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Trascrizione dell'intervento del Collettivo La Boétie all'interno del ciclo di seminari La disobbedienza civile 2020-2021.doaj:049db512e5154d078b117c9fc4ffd122 fatcat:vbrarmdy3bauvd6ni3hrybleam
Understanding how glasses form, the so-called vitrification, remains a major challenge in materials science. Here, we study vitrification kinetics, in terms of the limiting fictive temperature, and atomic mobility related to the α-relaxation of an Au-based bulk metallic glass former by fast scanning calorimetry. We show that the time scale of the α-relaxation exhibits super-Arrhenius temperature dependence typical of fragile liquids. In contrast, vitrification kinetics displays milderdoi:10.1126/sciadv.aay1454 pmid:32494629 pmcid:PMC7182406 fatcat:ouotroyurfgkhezyud4npsjqfm
more »... e dependence at moderate undercooling, and thereby, vitrification takes place at temperatures lower than those associated to the α-relaxation. This finding challenges the paradigmatic view based on a one-to-one correlation between vitrification, leading to the glass transition, and the α-relaxation. We provide arguments that at moderate to deep undercooling, other atomic motions, which are not involved in the α-relaxation and that originate from the heterogeneous dynamics in metallic glasses, contribute to vitrification. Implications from the viewpoint of glasses fundamental properties are discussed.
Staub, and Augusto Gallino in Angiology ... Supplemental Material, Imaging_of_atherosclerosis_Supplemental_material_R1 for The Growing Field of Imaging of Atherosclerosis in Peripheral Arteries by Mattia Cattaneo, Rolf Wyttenbach, Roberto Corti, Daniel ...doi:10.25384/sage.6301145.v1 fatcat:nxybsxvs6zfk3f6b4zbz3i3cwy
Despite inaccuracies (Emmenegger, Gallino, and Gorgone 2014: 125-129) , they have demonstrated that voluntary servitude can be applied to any context in which there is a power relation between a group ...doi:10.24908/ss.v15i2.6021 fatcat:cmklkizbwzgktctq6owsc3yqly
Data in Brief
Gallino, P. Santini, C. Limoni et al., 2016) . & 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). ...doi:10.1016/j.dib.2016.09.041 pmid:27752526 pmcid:PMC5061064 fatcat:t774e6wzcjawbpcg62gacfstyq
Many glass-formers exhibit phase transitions between two distinct liquid states. For some metallic glass-formers, the liquid-liquid transition is experimentally found in the supercooled liquid at intermediate temperature between the melting point and the glass transition temperature Tg. We report here on a liquid-liquid transition in an ultra-viscous metallic glass-former, accessed during long-time annealing. This study is conducted on the Au49Cu26.9Si16.3Ag5.5Pd2.3 composition with aarXiv:1706.03830v1 fatcat:rgx63iomsrhqtha53fygsox4we
more »... uid transition temperature slightly lower than Tg. The consequence is that the high-temperature kinetically fragile liquid freezes into the glass during conventional processing and the underlying liquid-liquid transition is thus accessed by the system during annealing below Tg. Upon reheating, the reverse transformation is observed by calorimetry. This conclusion is supported by a broad collection of complementary laboratory and synchrotron-based techniques, such as differential- and fast- scanning calorimetry, and x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy. Our findings support the big-picture proposed by Angell that liquids with different fragility occupy different flanks of an underlying order-disorder transition. Furthermore, our multiscale analysis reveals the existence of multiple decays of the enthalpy recovery, which is reflected in the observed microscopic ordering and aging mechanism of the glass through distinct stationary regimes interconnected by abrupt dynamical aging regimes.
