the basis of a body of information, called the data base, which is stored  ... 
doi:10.1145/1476589.1476653 dblp:conf/afips/Woods68 fatcat:wrb7ktel5zco5kstuydj5evoym
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