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Towards Provable Security of the Unbalanced Oil and Vinegar Signature Scheme under Direct Attacks [chapter]

Stanislav Bulygin, Albrecht Petzoldt, Johannes Buchmann
<span title="">2010</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
In this paper we show that solving systems coming from the public key of the Unbalanced Oil and Vinegar (UOV) signature scheme is on average at least as hard as solving a certain quadratic system with  ...  In providing lower bounds on direct attack complexity we rely on the empirical fact that complexity of solving a non-linear polynomial system is determined by the homogeneous part of this system of the  ...  → its cryptanalysis [20] → HFE [21] → cryptanalysis of HFE challenge 1 [13] or a less known sequence MFE cryptosystem [26] → its SOLE cryptanalysis [8] → improved MFE [25] → cryptanalysis  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-17401-8_3">doi:10.1007/978-3-642-17401-8_3</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/47zrvxvj2festfjm7xq4f7izue">fatcat:47zrvxvj2festfjm7xq4f7izue</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20120508195043/http://eprint.iacr.org/2010/420.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/a0/c1/a0c165879744fcbbb76755698507bb4d851dd9fe.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-17401-8_3"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> springer.com </button> </a>

Circulant UOV: a new UOV variant with shorter private key and faster signature generation

<span title="2018-03-31">2018</span> <i title="Korean Society for Internet Information (KSII)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/hupfbobgkvepdnt5g32qxkypsy" style="color: black;">KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems</a> </i> &nbsp;
In this paper, we propose a new secure UOV variant (Circulant UOV) with shorter private key and higher signing efficiency.  ...  We estimate that the private key size of Circulant UOV is smaller by about 45% than that of the regular UOV and its signing speed is more than 14 times faster than that of the regular UOV.  ...  A NEW SECURE UOV VARIANT In this section, we propose a new variant of UOV, called Circulant UOV. Although its name is similar to Cyclic UOV, the basic ideas are quite different.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3837/tiis.2018.03.022">doi:10.3837/tiis.2018.03.022</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/2cxslubqb5c6jhtthhvae4jv4e">fatcat:2cxslubqb5c6jhtthhvae4jv4e</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20220224004225/http://itiis.org/digital-library/manuscript/file/21719/TIISVol12No3-22.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/06/c3/06c391eac72d3b3c0b3f218ebb5610f4efadea10.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3837/tiis.2018.03.022"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

Quo Vadis Quaternion? Cryptanalysis of Rainbow over Non-commutative Rings [chapter]

Enrico Thomae
<span title="">2012</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
Recently a new variant based on non-commutative rings, called NC-Rainbow, was introduced at CT-RSA 2012 to further minimize the secret key size.  ...  proposed instantiation over the ring of Quaternions.  ...  Acknowledgments The author wants to thank the anonymous reviewers of SCN 2012 for their helpful remarks and suggestions.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-32928-9_20">doi:10.1007/978-3-642-32928-9_20</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/3i2yjinpobdvzp7yjehcxrmlxi">fatcat:3i2yjinpobdvzp7yjehcxrmlxi</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20130623195555/http://eprint.iacr.org/2012/270.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/0c/cc/0cccc4cd18a066e7d2d4f4372c293f7fbbb04d99.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-32928-9_20"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> springer.com </button> </a>

A "Medium-Field" Multivariate Public-Key Encryption Scheme [chapter]

Lih-Chung Wang, Bo-Yin Yang, Yuh-Hua Hu, Feipei Lai
<span title="">2006</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
But they are relatively slow and will be obsoleted by the arrival of QC (Quantum Computers).  ...  We discuss how MFE avoids previously known pitfalls of this genre while addressing its security concerns.  ...  This genre of schemes are burdened by its slow private map. UOV: Unbalanced-Oil-and-Vinegar by Kipnis et al [KPG99], a modication of the earlier and broken [KS98] Oil-and-Vinegar.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/11605805_9">doi:10.1007/11605805_9</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/fxts6ou3vzhnbfel5xiscey4ym">fatcat:fxts6ou3vzhnbfel5xiscey4ym</a> </span>
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HS-Sign: A Security Enhanced UOV Signature Scheme Based on Hyper-Sphere

