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Counterfactual Explanations Can Be Manipulated [article]

Dylan Slack and Sophie Hilgard and Himabindu Lakkaraju and Sameer Singh
2021 arXiv   pre-print
In this work, we introduce the first framework that describes the vulnerabilities of counterfactual explanations and shows how they can be manipulated.  ...  These results raise concerns regarding the dependability of current counterfactual explanation techniques, which we hope will inspire investigations in robust counterfactual explanations.  ...  , and if fairness assessments based on counterfactuals can be trusted  ... 
arXiv:2106.02666v2 fatcat:twqf4amos5bo5p2npmft4z2pvi

Feature Attributions and Counterfactual Explanations Can Be Manipulated [article]

Dylan Slack, Sophie Hilgard, Sameer Singh, Himabindu Lakkaraju
2021 arXiv   pre-print
We evaluate the manipulations on real world data sets, including COMPAS and Communities & Crime, and find explanations can be manipulated in practice.  ...  We demonstrate how adversaries can design biased models that manipulate model agnostic feature attribution methods (e.g., LIME & SHAP) and counterfactual explanations that hill-climb during the counterfactual  ...  Manipulating Explanations Overview We consider a general problem setting in which explanations may be manipulated by adversaries.  ... 
arXiv:2106.12563v2 fatcat:6eidicjv2vaxdb6f6vftjscp64

Qualifying counterfactuals: Students' use of counterfactuals for evaluating historical explanations

Joakim Wendell
2020 International Journal of Historical Learning, Teaching and Research  
possible criteria for what can be considered a qualified counterfactual.  ...  The criteria for qualification of counterfactuals are based on theoretical proposals about the potential of counterfactuals in relation to historical explanation.  ...  Lilliestam (2013) points out that counterfactual manipulation can be done either on structural factors or on historical actors.  ... 
doi:10.18546/herj.17.1.05 fatcat:2fhddd3ubffkvn5oanly6nbhoi

Reassessing Woodward's Account of Explanation: Regularities, Counterfactuals, and Noncausal Explanations

Juha Saatsi, Mark Pexton
2013 Philosophy of Science  
We argue, by using an explanation of Kleiber's law to illustrate, that the account can cover also some non-causal explanations.  ...  We reassess Woodward's counterfactual account of explanation in relation to regularity explananda. Woodward (2005) presents an account of causal explanation.  ...  If we accept that some non-causal explanations can be subsumed under Woodward's counterfactual account, there's work to be done.  ... 
doi:10.1086/673899 fatcat:rwccdtktcjavddotyebcqpfdu4

A Survey on the Robustness of Feature Importance and Counterfactual Explanations [article]

Saumitra Mishra, Sanghamitra Dutta, Jason Long, Daniele Magazzeni
2021 arXiv   pre-print
In this work, we present a survey of the works that analysed the robustness of two classes of local explanations (feature importance and counterfactual explanations) that are popularly used in analysing  ...  Arguably, the most popular among them are local explanations that focus on investigating model behaviour for individual instances.  ...  Moreover, most of the approaches focused on learning an adversarial model with predictive performance similar to the original one, but that can be used to generate manipulated explanations.  ... 
arXiv:2111.00358v1 fatcat:kqfkxrpqybcs5geu62mueyjxoi

Manipulation is key: on why non-mechanistic explanations in the cognitive sciences also describe relations of manipulation and control

Lotem Elber-Dorozko
2018 Synthese  
In this way, non-causal counterfactual dependences, too, can be 64 taken as explanatory (Baron et al.  ...  In this 16 paper, I draw from both views and suggest that, in the cognitive sciences, relations of counterfactual 17 dependence that allow manipulation and control can be explanatory even when they are  ...  Future work should discuss other counterfactual dependence relations and how they can be identified.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11229-018-01901-3 fatcat:zch24ejzufbyhjed4s47n6tfcm

A Defence of Manipulationist Noncausal Explanation: The Case for Intervention Liberalism

Nicholas Emmerson
2021 Erkenntnis: An International Journal of Scientific Philosophy  
In this paper, we mount the first sustained defence of the idea that there are distinctively noncausal explanations which can be characterized in terms of possible interventions; and thus, argue that I-puritanism  ...  AbstractRecent years have seen growing interest in modifying interventionist accounts of causal explanation in order to characterise noncausal explanation.  ...  In summarizing the interventionist mantra, he suggests that any successful explanation ought to be accompanied by 'a hypothetical or counterfactual experiment that shows us that and how manipulation of  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10670-021-00497-4 fatcat:wzyy4u3v7nhenho34x5jigif6q

Causal explanation beyond the gene: manipulation and causality in epigenetics

Jan Baedke
2012 THEORIA : an International Journal for Theory, History and Fundations of Science  
This paper deals with the interrelationship between causal explanation and methodology in a relatively young discipline in biology: epigenetics.  ...  It can act as a guiding rationale (i) to link causal models in molecular biology with statistical models derived from observational data analysis and (ii) to identify test-criteria for reciprocal transparent  ...  up by 'context information' that tells us in which observational studies (iv) the interventionist rationale should be chosen over non-manipulative, non-counterfactual ways of causal explanation.  ... 
doi:10.1387/theoria.4073 fatcat:xn4adasfuzgrznxhwz3r753jhe