Our current understanding of litter variability in neurodevelopmental studies using mouse may limit translation of neuroscientific findings. Higher variance of measures across litters than within, often termed intra-litter likeness, may be attributable to pre- and postnatal environment. This study aimed to assess the litter-effect within behavioral assessments (2 timepoints), and anatomy using T1-weighted magnetic resonance images (4 timepoints) across 72 brain region volumes (36 C57bl/6Jdoi:10.1101/2022.09.09.506402 fatcat:7urd3ewhlrdzdkdneyhul2y4zq
more »... mice; 7 litters: 19F/17M). Between-litter comparisons of brain and behavioral measures and their associations were evaluated using univariate and multivariate techniques. A power analysis using simulation methods was then performed modeling neurodevelopment and evaluating trade-offs between number-of-litters, mice-per-litter, and sample size. Our results show litter-specific developmental effects, from the adolescent period to adulthood for brain structure volumes and behaviors, and their associations in adulthood. Our power simulation analysis results suggest increasing the number-of-litters in experimental design to achieve the smallest total sample size for detecting different rates of change in specific brain regions. Our results also demonstrate how litter-specific effects may influence development and that increasing the litters to the total sample size ratio should be strongly considered when designing neurodevelopmental studies.
Decidualization denotes the reprogramming of endometrial stromal cells that includes the secretion of different mediators like cytokines, chemokines and the selective recruitment of immune cells. This physiological process involves changes in the secretome of the endometrial stromal cells leading to the production of immunomodulatory factors. The increased amount of protein secretion is associated with a physiological endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the resulting unfolded protein responsedoi:10.1530/rep-19-0391 pmid:31990665 fatcat:myz4itdlb5fidcntnfapbhhfem
more »... (UPR), allowing the expansion of ER and the machinery to assist the protein folding. Notably, the signaling pathways involved in the ER stress and the UPR are interconnected with the onset of a sterile inflammatory response, as well as with angiogenesis. Both of these processes have a key role in decidualization and placentation, therefore, alterations in them could lead to pregnancy complications. In this review, we will discuss how the induction of ER stress and the UPR processes that accompanies the decidualization, is associated with embryo implantation and whether they might condition pregnancy outcome. The ER stress activates/triggers sensing proteins which, among others, induces kinase/RNAse-TXNIP expression, activating the NLRP3 inflammasome. This multiprotein system allows caspase-1 activation, which catalyzes the cleavage of the inactive IL-1β proform towards the mature secretory form, with pro-implantatory effects. However, the sterile inflammatory response should be later controlled in favour of a tolerogenic microenvironment to sustain pregnancy. In accordance, alterations of the ER stress and UPR processes can be reflected in recurrent implantation failures (RIF), recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) or complications associated with deficient placentation, such as preeclampsia (PE).
Central to the malignant behaviour that endows cancer cells with growth advantage is their unique metabolism. Cancer cells can process nutrient molecules differently from normal cells and use it to overcome stress imposed on them by various therapies. This metabolic conversion is controlled by specific genetic mutations that are associated with activation of oncogenes and loss of tumour suppressor proteins. Understanding these processes is important as it can lead to the discovery of biomarkersdoi:10.5489/cuaj.10196 pmid:21801687 pmcid:PMC3147044 fatcat:bqhyzovbtvhuhlkhvxgcefmo3a
more »... that can predict the aggressiveness of the disease and its response to therapy, and even more importantly, to the development of novel therapeutics. A classic tumour in this respect is clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In this review, we will begin with a brief summary of normal cellular bioenergetic pathways, which will be followed by a description of the characteristic metabolism of glucose and lipids in clear-cell RCC cells and its clinical implications. Data relating to the potential effect of dietary nutrients on RCC will also be reviewed along with potential therapies targeted at interrupting specific metabolic pathways in clear-cell RCC.
