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In each forest, we conducted paired point counts to investigate the differences between the avian community close (50 m) and far (120 m) from trails, while accounting for possible habitat differences, ... We found that in the disturbed (i.e., high-recreation-level forests) the density of birds and species richness were both reduced at points close to trails when compared to points further away (−13 and ... (A) and species (B) between paired point-counts close to and far from trails in forests with low or high levels of recreation. ...doi:10.3389/fevo.2018.00175 fatcat:qjse74esf5ba5bwthxv7xaj5mi
In each forest, we conducted paired point counts to investigate the differences between the avian community close (50 m) and far (120 m) from trails, while accounting for possible habitat differences, ... We found that in the disturbed (i.e., high-recreation-level forests) the density of birds and species richness were both reduced at points close to trails when compared to points further away (−13 and ... (A) and species (B) between paired point-counts close to and far from trails in forests with low or high levels of recreation. ...doi:10.5281/zenodo.5376964 fatcat:p7rll55ksbhypptsoxbuy5s7da
The built environment is important for active living, and recreational trails provide safe and pleasant settings for this purpose. ... We describe the impact of transforming a recreational trail into a loop on usage by cyclists and pedestrians and users' physical activity levels. ... The establishment of a separated cycleway in a densely urban area in Australia also led to increased bike counts in the area and in self-reported cycling frequency in a cohort of residents living close ...doi:10.1186/s12966-019-0815-4 pmid:31307471 pmcid:PMC6631862 fatcat:c2ua6mcvtnc4rikhoqqhmrwaia
Robotics researchers have studied robots that can follow trails laid by other robots. We, on the other hand, study robots that leave trails in the terrain to cover closed terrain repeatedly. ... We show that the coverage behavior of our ant robots can be modeled with a modified version of node counting, a real-time search method. ... In addition, we also demonstrate that Pebbles covers closed terrain robustly even if its trails are of uneven quality. ...doi:10.1023/b:auro.0000025793.46961.f6 fatcat:u2hxsik6qbfpjiqxmq7aftm27a
The Journal of Animal Ecology
First, five 1 min counts of termites leaving and returning on active trails were made for each colony. ... On 16 January 1983 a fight between two N. nigriceps colonies was discovered in progress in a region of mixed red and white mangrove close to our study site. ...
All these principles were mandated as requirements, designed into, and successfully operated as features of, eVACS®, the electronic voting and counting system used since 2001 by the Australian Capital ... eVACS® achieves these requirements is described in this paper, with particular emphasis being given to security and transparency and the approaches adopted to ensure verifiability via electronic audit trails ... The demonstrable accuracy of electronic voting and counting avoids the unnecessary recounts when election results are close. ...dblp:conf/ev/Boughton06 fatcat:kphzf62lfvefvdl4zaws3hkkei
Two of 18 species studied were less abundant at sites on trails than at sites 250 m from trails, and no species were more abundant on trails. ... We found evidence of greater nest desertion and abandonment and reduced predation on shrub nests ,100 m from OHV trails than at nests .100 m from OHV trails. ... Conversely, all 5 desertion events observed were very close (,21 m) to trails and abandonment rate was 4 times higher close to trails (Table 1) . ...doi:10.2193/2006-026 fatcat:2jiiwr2e7reh5a6qxgeay7l5wu
Closely linked with the territory pattern in wood-ants is the pattern of trail formation. ... Aggression between close nests is shown. Estimated territory sizes range from 272 m? to 1616 m?. (4) The relevance of territory and trail patterns to intraspecific competition is dis- cussed. ...doi:10.2307/4253 fatcat:l5bw7lgnxvfn5hc2dht67ykaqa
ID® Scaevola shrubs is The attractive to seals TRAILS shade of see Fig. 4). ... These are visible from the air and during aerial counting help to locate seals lying partially Fig. 5). ...
Values for the maxima are 45 trails per km and 5 m mean trail width for the 70 20 km long anomaly, and 115 trails per km with 5.3 m mean trail width for the 116 km long 21 anomaly, above background values ... If combined with published data from Cerberus 23 Fossae with a ~207 km long anomaly in boulder trails per km (125 trails per km maxima) 24 and maximum mean boulder trail width (8.5 m maximum trail width ... Further east the number of counts decreases, 293 dropping to 2 counts per km at E163.63° close to the lateral termination of Boulder Trail 294 boulder trail counts per km, there are maxima in boulder ...doi:10.1029/2018je005622 fatcat:xdfiptkrsfeinhhstrlorfy5tq
In counting the change of from (F) to (F ), we actually count the change in the count of blue curves and the change in the count of alternating circuits. ... Note that F(T ), the formation induced by T and the two blue loops, must have total loop count of ÿve (two blues, one red trail, two alternating loops). ...doi:10.1016/s0012-365x(00)00207-7 fatcat:6ktwlrpa6vfq7fs4dkrotzxrim
In our paper, we demonstrate methods to describe recreational demand by collecting data from interviews and using camera traps in two forests in the north of Munich for visitor counting. ... The most used section of the "Forest Adventure Trail" is close to the city and a beer-garden next to the trail. At the "World Forest", the highest use is close to the first parking lot from the city. ... The most used section of the "Forest Adventure Trail" is close to the city and a beer-garden next to the trail. At the "World Forest", the highest use is close to the first parking lot from the city. ...doi:10.3390/su8111156 fatcat:62zgadfe7natxpkllwywwbnqkm
Each trail count represents 1 person breaking the infrared beam of the trail counter. ... Methods: The dependent variable of this study was trail use measured as mean hourly trail counts by an infrared trail counter located on a greenway. ... Covariates in this model included time of day, day of the week, and month of the year to more closely examine the relation of trail counts and the weather-related measures. ...doi:10.1123/jpah.9.2.188 fatcat:mfpyevggrfdntmfm36zaan3uga
when it was closed. ... We examined the impact of an urban trail created on a frozen waterway on visitor counts and PA levels. ... Acknowledgments: We are grateful to the team that maintains and manages the trail work and Red River Mutual Trail at the Forks for making these trails available to the public and contributing to the study ...doi:10.3390/ijerph16193627 pmid:31569652 pmcid:PMC6801820 fatcat:26ldzincundfpc26legkxfvhaa
Estimates of percentage reduction achieved by conventional trapping on the two sites were derived from two indices, proportional bait take and spotlight counts, using index-manipulationindex measures of ... Proportional bait take indicated reductions in pig abundance of 100% in 16 nights and 93% in 14 nights for the two sites from conventional trapping, while spotlight counts estimated reductions of 81% and ... Post-trapping spotlight counts located both boars and sows close to unconsumed bait trails, indicating that sex-related differences in bait acceptance rather than differing ability to find bait trails ...doi:10.1071/wr9930015 fatcat:x5ehmbrwpffxfnfwailfpnrwle
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