Designing Counterfactual Generators using Deep Model Inversion [article]

Jayaraman J. Thiagarajan, Vivek Narayanaswamy, Deepta Rajan, Jason Liang, Akshay Chaudhari, Andreas Spanias
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Commonly referred to as counterfactuals, the synthesized explanations are required to contain discernible changes (for easy interpretability) while also being realistic (consistency to the data manifold  ...  While the problem of inverting deep models to synthesize images from the training distribution has been explored, our goal is to develop a deep inversion approach to generate counterfactual explanations  ...  In its simplest form, for a given query x, a counterfactual explanation can be obtained as follows: arg min x d(x, x) s.t.  ... 
arXiv:2109.14274v2 fatcat:gdcwrxjg4vgtdic4ai5jjkcnxi

The Use and Misuse of Counterfactuals in Ethical Machine Learning

Atoosa Kasirzadeh, Andrew Smart
2021 Proceedings of the 2021 ACM Conference on Fairness, Accountability, and Transparency  
Accordingly, we argue that even though counterfactuals play an essential part in some causal inferences, their use for questions of algorithmic fairness and social explanations can create more problems  ...  This paper argues for more caution with the use of counterfactuals when the facts to be considered are social categories such as race or gender.  ...  A counterfactual explanation for this denial can be: If Nora's annual income had been $60,000, she would have received the loan.  ... 
doi:10.1145/3442188.3445886 fatcat:cicvc4wskvacldiw5dmwqsmitm

Long Ago It Was Meant to Be: The Interplay Between Time, Construal, and Fate Beliefs

Jeremy Burrus, Neal J. Roese
2006 Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin  
To reiterate, Fate seems to be unique because parallel ratings of counterfactuals and luck were unaffected by the temporal distance manipulation of Experiment 2.  ...  ., counterfactual beliefs) . Two experiments revealed that construal level accounts for the relative plausibility of fate versus counterfactual explanations.  ... 
doi:10.1177/0146167206288282 pmid:16861309 pmcid:PMC2293331 fatcat:ckj322v6yrb6xj3k2tbxqmkw2a

To justify or excuse?: A meta-analytic review of the effects of explanations

John C. Shaw, Eric Wild, Jason A. Colquitt
2003 Journal of Applied Psychology  
Cropanzano's (1998 fairness theory to derive predictions about the effects of explanation provision and explanation adequacy on justice judgments and cooperation, retaliation, and withdrawal responses.  ...  The results showed strong effects of explanations on both the justice and response variables.  ...  The studies that manipulated outcome favorability can provide insights into this question.  ... 
doi:10.1037/0021-9010.88.3.444 pmid:12814294 fatcat:vrqulxfppjachcykrnlgds237q

Model extraction from counterfactual explanations [article]

Ulrich Aïvodji, Alexandre Bolot, Sébastien Gambs
2020 arXiv   pre-print
Post-hoc explanation techniques refer to a posteriori methods that can be used to explain how black-box machine learning models produce their outcomes.  ...  In this work, we demonstrate how an adversary can leverage the information provided by counterfactual explanations to build high-fidelity and high-accuracy model extraction attacks.  ...  As shown by previous works on fairwashing [38] , [39] , [46] , post-hoc explanations techniques are vulnerable to explanation manipulations since they can be unfaithful to the black-box model they are  ... 
arXiv:2009.01884v1 fatcat:ye6iigbigfhm3k6mw66lzwfiwq

Review of Woodward, Making Things Happen

MICHAEL STREVENS
2007 Philosophy and Phenomenological Research  
Despite the terminological overlap, causal manipulationism and explanatory manipulationism turn out to be distinct and quite independent views.  ...  A causal account of scientific explanation requires a dual foundation: a theory of causality, and a theory of what causal facts are put together in what way to create explanations of events, regularities  ...  What is characteristic of manipulationism is the doctrine that the facts about causation metaphysically depend in part on the facts about what can be manipulated by what.  ... 
doi:10.1111/j.1933-1592.2007.00012.x fatcat:oo5hilxfanew3iqumjmakshowi

VARIETIES OF DIFFERENCE-MAKERS: CONSIDERATIONS ON CHIRIMUUTA'S APPROACH TO NON-CAUSAL EXPLANATION IN NEUROSCIENCE

Abel Wajnerman Paz
2019 Manuscrito  
Chirimuuta claims that this idea can be also used to understand non-causal explanation in computational neuroscien ce.  ...  Although these prin ciples cannot be causally altered, efficient coding models can be used to show how would the phenomenon change if the prin ciples were modified in counterpossible situations.  ...  This idea can be applied to efficient coding explanations. The mathematical principles that relate a set of strategies to design variables cannot be manipulatively modulated.  ... 
doi:10.1590/0100-6045.2019.v42n1.ap fatcat:dbrhfvy575al7perjqdca4cc54
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