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Cryptography for Parallel RAM from Indistinguishability Obfuscation

Yu-Chi Chen, Sherman S.M. Chow, Kai-Min Chung, Russell W.F. Lai, Wei-Kai Lin, Hong-Sheng Zhou
2016 Proceedings of the 2016 ACM Conference on Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science - ITCS '16  
If this is achieved, the blow-up in both the parallel run-time and obfuscation size can be reduced from Ω(m) to poly log(m).  ...  Assuming the existences of indistinguishability obfuscation (iO) and one-way functions (OWF), there exists (fully succinct) computation-trace indistinguishability obfuscation for PRAM computation.  ...  The computation-trace indistinguishability obfuscation for RAM has been introduced and constructed in Section 5.2.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2840728.2840769 dblp:conf/innovations/ChenCCLLZ16 fatcat:cfa7xtsypfhulof2diazknhn7m

Patchable Indistinguishability Obfuscation: $$i\mathcal {O}$$ for Evolving Software [chapter]

Prabhanjan Ananth, Abhishek Jain, Amit Sahai
2017 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
DDH, LWE.) imply single-program patchable indistinguishability obfuscation; and we show that sub-exponentially secure iO for circuits and sub-exponentially secure DDH imply multi-program patchable indistinguishability  ...  In this work, we introduce patchable indistinguishability obfuscation: our notion adapts the notion of indistinguishability obfuscation (iO) to a very general setting where obfuscated software evolves  ...  We first recall that all recent progress on achieving iO for TMs/RAMs [17, [25] [26] [27] 44] from iO for circuits has required a polynomial bound to be placed on the input length to the obfuscated Turing  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-56617-7_5 fatcat:jl267kwoq5bndl3eepdi7nx6xm

Succinct Randomized Encodings and their Applications

Nir Bitansky, Sanjam Garg, Huijia Lin, Rafael Pass, Sidharth Telang
2015 Proceedings of the Forty-Seventh Annual ACM on Symposium on Theory of Computing - STOC '15  
Existing randomized encodings, geared mostly to allow encoding with low parallel-complexity, have proven instrumental in various strong applications such as multiparty computation and parallel cryptography  ...  The scheme guarantees computational privacy of (Π, x), and is based on indistinguishability obfuscation for a relatively simple circuit class, for which there exist instantiations based on polynomial hardness  ...  We thank Daniel Wichs for discussing several aspects of [GHRW14b] . We thank Stefano Tessaro for many delightful discussions at the early stage of the project.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2746539.2746574 dblp:conf/stoc/BitanskyGLPT15 fatcat:xh456jdiz5aivdovp56tnb4ugq

Towards Efficient Software Protection Obeying Kerckhoffs's Principle using Tamper-proof Hardware

Brandon Broadnax, Matthias Huber, Bernhard Löwe, Jörn Müller-Quade, Patrik Scheidecker
2018 Proceedings of the 15th International Joint Conference on e-Business and Telecommunications  
We propose the first software protection scheme obeying Kerckhoffs's principle that is suited for practical implementation.  ...  Indistinguishability obfuscation guarantees that the obfuscated code of two programs having the same functionality are indistinguishable.  ...  Moreover, white-box cryptography provides another type of obfuscation (Joye, 2008) .  ... 
doi:10.5220/0006906107190724 dblp:conf/icete/BroadnaxHLMS18 fatcat:yfngrod7c5em5dyacimyyw62vu

Fully Succinct Garbled RAM

Ran Canetti, Justin Holmgren
2016 Proceedings of the 2016 ACM Conference on Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science - ITCS '16  
We construct the first fully succinct garbling scheme for RAM programs, assuming the existence of indistinguishability obfuscation for circuits and one-way functions.  ...  The scheme can be used to construct indistinguishability obfuscators for RAM programs with comparable efficiency, at the price of requiring sub-exponential security of the underlying primitives.  ...  Cryptography through NSF grant #CNS-1523467.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2840728.2840765 dblp:conf/innovations/CanettiH16 fatcat:lngwueuuvndengkclr7n7tsjq4

On Secure and Usable Program Obfuscation: A Survey [article]

Hui Xu, Yangfan Zhou, Yu Kang, Michael R. Lyu
2017 arXiv   pre-print
Program obfuscation is a widely employed approach for software intellectual property protection.  ...  On the other hand, the performance requirement for model-oriented obfuscation approaches is too weak to develop practical program obfuscation solutions.  ...  [18] studied the history of cryptography obfuscation, with a focus on graded encoding mechanisms. Barak [19] reviewed the importance of indistinguishability obfuscation.  ... 
arXiv:1710.01139v1 fatcat:tef5esco7rggthw2sjybnze4dy

Cryptography with Updates [chapter]

Prabhanjan Ananth, Aloni Cohen, Abhishek Jain
2017 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
obfuscation, and many others that support non-interactive computation over inputs.  ...  In this work, we continue this line of research, and perform a systematic study of updatable cryptography.  ...  However, their work crucially use a strong notion of succinct garbled RAMs whose existence is known only from indistinguishability obfuscation.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-56614-6_15 fatcat:f3pvl6abnjajpjrh75gwochfba

