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Impact of child sexual abuse on mental health

Josie Spataro, Paul E. Mullen, Philip M. Burgess, David L. Wells, Simon A. Moss
2004 British Journal of Psychiatry  
The lack of prospective studies and data on male victims leaves major questions regarding associations between child sexual abuse and subsequent psychopathology. Aims To examine the association between child sexual abuse in both boys and girls and subsequent treatment for mental disorder using a prospective cohort design. Method Children (n=16L2; 1327 female) ascertained as sexually abused at the time had their histories of mental health treatment established by data linkage and compared with
more » ... e general population of the same age over a specified period. Results Both male and female victims of abuse had significantly higher rates of psychiatric treatment during the study period than general population controls (12.4% v. 3.6%). Rates were higher for childhood mental disorders, personality disorders, anxiety disorders and major affective disorders, but not for schizophrenia. Male victims were significantly more likely to have had treatment than females (22.8% v. 10.2%). Conclusions This prospective study demonstrates an association between child sexual abuse validated at the time and a subsequent increase in rates of childhood and adult mental disorders.
doi:10.1192/bjp.184.5.416 pmid:15123505 fatcat:svx3nl65brgwhmf2yrmfmmfym4

Authentication and Authorization Mechanisms for Multi-Domain Grid Environments

Linda A. Cornwall, Jens Jensen, David P. Kelsey, Ákos Frohner, Daniel Kouřil, Franck Bonnassieux, Sophie Nicoud, Károly Lőrentey, Joni Hahkala, Mika Silander, Roberto Cecchini, Vincenzo Ciaschini (+8 others)
2004 Journal of Grid Computing  
This article discusses the authentication and the authorization aspects of security in grid environments spanning multiple administrative domains. Achievements in these areas are presented using the EU DataGrid project as an example implementation. It also gives an outlook on future directions of development.
doi:10.1007/s10723-004-8182-y fatcat:g3zzvvejizgptavh3apzl2k7am

RF Design of the UCLA/INFN Hybrid SW/TW Photoinjector

Brendan O'Shea, James Rosenzweig, Alessandro Boni, Atsushi Fukasawa, David Alesini, Massimo Ferrario, Bruno Spataro, Luca Ficcadenti, Andrea Mostacci, Luigi Palumbo
2006 AIP Conference Proceedings  
With increasing demand for high brightness, low emittance beams for use with freeelectron lasers, Compton scattering systems and wake-field accelerator experiments, stringent requirements have been placed on the design and operation of the 1.6 cell photoinjector. The proposed hybrid photoinjector combines the BNL/UCLA/SLAC style 1.5/1.6 cell standing wave gun with a traveling wave accelerator. Our goal is an injector that meets today's requirements and is scalable in design to meet tomorrow's
more » ... mands: emittances in the region of 1 mm-mrad for higher brightness as well as higher currents. The hybrid photoinjector also offers higher energy operation, enhanced cost effectiveness and better scalability than current designs such as integrated PWT photoinjectors and split gun/accelerating sections. The use of both SW and TW systems allows for higher gradients (E o = 70 MV/m) in the SW gun for effective capture at lower emittances, while the lower energy acceleration in the TW sections (E o = 13.5 MV/m) allows generation of higher energy beams which are less sensitive to space charge effects. We note the current results of simulation of beam dynamics, ε n,x = 3 mm-mrad, an energy spread of 1.5% with beam energies of 21 MeV at currents as high as 1.2 kA. Further we explore the possibilities of scalability to higher frequencies, analysis of coupling design, present cold test preparations and simulated RF analysis of the structure.
doi:10.1063/1.2409228 fatcat:a3ctuq5quzh5hihwam5rjlaaky

Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders in a Cohort of Sexually Abused Children

Margaret C. Cutajar, Paul E. Mullen, James R. P. Ogloff, Stuart D. Thomas, David L. Wells, Josie Spataro
2010 Archives of General Psychiatry  
Context: The evidence for an association between child sexual abuse and subsequently developing psychotic disorders, including the schizophrenias, remains inconclusive. Objective: To explore whether child sexual abuse is a risk factor for later psychotic disorders. Design: Case-control study. Setting: Sample drawn from all notified cases of child sexual abuse over a 30-year period in Victoria, Australia. Participants: A cohort of 2759 individuals ascertained as having been sexually abused when
more » ... ounger than 16 years had their subsequent contacts with mental health services established by data linkage. They were compared with a community-based control group matched on sex and age groupings whose rates of disorder were established using identical methods. Main Outcome Measures: Rates of psychotic and schizophrenic illnesses. Results: Rates were significantly higher among child sexual abuse subjects compared with controls for psychosis in general (2.8% vs 1.4%; odds ratio, 2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-3.1; PϽ.001) and schizophrenic disorders in particular (1.9% vs 0.7%; odds ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-4.4; PϽ.001). Those exposed to penetrative abuse had even higher rates of psychosis (3.4%) and schizophrenia (2.4%). Abuse without penetration was not associated with significant increases in psychosis or schizophrenia. The risks were highest for those whose abuse involved penetration, occurred after age 12 years, and involved more than 1 perpetrator, the combination producing rates of 8.6% for schizophrenia and 17.2% for psychosis.
doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2010.147 pmid:21041612 fatcat:mv2jzarvazdb5gupugoztoa3lm

Incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Sicily: A population based study

Paolo Ragonese, Eleonora Cellura, Paolo Aridon, Marco D'amelio, Rossella Spataro, Alfonsa Claudia Taiello, Davide Maimone, Vincenzo La Bella, Giovanni Savettieri
2012 Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  
Amyotroph Lateral Scler Downloaded from informahealthcare.com by Dr Rossella Spataro on 07/05/12For personal use only.  ...  Amyotroph Lateral Scler Downloaded from informahealthcare.com by Dr Rossella Spataro on 07/05/12For personal use only. Table I .  ... 
doi:10.3109/17482968.2012.662689 pmid:22409362 fatcat:bxbzi5kisjc2rhlog7tykfx2lq

Feeding choice and predation pressure of two invasive gammarids, Gammarus tigrinus and Dikerogammarus villosus, under increasing temperature

Laura Pellan, Vincent Médoc, David Renault, Thierry Spataro, Christophe Piscart
2015 Hydrobiologia  
17 In most European freshwater ecosystems, the invasive gammarids Gammarus tigrinus and 18 Dikerogammarus villosus strongly impair recipient communities through predation of a wide range of 19 native invertebrates. Due to the effects of temperature on both the physiology and the behaviour of such 20 ectotherms, understanding how global warming may influences their ecological impact is a research 21 priority. These species were therefore exposed to three different food types to determine their
more » ... detritivorous, herbivorous and carnivorous characters, and predation was measured characterizing the 23 Holling's functional response. The effect of increasing water temperatures (15, 20, 25 °C) on both the 24 food choice and predatory activities was investigated. Both species showed a significant preference for 25 animal tissues at all temperatures. The total food intake increased with temperature for G. tigrinus but 26 did not change for D. villosus, which may result from specific-species differences in metabolic 27 requirements. The consumption of live prey strongly increased with temperature. The main differences 28 were an increased searching efficiency in G. tigrinus and a decreased handling time in D. villosus as 29 temperature increased, which may result from differences in foraging strategies. These results suggest 30 that climate change is likely to increase the predation pressure of both invasive gammarids on prey 31 species. 32 33
doi:10.1007/s10750-015-2312-3 fatcat:vkl7b4ffz5eylcyeaso3ucqhqy

Bayesian Spatiotemporal Modeling of Urban Air Pollution Dynamics [chapter]

Simone Del Sarto, M. Giovanna Ranalli, K. Shuvo Bakar, David Cappelletti, Beatrice Moroni, Stefano Crocchianti, Silvia Castellini, Francesca Spataro, Giulio Esposito, Antonella Ianniello, Rosamaria Salvatori
2016 Topics on Methodological and Applied Statistical Inference  
This work deals with the spatio-temporal analysis of urban air pollution dynamics from the town of Perugia, Italy, using high-frequency and size resolved data on particular matter. Hierarchical Bayesian models are used that allow for an autoregressive term in time. Some preliminary results show that there is a significant spatio-temporal structure with a large first-order temporal correlation coefficient. Future analysis will concern the use of higher-order temporal auto-correlation structures
more » ... nd the introduction of the effect of some covariates.
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-44093-4_10 fatcat:7snrhurktzfafk6fs26cau5wyq

Advanced design of a low energy electron source

Alberto Leggieri, Davide Passi, Franco Di Paolo, Bruno Spataro, Egor Dyunin
2015 2015 IEEE MTT-S International Conference on Numerical Electromagnetic and Multiphysics Modeling and Optimization (NEMO)  
A multiphysics-based modeling design of a low energy electron source using a thermionic cathode is described in this paper. The proposed device produces a narrow beam employable in delicate applications where dimensions are critical. The effects of multiple physics influencing factors due to the cathode heating over the beam dynamics have been predicted through a multiphysics design approach. This paper would provide the needed knowledge for virtual prototyping of such devices. For this aim,
more » ... eral strategies have been adopted to obtain a simple model, which shows clearly the investigated mechanisms. According to this study, the appropriate materials and shapes can be chosen.
doi:10.1109/nemo.2015.7415017 fatcat:hubql2oizrgeddup66tx45yiny

