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Data-Driven Sentence Simplification: Survey and Benchmark

Fernando Alva-Manchego, Carolina Scarton, Lucia Specia
<span title="2020-01-02">2020</span> <i title="MIT Press - Journals"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/e4yflo6sufcufjwloald7xudm4" style="color: black;">Computational Linguistics</a> </i> &nbsp;
Sentence Simplification (SS) aims to modify a sentence in order to make it easier to read and understand.  ...  We also include a benchmark of different approaches on common datasets so as to compare them and highlight their strengths and limitations.  ...  In this article, we present a survey of research on data-driven SS for Englishthe dominant paradigm nowadays-and complement it with a benchmark of models whose outputs on standard data sets are publicly  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1162/coli_a_00370">doi:10.1162/coli_a_00370</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/k7mlggplrreudk5pgq62x2fmva">fatcat:k7mlggplrreudk5pgq62x2fmva</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20210428054950/https://spiral.imperial.ac.uk:8443/bitstream/10044/1/79481/6/coli_a_00370.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/ff/15/ff15f718e40a06e307fbb28b2c4f45086a52c1b9.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1162/coli_a_00370"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> mitpressjournals.org </button> </a>

A Survey on Lexical Simplification

Gustavo H. Paetzold, Lucia Specia
<span title="2017-11-15">2017</span> <i title="AI Access Foundation"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/4ax4efcwajcgvidb6hcg6mwx4a" style="color: black;">The Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research</a> </i> &nbsp;
In this survey we review the literature for each step in this typical Lexical Simplification pipeline and provide a benchmarking of existing approaches for these steps on publicly available datasets.  ...  Lexical Simplification is the process of replacing complex words in a given sentence with simpler alternatives of equivalent meaning.  ...  The only strategies that resemble end-to-end lexical simplifiers to some extent are data-driven sentence simplifiers, which manage to learn how to simplify some complex words from parallel data.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1613/jair.5526">doi:10.1613/jair.5526</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/vdzvoemabjh3pftykyyyz5a2me">fatcat:vdzvoemabjh3pftykyyyz5a2me</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20190429125459/http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/132086/8/paetzold17a.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/09/97/0997f91510cb68f276ce3c631d3f0501c352561f.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1613/jair.5526"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

A Survey on Text Simplification [article]

Punardeep Sikka, Vijay Mago
<span title="2022-05-20">2022</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
This survey seeks to provide a comprehensive overview of TS, including a brief description of earlier approaches used, discussion of various aspects of simplification (lexical, semantic and syntactic),  ...  simplification.  ...  Also, we would like to thank Lakehead University, DaTA Lab and CASES Bldg. for providing invaluable support and resources to make our research possible.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2008.08612v3">arXiv:2008.08612v3</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/wcxgc6l4ajhtdjefl7pcpitnsu">fatcat:wcxgc6l4ajhtdjefl7pcpitnsu</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200827210005/https://arxiv.org/pdf/2008.08612v2.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download [not primary version]" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <span style="color: #f43e3e;">&#10033;</span> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2008.08612v3" title="arxiv.org access"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> arxiv.org </button> </a>

Elaborative Simplification: Content Addition and Explanation Generation in Text Simplification [article]

Neha Srikanth, Junyi Jessy Li
<span title="2021-06-03">2021</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
In this work, we present the first data-driven study of content addition in text simplification, which we call elaborative simplification.  ...  Much of modern-day text simplification research focuses on sentence-level simplification, transforming original, more complex sentences into simplified versions.  ...  Data-driven sentence simplifica- Dong et al., 2019; Kriz et al., 2019). This paradigm, tion: Survey and benchmark.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2010.10035v3">arXiv:2010.10035v3</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/k35bhb5dtveo3h2dghsrsltnui">fatcat:k35bhb5dtveo3h2dghsrsltnui</a> </span>
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Context-Preserving Text Simplification [article]

Christina Niklaus, Matthias Cetto, André Freitas, Siegfried Handschuh
<span title="2021-05-24">2021</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
We present a context-preserving text simplification (TS) approach that recursively splits and rephrases complex English sentences into a semantic hierarchy of simplified sentences.  ...  Using a set of linguistically principled transformation patterns, input sentences are converted into a hierarchical representation in the form of core sentences and accompanying contexts that are linked  ...  Syntactic simplification and text cohesion. Research on Language and Com- putation, 4(1):77-109. Advaith Siddharthan. 2014. A survey of research on text simplification.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2105.11178v1">arXiv:2105.11178v1</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/c4feprhparfwhlr7pgptld5u54">fatcat:c4feprhparfwhlr7pgptld5u54</a> </span>
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Tutorial: Data-driven text simplification

