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Many popular Web services use CDNs to host their content closer to users and thus improve page load times. While this model's success is beyond question, it has its limits: for users with poor last-mile latency even to a nearby CDN node, the many RTTs needed to fetch a Web page add up to large delays. Thus, in this work, we explore a complementary model of speeding up Web page delivery -a content gathering network (CGN), whereby users establish their own geo-distributed presence, and use thesedblp:conf/hotcloud/BhattacherjeeTS17 fatcat:7sgbqnyetzdupivtazagtyzsc4
more »... oints of presence to proxy content for them. We show that deploying only 14 public cloud-based CGN nodes puts the closest node within a median RTT of merely 4.8 ms (7.2 ms) from servers hosting the top 10k (100k) most popular Web sites. The CGN node nearest to a server can thus obtain content from it rapidly, and then transmit it to the client over fewer (limited by available bandwidth) high-latency interactions using aggressive transport protocols. This simple approach reduces the median page load time across 100 popular Web sites by as much as 53%, and can be deployed immediately without depending on any changes to Web servers at an estimated cost of under $1 per month per user.
The recent publication of the 'InterTubes' map of long-haul fiber-optic cables in the contiguous United States invites an exciting question: how much faster would the Internet be if routes were chosen to minimize latency? Previous measurement campaigns suggest the following rule of thumb for estimating Internet latency: multiply line-of-sight distance by 2.1, then divide by the speed of light in fiber. But a simple computation of shortest-path lengths through the conduits in the InterTubes maparXiv:1811.10737v1 fatcat:qa3tbd2t4fhevjs62ygbrpi5pi
more »... uggests that the conversion factor for all pairs of the 120 largest population centers in the U.S.\ could be reduced from 2.1 to 1.3, in the median, even using less than half of the links. To determine whether an overlay network could be used to provide shortest paths, and how well it would perform, we used the diverse server deployment of a CDN to measure latency across individual conduits. We were surprised to find, however, that latencies are sometimes much higher than would be predicted by conduit length alone. To understand why, we report findings from our analysis of network latency data from the backbones of two Tier-1 ISPs, two scientific and research networks, and the recently built fiber backbone of a CDN.
Low latency is a requirement for a variety of interactive network applications. The Internet, however, is not optimized for latency. We thus explore the design of cost-effective wide-area networks that move data over paths very close to great-circle paths, at speeds very close to the speed of light in vacuum. Our cISP design augments the Internet's fiber with free-space wireless connectivity. cISP addresses the fundamental challenge of simultaneously providing low latency and scalablearXiv:1809.10897v2 fatcat:owuhvmlz4vczzf3xdcteqwd3ye
more »... while accounting for numerous practical factors ranging from transmission tower availability to packet queuing. We show that instantiations of cISP across the contiguous United States and Europe would achieve mean latencies within 5% of that achievable using great-circle paths at the speed of light, over medium and long distances. Further, we estimate that the economic value from such networks would substantially exceed their expense.
Low latency is a requirement for a variety of interactive network applications. The Internet, however, is not optimized for latency. We thus explore the design of wide-area networks that move data at nearly the speed of light in vacuum. Our cISP design augments the Internet's fiber with free-space microwave wireless connectivity over paths very close to great-circle paths. cISP addresses the fundamental challenge of simultaneously providing ultra-low latency while accounting for numerousdblp:conf/nsdi/BhattacherjeeAJ22 fatcat:w5k7ag452bcshf4nfgw3iqatbq