Implementing Conjunction Obfuscation Under Entropic Ring LWE

David Bruce Cousins, Giovanni Di Crescenzo, Kamil Doruk Gur, Kevin King, Yuriy Polyakov, Kurt Rohloff, Gerard W. Ryan, Erkay Savas
2018 2018 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP)  
satisfy Indistinguishability Obfuscation (IO), a weaker security model.  ...  Our design and implementation advances are applicable to obfuscating more general compute-and-compare programs and can also be used for many cryptographic schemes based on lattice trapdoors. 354 2018 IEEE  ...  [15] define a weaker security notion of Indistinguishability Obfuscation (IO) for general-purpose program obfuscation.  ... 
doi:10.1109/sp.2018.00007 dblp:conf/sp/CousinsCGKPRRS18 fatcat:tokd33t7xnbbvp2jwooksxrqce

Bad Directions in Cryptographic Hash Functions [chapter]

Daniel J. Bernstein, Andreas Hülsing, Tanja Lange, Ruben Niederhagen
2015 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
A 25-gigabyte "point obfuscation" challenge "using security parameter 60" was announced at the Crypto 2014 rump session; "point obfuscation" is another name for password hashing.  ...  The security goal for Obf is to be an "indistinguishability obfuscator": this means that Obf(A) is indistinguishable from Obf(A ) if A and A are fast algorithms computing the same function.  ...  On a single machine (no MPI parallelization), after a reboot to flush the challenge from RAM, the timing breaks down as follows: Further speedups In this section we briefly discuss two ideas for further  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-19962-7_28 fatcat:zcyjlrgnmzbgdbh3mme7qum4nm


Kevin Lewi, Mariana Raykova, Alex J. Malozemoff, Daniel Apon, Brent Carmer, Adam Foltzer, Daniel Wagner, David W. Archer, Dan Boneh, Jonathan Katz
2016 Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security - CCS'16  
Roughly speaking, an obfuscator takes as input a program and 1 The name 5Gen comes from the fact that multilinear maps can be considered the "fifth generation" of cryptography, where the prior four are  ...  Secure multilinear maps (mmaps) have been shown to have remarkable applications in cryptography, such as multi-input functional encryption (MIFE) and program obfuscation.  ...  time; "eval" denotes the evaluation time; "|obf|" denotes the obfuscation size; and "RAM" denotes the RAM required to obfuscate (evaluation RAM usage never exceeded 1 GB).  ... 
doi:10.1145/2976749.2978314 dblp:conf/ccs/LewiMACFWABK016 fatcat:q424asoc7be47msxbdwoojqkre

Delegating RAM Computations with Adaptive Soundness and Privacy [chapter]

Prabhanjan Ananth, Yu-Chi Chen, Kai-Min Chung, Huijia Lin, Wei-Kai Lin
2016 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Our scheme assumes the existence of indistinguishability obfuscation (iO) for circuits and the decisional Diffie-Hellman (DDH) assumption.  ...  Because of the general approach, we can also easily extend to delegating parallel RAM (PRAM) computations.  ...  Acknowledgements We thank Yael Kalai for insightful discussions in the early stages of this project. This work was done in part while the authors were visiting the Simons Institute for the Theory  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-662-53644-5_1 fatcat:gvzzqfmvz5aflgnh3rhbrwd644

SoK of Used Cryptography in Blockchain [article]

Mayank Raikwar, Danilo Gligoroski, Katina Kralevska
2019 arXiv   pre-print
The underlying fundaments of blockchain are cryptography and cryptographic concepts that provide reliable and secure decentralized solutions.  ...  Along these lines, a weaker solution is to find an "Indistinguishability Obfuscation" so that one cannot determine whether the generated output is from the original program or the obfuscated program.  ...  To safely store the key, it can be obfuscated in white-box cryptography and further used for encryption/decryption.  ... 
arXiv:1906.08609v3 fatcat:l62esrum3bhmfcdxzpx3h3he4e

Security in Approximate Computing and Approximate Computing for Security: Challenges and Opportunities

Weiqiang Liu, Chongyan Gu, Maire O'Neill, Gang Qu, Paolo Montuschi, Fabrizio Lombardi
2020 Proceedings of the IEEE  
required for the logic obfuscation circuit.  ...  A scaled STT-RAM [110] has also been proposed for approximate computing to reduce power consumption and area usage.  ... 
doi:10.1109/jproc.2020.3030121 fatcat:vgxrxqkoibhgflrwq6rrfz7ofm

Implementing BP-Obfuscation Using Graph-Induced Encoding

Shai Halevi, Tzipora Halevi, Victor Shoup, Noah Stephens-Davidowitz
2017 Proceedings of the 2017 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security - CCS '17  
We expect that these optimizations will find other uses in lattice-based cryptography beyond just obfuscation.  ...  In out most demanding setting, we were able to obfuscate programs with input length of 20 nibbles (80 bits) and over 100 states, which seems out of reach for prior implementations.  ...  Our goal is to get "meaningful obfuscation," which is usually defined as achieving indistinguishability obfuscation (iO).  ... 
doi:10.1145/3133956.3133976 dblp:conf/ccs/HaleviHSS17 fatcat:jity63zaj5hxzgiyecobtwze7u

Security Issues in Querying Encrypted Data [chapter]

Murat Kantarcıoǧlu, Chris Clifton
2005 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
This paper shows how results from cryptography prove the impossibility of developing a server that meets cryptographicstyle definitions of security and is still efficient enough to be practical.  ...  Background and Definitions from Cryptography The cryptography community has developed solid and well-regarded definitions for securely encrypting a message.  ...  Fortunately, the cryptography community has a method for extending many ciphers providing message indistinguishability to provide multi-message indistinguishability.  ... 
doi:10.1007/11535706_24 fatcat:xhocp337zzc5bnqlzgenkovlvu
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