Horacio Saggion, Sanja Štajner
<span title="2019-03-13">2019</span> <i title="Zenodo"> Zenodo </i> &nbsp;
Data-Driven Text Simplification.  ...  the context of the María de Maeztu data-driven knowledge extraction strategic research program (MDM-2015-0502). https://www.upf.edu/web/mdm-dtic/tutorial-data-driven-text-simplification In this tutorial  ...  ://ghpaetzold.github.io/LEXenstein/ Lexical Simplification • Rule-based systems: • Manual: replace A by a in certain linguistic contexts • Data-driven: learn rules from data • Use traces of edit operations  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2593328">doi:10.5281/zenodo.2593328</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/jqzdbcgskveorcml7ogqwkzuue">fatcat:jqzdbcgskveorcml7ogqwkzuue</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20201229165129/https://zenodo.org/record/2593329/files/ATS-Tutorial-UPF-Saggion_Stajner.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/5a/c7/5ac76cf60aaf95d617fa1c871a8c63ad01a061b6.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2593328"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> zenodo.org </button> </a>

Readability assessment for text simplification: From analysing documents to identifying sentential simplifications

<span title="2015-01-23">2015</span> <i title="John Benjamins Publishing Company"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/vum7rnat65ao7ndblkzvhslrrm" style="color: black;">ITL - International Journal of Applied Linguistics</a> </i> &nbsp;
While some previous research used traditional readability formulas to evaluate text simplification, there is little research into the utility of readability assessment for identifying and analyzing sentence  ...  Moving from documents to sentences, we investigate the model's ability to correctly identify the difference in reading level between a sentence and its human simplified version.  ...  Our research was funded by the LEAD Graduate School (GSC 1028, http: //purl.org/lead), a project of the Excellence Initiative of the German federal and state governments, and the European Commission's  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1075/itl.165.2.04vaj">doi:10.1075/itl.165.2.04vaj</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/lesyqt3jirca3if5klf7w6t4s4">fatcat:lesyqt3jirca3if5klf7w6t4s4</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200324122610/https://works.bepress.com/sowmya-vajjala/4/download/" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/f7/8e/f78eb5fbed17cbc83486487855904ce475cea7e9.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1075/itl.165.2.04vaj"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

Language Resources for Japanese Lexical Simplification

Tomoyuki Kajiwara, Daiki Nishihara, Tomonori Kodaira, Mamoru Komachi
<span title="2020-12-15">2020</span> <i title="Association for Natural Language Processing"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/6n227fdwdvaqplfzduydjlyxkq" style="color: black;">Journal of Natural Language Processing</a> </i> &nbsp;
This study introduces three language resources for Japanese lexical simplification: 1) an evaluation dataset, 2) lexica, and 3) a toolkit that can be used to develop and benchmark Japanese lexical simplification  ...  In addition, a Python library, which implements automatic evaluation and key methods in each subtask to ease the construction process of a lexical simplification pipeline, was developed.  ...  "Data-Driven Sentence Simplification: Survey and Benchmark." Computational Linguistics, 46 (1), pp. 135-187. Belder, J. D. and Moens, M.-F. (2010). "Text Simplification for Children."  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.5715/jnlp.27.801">doi:10.5715/jnlp.27.801</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/vrceeydjtbf7pkjv6pakktmww4">fatcat:vrceeydjtbf7pkjv6pakktmww4</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20210717192316/https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jnlp/27/4/27_801/_pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/0e/f2/0ef22479e4adc19d5a82a3f4bf8fb792e3ecd3f0.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.5715/jnlp.27.801"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

MUSS: Multilingual Unsupervised Sentence Simplification by Mining Paraphrases [article]

Louis Martin, Angela Fan, Éric de la Clergerie, Antoine Bordes, Benoît Sagot
<span title="2021-04-16">2021</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
We evaluate our approach on English, French, and Spanish simplification benchmarks and closely match or outperform the previous best supervised results, despite not using any labeled simplification data  ...  MUSS uses a novel approach to sentence simplification that trains strong models using sentence-level paraphrase data instead of proper simplification data.  ...  Related work Sentence Simplification in multiple languages Data-driven methods have been predominant approach in English Sentence Simplification in the recent years, requiring large supervised training  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2005.00352v2">arXiv:2005.00352v2</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/m2dyquni35d7fi37q3rygoyzza">fatcat:m2dyquni35d7fi37q3rygoyzza</a> </span>
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Lexical Simplification System to Improve Web Accessibility

Rodrigo Alarcon, Lourdes Moreno, Paloma Martinez
<span title="">2021</span> <i title="Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/q7qi7j4ckfac7ehf3mjbso4hne" style="color: black;">IEEE Access</a> </i> &nbsp;
Among the methodological approaches, the most recently researched ones are data-driven approaches.  ...  According to the OECD survey of adult skills [1] , nearly 19 percent of adults in Europe have poor reading skills.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/access.2021.3072697">doi:10.1109/access.2021.3072697</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/ldnql4lw2zdghokwq34tz2pdbe">fatcat:ldnql4lw2zdghokwq34tz2pdbe</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20210716200738/https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/ielx7/6287639/6514899/09400837.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/ca/1a/ca1ab2a35050a3625065de1597d12281e3e3b170.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/access.2021.3072697"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> ieee.com </button> </a>