Central to the malignant behaviour that endows cancer cells withgrowth advantage is their unique metabolism. Cancer cells canprocess nutrient molecules differently from normal cells and useit to overcome stress imposed on them by various therapies. Thismetabolic conversion is controlled by specific genetic mutationsthat are associated with activation of oncogenes and loss of tumoursuppressor proteins. Understanding these processes is importantas it can lead to the discovery of biomarkers thatdoi:10.5489/cuaj.665 fatcat:jvzsfwamlfevfedzbqwe3bkzoi
more »... n predict theaggressiveness of the disease and its response to therapy, and evenmore importantly, to the development of novel therapeutics. A classictumour in this respect is clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Inthis review, we will begin with a brief summary of normal cellularbioenergetic pathways, which will be followed by a descriptionof the characteristic metabolism of glucose and lipids in clear-cellRCC cells and its clinical implications. Data relating to the potentialeffect of dietary nutrients on RCC will also be reviewed alongwith potential therapies targeted at interrupting specific metabolicpathways in clear-cell RCC.Le métabolisme unique des cellules cancéreuses est au coeur ducomportement malin qui leur confère un avantage sur le plan de lacroissance. Les cellules cancéreuses peuvent traiter les moléculesde nutriment différemment des cellules normales et utilisent cesmolécules pour surmonter le stress imposé par les différents traitements.La conversion métabolique est contrôlée par des mutationsgénétiques précises associées à l'activation d'oncogènes et à laperte de protéines de suppression tumorale. Il est important debien saisir ces processus, car leur élucidation peut mener à ladécouverte de biomarqueurs permettant de prédire l'agressivité dela maladie et la réponse au traitement et, fait encore plus important,elle peut mener à la mise au point de nouveaux médicaments. À cetégard, l'hypernéphrome à cellules claires représente une tumeurclassique. Dans cet article, nous commençons par résumer brièvementles voies bioénergétiques cellulaires normales, puis nouspoursuivons avec une description du métabolisme caractéristiquedu glucose et des lipides dans les cellules de l'hypernéphrome àcellules claires et ses répercussions cliniques. Les données associéesà l'effet potentiel des nutriments sur l'hypernéphrome à cellulesclaires seront aussi passées en revue, ainsi que les thérapiesciblées potentielles visant l'interruption de voies métaboliquesparticulières dans l'hypernéphrome à cellules claires.
et al. 1998 Gallino et al. , 1999 . ... The resulting pattern of AGB nucleosynthesis, and its dependence on the initial metallicity of the star, have been recently discussed by Gallino et al. (1999) . ...doi:10.1086/307571 fatcat:j4o2q5owsfbzfarzwrdvykktse
While normal kidneys are relatively sensitive to ionizing radiation (IR), renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is considered radioresistant. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9), an enzyme that maintains intracellular pH by carbon dioxide dissolution, is upregulated in the majority of RCC, but not in normal kidneys. Since regulation of intracellular pH may enhance radiation effects, we hypothesized that inhibition of CA9 may radiosensitize RCC. Clonogenic survival assay of human clear cell RCC 786-O and murinedoi:10.3892/or.2015.4184 pmid:26252502 fatcat:4mymp2vg5zbjvgpt3q256lkpay
more »... RAG cells in the presence of a pharmacological CA9 inhibitor or with shRNA-mediated knockdown of CA9 was performed to investigate the response to IR in vitro (single dose or fractionated) and in vivo. Extracellular pH changes were measured in vitro. Treatment with AEBS [4-(2-aminoethyl)benzene sulfonamide], a sulfonamide, was used as a pharmacological inhibitor of the enzymatic activity of CA9. Nude mice bearing subcutaneous xenografts of 786-O cells stably expressing CA9 shRNA or scrambled control were irradiated (6 Gy). Tumor growth was followed longitudinally in the 786-O-bearing mice receiving AEBS (50-200 µg/ml drinking water) or control (vehicle only) which were irradiated (6 Gy) and compared with mice receiving either IR or AEBS alone. In vitro inhibition of CA9 activity or expression significantly sensitized RCC cells to the effects of IR (p<0.05), an effect even more significant when hypofractionated IR was applied. In vivo irradiated xenografts from RCC cells transfected with CA9 shRNA were significantly smaller compared to irradiated xenografts from the scrambled shRNA controls (p<0.05). RCC xenografts from mice treated with AEBS in combination with IR grew significantly slower than all controls (p<0.05). Inhibition of CA9 expression or activity resulted in radiation sensitization of RCC in a preclinical mouse model.