<span title="2017-06-30">2017</span> <i title="Korean Society for Internet Information (KSII)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/hupfbobgkvepdnt5g32qxkypsy" style="color: black;">KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems</a> </i> &nbsp;
In this paper, we address two problems that are to find inversion solution of quadratic multivariate equations and find another structure with some random Oil-Oil terms for UOV, then propose a novel signature  ...  The results show that HS-Sign has exponential attack complexity and HS-Sign is competitive with other signature schemes in terms of the length of the message, length of the signature, size of the public  ...  UOV Signature Scheme The idea of the Oil and Vinegar trapdoor was first proposed by J. Patarin and comes from his cryptanalysis of the Matsumoto-Imai scheme [9] .  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3837/tiis.2017.06.020">doi:10.3837/tiis.2017.06.020</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/64h7gjz2jzgwjcwd7fyp6aq2am">fatcat:64h7gjz2jzgwjcwd7fyp6aq2am</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20220309213326/http://itiis.org/digital-library/manuscript/file/21485/TIISVol11No6-20.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/67/41/6741499881e1f6a00963172ea023fbfa54722da7.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3837/tiis.2017.06.020"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

Probabilistic Multivariate Cryptography [chapter]

Aline Gouget, Jacques Patarin
<span title="">2006</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
, where α is a fixed parameter of the scheme.  ...  In this paper, we study the idea of probabilistic multivariate cryptography, i.e., a signature or an authentication value is valid when at least α equations of the m equations of the public key are satisfied  ...  D Variants of the scheme C * + LL First variant: C * + LL + L L .  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/11958239_1">doi:10.1007/11958239_1</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/drtoo6qdjbb4ncciear2asjjl4">fatcat:drtoo6qdjbb4ncciear2asjjl4</a> </span>
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HFERP - A New Multivariate Encryption Scheme [chapter]

Yasuhiko Ikematsu, Ray Perlner, Daniel Smith-Tone, Tsuyoshi Takagi, Jeremy Vates
<span title="">2018</span> <i title="Springer International Publishing"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
The effect of this substitution is to increase the Q-rank of the pubic key to such a degree that the MinRank attack is impossible.  ...  We propose a related new encryption scheme retaining the desirable traits of SRP and patching its weaknesses.  ...  Base-Field Rank and Invariant Attacks Variants of several attacks applicable to other versions of the Rainbow cryptosystem are applicable to HFERP.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-79063-3_19">doi:10.1007/978-3-319-79063-3_19</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/k4dnsr6vsbc7bofbifkttr3npm">fatcat:k4dnsr6vsbc7bofbifkttr3npm</a> </span>
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Small Public Keys and Fast Verification for $\mathcal{M}$ ultivariate $\mathcal{Q}$ uadratic Public Key Systems [chapter]

Albrecht Petzoldt, Enrico Thomae, Stanislav Bulygin, Christopher Wolf
<span title="">2011</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
We do so by combining the previously unrelated concepts of reduced and equivalent keys. Our new scheme is based on the so-called Unbalanced Oil and Vinegar class of MQ-schemes.  ...  Security of public key schemes in a post-quantum world is a challenging task-as both RSA and ECC will be broken then.  ...  We thank Ishtiaq Shah for doing the implementation of our scheme. Furthermore we want to thank our financial supporters.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-23951-9_31">doi:10.1007/978-3-642-23951-9_31</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/jrr5mzsnrvfg5kig7jbxdmx5tm">fatcat:jrr5mzsnrvfg5kig7jbxdmx5tm</a> </span>
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Field Lifting for Smaller UOV Public Keys [chapter]

Ward Beullens, Bart Preneel
<span title="">2017</span> <i title="Springer International Publishing"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
In this paper we introduce a modification of the Unbalanced Oil and Vinegar (UOV) signature scheme that has public keys which are an order of magnitude smaller than other MQ signature schemes.  ...  The resulting Lifted UOV signature scheme is very competitive with other post-quantum signature schemes in terms of key sizes, signature sizes and speed.  ...  With the right parameter choices UOV has withstood all cryptanalysis since 1997 and it is one of the best studied and most promising MQ signature schemes.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-71667-1_12">doi:10.1007/978-3-319-71667-1_12</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/4cu3ndc6x5dvvb5jcpkvponi24">fatcat:4cu3ndc6x5dvvb5jcpkvponi24</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20180722231325/https://www.esat.kuleuven.be/cosic/publications/article-2840.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/c5/1c/c51c86174b2d611ed41acd4ece97514432fd2b27.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-71667-1_12"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> springer.com </button> </a>

Solving Underdetermined Systems of Multivariate Quadratic Equations Revisited [chapter]

Enrico Thomae, Christopher Wolf
<span title="">2012</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
Solving systems of m Multivariate Quadratic (MQ) equations in n variables is one of the main challenges of algebraic cryptanalysis.  ...  Namely, we show how a linear change of variables can be used to reduce the overall complexity of solving a MQsystem with m equations and n = ωm variables for some ω ∈ Q >1 to the complexity of solving  ...  This transformation was previously used to determine short key variants of UOV [18] .  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-30057-8_10">doi:10.1007/978-3-642-30057-8_10</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/j5itvt4yjzc2rcb7iclhqabup4">fatcat:j5itvt4yjzc2rcb7iclhqabup4</a> </span>
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MI-T-HFE, A New Multivariate Signature Scheme [chapter]