Linguistically-Based Comparison of Different Approaches to Building Corpora for Text Simplification: A Case Study on Italian

Dominique Brunato, Felice Dell'Orletta, Giulia Venturi
<span title="2022-03-08">2022</span> <i title="Frontiers Media SA"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/5r5ojcju2repjbmmjeu5oyawti" style="color: black;">Frontiers in Psychology</a> </i> &nbsp;
For both levels of analysis, we chose to focus our discussion mostly on sentence transformations and linguistic characteristics that pertain to the morpho-syntactic and syntactic structure of the sentence  ...  The first level of comparison accounts for the main types of sentence transformations occurring in the simplification process, the second one examines the results of a linguistic profiling analysis based  ...  Specia (2017) for an up-to-date survey of methods and resources for lexical simplification.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.707630">doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2022.707630</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/35350726">pmid:35350726</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PMC8958033/">pmcid:PMC8958033</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/7iidq6myirappc3vsp4vnozwyu">fatcat:7iidq6myirappc3vsp4vnozwyu</a> </span>
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Multilayer network simplification: approaches, models and methods [article]

Roberto Interdonato, Matteo Magnani, Diego Perna, Andrea Tagarelli, Davide Vega
<span title="2020-04-30">2020</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
In this article we provide a unified and practical taxonomy of existing simplification approaches, and we identify categories of multilayer network simplification methods that are still underdeveloped,  ...  Multilayer networks have been widely used to represent and analyze systems of interconnected entities where both the entities and their connections can be of different types.  ...  Emergence for evaluation benchmarks.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2004.14808v1">arXiv:2004.14808v1</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/tqe3f2zhxrfgvnlnifkiln7kyq">fatcat:tqe3f2zhxrfgvnlnifkiln7kyq</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200502183159/https://arxiv.org/pdf/2004.14808v1.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2004.14808v1" title="arxiv.org access"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> arxiv.org </button> </a>

Simplification Of Public Administration Through Use Of Ict And Other Tools

Mirlinda Batalli
<span title="2011-03-01">2011</span> <i title="Zenodo"> Zenodo </i> &nbsp;
Mirlinda Batalli (2011) 'Simplification of public administration through use of ICT and other tools, European Journal of ePractice Abstract: Simplification of the public administration is a major concern  ...  out the administrative procedure simplification, and one-stop shops, could be considered as the main tools for the simplification of public administration. eGovernment is a key instrument for successful  ...  We conclude that Web 2.0 has arrived at a critical point in its development cycle and that, now the time of the hype is over, its true added value needs to surface or the concept and its advocates will  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1341009">doi:10.5281/zenodo.1341009</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/tjgfgkt4grfu7griktgbn5peqm">fatcat:tjgfgkt4grfu7griktgbn5peqm</a> </span>
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Business and Human Rights after Ruggie: Foundations, the Art of Simplification and the Imperative of Cumulative Progress

Radu Mares
<span title="">2012</span> <i title="Elsevier BV"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/tol7woxlqjeg5bmzadeg6qrg3e" style="color: black;">Social Science Research Network</a> </i> &nbsp;
However this simplification and streamlining has been important in securing the buy-in for the Framework from diverse stakeholders.  ...  , as NGOs and some institutional investors prefer, or more aggregated data, as the industry argues.  ... 
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<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170808091944/http://rwi.lu.se/app/uploads/2012/06/Business-and-Human-Rights-After-Ruggie.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/59/74/59740b52297e92a8c529c30633c452f2a6eb5bb1.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2389344"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> ssrn.com </button> </a>

Neural CRF Model for Sentence Alignment in Text Simplification

Chao Jiang, Mounica Maddela, Wuwei Lan, Yang Zhong, Wei Xu
<span title="">2020</span> <i title="Association for Computational Linguistics"> Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage">unpublished</span>
To evaluate and improve sentence alignment quality, we create two manually annotated sentence-aligned datasets from two commonly used text simplification corpora, Newsela and Wikipedia.  ...  The success of a text simplification system heavily depends on the quality and quantity of complex-simple sentence pairs in the training corpus, which are extracted by aligning sentences between parallel  ...  We also thank Sarah Flanagan, Bohan Zhang, Raleigh Potluri, and Alex Wing for help with data annotation.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.18653/v1/2020.acl-main.709">doi:10.18653/v1/2020.acl-main.709</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/sh3dwgk4yrcjxb3sc7bhfenk6u">fatcat:sh3dwgk4yrcjxb3sc7bhfenk6u</a> </span>
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