Prenatal exposure to maternal immune activation (MIA) and chronic adolescent cannabis use are both risk factors for neuropsychiatric disorders. However, exposure to a single risk factor may not result in major mental illness, indicating that multiple exposures may be required for illness onset. Here, we examine whether combined exposure to prenatal MIA and adolescent delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive component of cannabis, lead to enduring neuroanatomical and behaviouraldoi:10.1101/2022.03.21.485178 fatcat:64s5ebkiyrfgjkmvtwc43eheea
more »... changes in adulthood. Methods: Mice were prenatally exposed to viral mimetic, poly I:C (5mg/kg), or vehicle at gestational day (GD)9, and postnatally exposed to chronic THC (5mg/kg, intraperitoneal) or vehicle during adolescence (postnatal day [PND]28-45). Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed pre-treatment, PND25, post-treatment, PND50, and in adulthood, PND85, followed by behavioural tests for anxiety-like, social, and sensorimotor gating. Post-mortem assessment of cannabinoid (CB)1 and 2 receptor expressing cells was performed in altered regions identified by MRI (anterior cingulate and somatosensory cortices, striatum, and hippocampus). Results: Subtle deviations in neurodevelopmental trajectory and subthreshold anxiety-like behaviours were observed in mice exposed to both risk factors. Sex-dependent effects were observed in patterns of shared brain-behaviour covariation, indicative of potential sex differences in response to MIA and THC. Density of CB1 and CB2 receptor positive cells was significantly decreased in all mice exposed to MIA, THC, or both. Conclusions: These findings suggest that there may be a cumulative effect of risk factor exposure on gross neuroanatomical development, and that the endocannabinoid system may be sensitive to both prenatal MIA, adolescent THC, or the combination.
Chemokine network is central to the innate and adaptive immunity and entails a variety of proteins and membrane receptors that control physiological processes such as wound healing, angiogenesis, embryo growth and development. During early pregnancy, the chemokine network coordinates not only the recruitment of different leukocyte populations to generate the maternalplacental interface, but also constitutes an additional checkpoint for tissue homeostasis maintenance. The normal switch from adoi:10.1080/19336918.2015.1135285 pmid:26891097 pmcid:PMC4853048 fatcat:jwmf7ah4pvajbjbyjza6rmx3ly
more »... -inflammatory to an anti-inflammatory predominant microenvironment characteristic of the post-implantation stage requires redundant immune tolerance circuits triggered by key master regulators. In this review we will focus on the recruitment and conditioning of maternal immune cells to the uterus at the early implantation period with special interest on high plasticity macrophages and dendritic cells and their ability to induce regulatory T cells. We will also point to putative immunomodulatory polypeptides involved in immune homeostasis maintenance at the maternal-placental interface.
Obesity is recognized as a significant risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Studies have supported that obesity accelerates AD-related pathophysiology and memory impairment in mouse models of AD. However, the nature of the brain structure-behaviour relationship mediating this acceleration remains unclear. In this manuscript we evaluated the impact of adolescent obesity on the brain morphology of the triple transgenic mouse model of AD (3xTg) and a non-transgenic control model of the samedoi:10.1016/j.nicl.2018.11.016 pmid:30503215 pmcid:PMC6413478 fatcat:gfx3tjdbxjahpoxmr23iy3ljoa
more »... ckground strain (B6129s) using longitudinally acquired structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). At 8 weeks of age, animals were placed on a high-fat diet (HFD) or an ingredient-equivalent control diet (CD). Structural images were acquired at 8, 16, and 24 weeks. At 25 weeks, animals underwent the novel object recognition (NOR) task and the Morris water maze (MWM) to assess short-term non-associative memory and spatial memory, respectively. All analyses were carried out across four groups: B6129s-CD and -HFD and 3xTg-CD and -HFD. Neuroanatomical changes in MRI-derived brain morphology were assessed using volumetric and deformation-based analyses. HFD-induced obesity during adolescence exacerbated brain volume alterations by adult life in the 3xTg mouse model in comparison to control-fed mice and mediated volumetric alterations of select brain regions, such as the hippocampus. Further, HFD-induced obesity aggravated memory in all mice, lowering certain memory measures of B6129s control mice to the level of 3xTg mice maintained on a CD. Moreover, decline in the volumetric trajectories of hippocampal regions for all mice were associated with the degree of spatial memory impairments on the MWM. Our results suggest that obesity may interact with the brain changes associated with AD-related pathology in the 3xTg mouse model to aggravate brain atrophy and memory impairments and similarly impair brain structural integrity and memory capacity of non-transgenic mice. Further insight into this process may have significant implications in the development of lifestyle interventions for treatment of AD.
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