Wenbin Zhang, Chik How Tan
<span title="">2015</span> <i title="Springer International Publishing"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
First of all, the core map and the public map of MI-T-HFE are both surjective.  ...  A practical parameter set is proposed for MI-T-HFE with the same length of message and same level of security as QUARTZ, but it has smaller public key size, and is more efficient than (the underlying HFEv-of  ...  The first author would like to thank the financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61572189).  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-27239-9_3">doi:10.1007/978-3-319-27239-9_3</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/wdzxjpv6azcmlgja6bmdb46iha">fatcat:wdzxjpv6azcmlgja6bmdb46iha</a> </span>
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A Variant of the F4 Algorithm [chapter]

Antoine Joux, Vanessa Vitse
<span title="">2011</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
Algebraic cryptanalysis usually requires to find solutions of several similar polynomial systems.  ...  In this paper, we present a new variant of the F4 algorithm which is well suited to algebraic attacks of cryptosystems since it is designed to compute Gröbner bases of a set of polynomial systems having  ...  We then show how it fits into the hybrid approach of [3] and consider the example of the cryptanalysis of the UOV signature scheme [21] .  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-19074-2_23">doi:10.1007/978-3-642-19074-2_23</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/liaebpfiezaxxnqbw2drpcn3eu">fatcat:liaebpfiezaxxnqbw2drpcn3eu</a> </span>
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A new perturbation algorithm and enhancing security of SFLASH signature scheme

HouZhen Wang, HuanGuo Zhang, HaiMing Guan, HaiQing Han
<span title="2010-02-05">2010</span> <i title="Springer Nature"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/ikvx2lmj7rew7jpw4lygqgjpby" style="color: black;">Science China Information Sciences</a> </i> &nbsp;
cryptanalysis without lowering the efficiency of the original algorithm.  ...  It was broken with the differential cryptanalysis by Dubois et al. in 2007.  ...  Hence, we are able to identify several classes: MI [9] , HFE [10] , UOV [11] , TTS [12] and so on. Cryptanalysis of MQ-schemes Several major methods have been developed to attack the MPKCs.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-010-0025-9">doi:10.1007/s11432-010-0025-9</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/xfuueytjpnbznhszlhau2vpo6i">fatcat:xfuueytjpnbznhszlhau2vpo6i</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200509220248/http://engine.scichina.com/doi/pdf/a1708a728e264b569dcef0af65243fee" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/aa/81/aa81fe3dfb46c145675b0f4ce32e0996a7cb8832.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-010-0025-9"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> springer.com </button> </a>

Building Secure Tame-like Multivariate Public-Key Cryptosystems: The New TTS [chapter]

Bo-Yin Yang, Jiun-Ming Chen
<span title="">2005</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
Multivariate public-key cryptosystems (sometimes polynomial-based PKC's or just multivariates) handle polynomials of many variables over relatively small fields instead of elements of a large ring or group  ...  We explain how they differ from the "big-field" type of multivariates, represented by derivatives of C * and HFE, how they are better, and give basic security criteria for them.  ...  In this and certain other cases, we could make cryptanalysis using the UOV attack a little simpler, as below: Proposition 3 (Unbalanced Oil-and-Vinegar with Guessing).  ... 
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<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170809032223/http://precision.moscito.org/by-publ/recent/tts4.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/b0/de/b0de79a327c595a994a8bf68848283650238bff6.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/11506157_43"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> springer.com </button> </a>

Total Break of the SRP Encryption Scheme [chapter]

Ray Perlner, Albrecht Petzoldt, Daniel Smith-Tone
<span title="2017-12-23">2017</span> <i title="Springer International Publishing"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
Multivariate Public Key Cryptography (MPKC) is one of the main candidates for secure communication in a post-quantum era.  ...  Our attack shows that combining a weak scheme with a secure one does not automatically increase the security of the weak scheme.  ...  In this paper, we restrict to variants of SRP in which the Rainbow part is replaced by UOV [4] . Note that the parameter sets proposed in [7] are of this type.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-72565-9_18">doi:10.1007/978-3-319-72565-9_18</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/lzbfk3zkgfgdbnwinhpcy2bx7y">fatcat:lzbfk3zkgfgdbnwinhpcy2bx7y</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20190217110615/http://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/050f/c912bcbebffa57a4abf99d37741a56bfc8e0.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/05/0f/050fc912bcbebffa57a4abf99d37741a56bfc8e0.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-72565-9_18"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> springer.com </button> </a>
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