Suicide and fatal drug overdose in child sexual abuse victims: a historical cohort study

Margaret C Cutajar, Paul E Mullen, James R P Ogloff, Stuart D Thomas, David L Wells, Josie Spataro
2010 Medical Journal of Australia  
To determine the rate and risk of suicide and accidental fatal drug overdose (ie, overdose deemed not to have been suicide) in individuals who had been medically ascertained as having been sexually abused during childhood. A historical cohort linkage study of suicide and accidental drug-induced death among victims of child sexual abuse (CSA). Forensic medical records of 2759 victims of CSA who were assessed between 1964 and 1995 were obtained from the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine
more » ... linked with coronial data representing a follow-up period of up to 44 years. Rates of suicide and accidental fatal drug overdose recorded in coronial databases between 1991 and 2008, and rates of psychiatric disorders and substance use recorded in public mental health databases. Twenty-one cases of fatal self-harm were recorded. Relative risks for suicide and accidental fatal overdose among CSA victims, compared with age-limited national data for the general population, were 18.09 (95% CI, 10.96-29.85; population-attributable risk, 0.37%), and 49.22 (95% CI, 36.11-67.09; population-attributable risk, 0.01%) respectively. Relative risks were higher for female victims. Similar to the general population, CSA victims who died as a result of self-harm were predominantly aged in their 30s at time of death. Most had contact with the public mental health system and half were recorded as being diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. Our data highlight that CSA victims are at increased risk of suicide and accidental fatal drug overdose. CSA is a risk factor that mediates suicide and fatal overdose.
pmid:20170453 fatcat:7nslq7gcvvabbfmxenb3m6i4le

Trigger algorithm development on FPGA-based Compute Nodes

Ming Liu, Axel Jantsch, Dapeng Jin, Andreas Kopp, Wolfgang Kuehn, Johannes Lang, Lu Li, Soeren Lange, Zhen'an Liu, Zhonghai Lu, David Muenchow, Vladimir Pechenov (+4 others)
2009 2009 16th IEEE-NPSS Real Time Conference  
Based on the ATCA computation architecture and Compute Nodes (CN), investigation and implementation work has been being executed for HADES and PANDA trigger algorithms. We present our designs for HADES track reconstruction processing, Cherenkov ring recognition, Time-Of-Flight processing, electromagnetic shower recognition, and the PANDA straw tube tracking algorithm. They will appear as co-processors in the uniform system design to undertake the detector-specific computing. The algorithm
more » ... ples will be explained and hardware designs are described in the paper. The current progress reveals the feasibility to implement these algorithms on FPGAs. Also experimental results demonstrate the performance speedup when compared to alternative software solutions, as well as the potential capability of high-speed parallel/pipelined processing in Data Acquisition and Trigger systems.
doi:10.1109/rtc.2009.5321547 fatcat:zllu3kkzizbbjgygz3v7paph7u

Inflammatory Cytokine Expression Is Associated with Chikungunya Virus Resolution and Symptom Severity

Alyson A. Kelvin, David Banner, Giuliano Silvi, Maria Luisa Moro, Nadir Spataro, Paolo Gaibani, Francesca Cavrini, Anna Pierro, Giada Rossini, Mark J. Cameron, Jesus F. Bermejo-Martin, Stéphane G. Paquette (+8 others)
2011 PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases  
The Chikungunya virus infection zones have now quickly spread from Africa to parts of Asia, North America and Europe.
doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001279 pmid:21858242 pmcid:PMC3156690 fatcat:lbkawctv5nb23pxhvffpaox7pe

Scaling of Beam Collective Effects with Bunch Charge in the CompactLight Free-Electron Laser

Simone Di Di Mitri, Andrea Latina, Marcus Aicheler, Avni Aksoy, David Alesini, Graeme Burt, Alejandro Castilla, Jim Clarke, Hector Mauricio Castañeda Cortés, Michele Croia, Gerardo D'Auria, Marco Diomede (+15 others)
2020 Photonics  
The CompactLight European consortium is designing a state-of-the-art x-ray free-electron laser driven by radiofrequency X-band technology. Rooted in experimental data on photo-injector performance in the recent literature, this study estimates analytically and numerically the performance of the CompactLight delivery system for bunch charges in the range 75–300 pC. Space-charge forces in the injector, linac transverse wakefield, and coherent synchrotron radiation in bunch compressors are all
more » ... n into account. The study confirms efficient lasing in the soft x-rays regime with pulse energies up to hundreds of microjoules at repetition rates as high as 1 kHz.
doi:10.3390/photonics7040125 fatcat:b3ed7atcnjghlp7owcxtdgx4rm

COLDDIAG: A Cold Vacuum Chamber for Diagnostics

Sara Casalbuoni, Tilo Baumbach, Stefan Gerstl, Andreas Grau, Michael Hagelstein, David Saez de Jauregui, Cristian Boffo, Günther Sikler, Vincent Baglin, Roberto Cimino, Mario Commisso, Bruno Spataro (+10 others)
2011 IEEE transactions on applied superconductivity  
Preliminary studies performed with the cold bore superconducting undulator installed in the ANKA storage ring suggest that the beam heat load is mainly due to the electron wall bombardment. Low energy electrons (few eV) are accelerated by the electric field of the beam to the wall of the vacuum chamber, induce non-thermal outgassing from the cryogenic surface and heat the undulator. In this contribution we report on the design of a cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics to be installed in the ANKA
more » ... storage ring and possibly in third generation light sources. The diagnostics implemented are: i) retarding field analyzers to measure the electron energy and flux, ii) temperature sensors to measure the total heat load, iii) pressure gauges, iv) and a mass spectrometer to measure the gas content. The aim of this device is to gain a deeper understanding on the heat load mechanisms to a cold vacuum chamber in a storage ring and find effective remedies. The outcome of the study is of relevance for the design and operation of cold bore superconducting insertion devices in synchrotron light sources.
doi:10.1109/tasc.2010.2096176 fatcat:cykf6bmerjf4bdsprt5gvreisi

Allele-specific gene editing prevents deafness in a model of dominant progressive hearing loss

Bence György, Carl Nist-Lund, Bifeng Pan, Yukako Asai, K. Domenica Karavitaki, Benjamin P. Kleinstiver, Sara P. Garcia, Mikołaj P. Zaborowski, Paola Solanes, Sofia Spataro, Bernard L. Schneider, J. Keith Joung (+3 others)
2019 Nature Medicine  
Since most dominant human mutations are single nucleotide substitutions1,2, we explored gene editing strategies to disrupt dominant mutations efficiently and selectively without affecting wild-type alleles. However, single nucleotide discrimination can be difficult to achieve3 because commonly used endonucleases, such as Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9), can tolerate up to seven mismatches between guide RNA (gRNA) and target DNA. Furthermore, the protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM) in some
more » ... enzymes can tolerate mismatches with the target DNA3,4. To circumvent these limitations, we screened 14 Cas9/gRNA combinations for specific and efficient disruption of a nucleotide substitution that causes the dominant progressive hearing loss, DFNA36. As a model for DFNA36, we used Beethoven mice5, which harbor a point mutation in Tmc1, a gene required for hearing that encodes a pore-forming subunit of mechanosensory transduction channels in inner-ear hair cells6. We identified a PAM variant of Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 (SaCas9-KKH) that selectively and efficiently disrupted the mutant allele, but not the wild-type Tmc1/TMC1 allele, in Beethoven mice and in a DFNA36 human cell line. Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated SaCas9-KKH delivery prevented deafness in Beethoven mice up to one year post injection. Analysis of current ClinVar entries revealed that ~21% of dominant human mutations could be targeted using a similar approach.
doi:10.1038/s41591-019-0500-9 pmid:31270503 pmcid:PMC6802276 fatcat:uiftrbukebhpjbeunjojj6n3qi

Esophageal adenocarcinoma in a first-degree relative increases risk for esophageal adenocarcinoma in patients with Barrett's esophagus

Christina J Tofani, Kunjal Gandhi, Joseph Spataro, Joseph Yoo, Megan Murphy, Neena Mohan, Zachary Daitch, Apeksha Shah, Raymond Janowski, Colin Huntley, Nooreen Dabbish, Scott Keith (+4 others)
2018 United European Gastroenterology journal  
The significance of a family history of esophageal adenocarcinoma in the progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma in patients with Barrett's esophagus has not been thoroughly evaluated. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the presence of esophageal adenocarcinoma in a first-degree relative in patients with Barrett's esophagus.
doi:10.1177/2050640618817098 pmid:31080607 pmcid:PMC6498799 fatcat:55kzizy6nfbv7ahcytxzlkvro4
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