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Could you give me a hint? Generating inference graphs for defeasible reasoning [article]

Aman Madaan, Dheeraj Rajagopal, Niket Tandon, Yiming Yang, Eduard Hovy
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Through automated metrics and human evaluation, we find that our method generates meaningful graphs for the defeasible inference task.  ...  (A dataset of 230,000 influence graphs for each defeasible query is located at: https://tinyurl.com/defeasiblegraphs.)  ...  We would like to thank Google for providing the TPU machines for conducting experiments.  ... 
arXiv:2105.05418v2 fatcat:p5otzfm4grdabbtvi2g3oq4i3m

Edited transcription of the workshop on defeasible reasoning with specificity and multiple inheritance St. Louis, April 1989

Jennie Dorosh, Ronald P. Loui
1990 ACM SIGART Bulletin  
You can give a good argument for that. This is only a defeasible defeater. Other considerations could defeat the defeat.  ...  This system is not a general system for doing all defeasible inference. The information in the system has clear semantics.  ... 
doi:10.1145/122388.122389 fatcat:xqpkc37n75biheym7vydc6w5zi

Semantic networks

Fritz Lehmann
1992 Computers and Mathematics with Applications  
The conclusion argues for a synthesis of relational graph theory, graph-grmmnar theory and order theory based on semantic primitives and multiple intersecting inference hierarchies. • .. when controversies  ...  You quickly get a yearning for some real understanding, some 'conceptual structure' forming a deeper model of the subject area.  ...  In CONCEPTUAL GRAPHS there's no good reason why the relation-nodes could not be of any valence.  ... 
doi:10.1016/0898-1221(92)90135-5 fatcat:4nli67lrsjdzdiu56i5ixwhm2a

Argument schemes for reasoning about trust

Simon Parsons, Katie Atkinson, Zimi Li, Peter McBurney, Elizabeth Sklar, Munindar Singh, Karen Haigh, Karl Levitt, Jeff Rowe
2014 Argument & Computation  
Schemes are described in which one agent, A, can establish arguments for trusting another agent, B, directly, as well as schemes that A can use to construct arguments for trusting C, where C is trusted  ...  Specifically, a set of schemes is provided, abstract patterns of reasoning that apply in multiple situations, geared toward trust.  ...  Additional funding was provided by a University of Liverpool Research Fellowship and by a Fulbright-King's College London Scholar Award.  ... 
doi:10.1080/19462166.2014.913075 fatcat:6vo342jgc5fopjhyhecuj5dzl4

The Methodology and Structure of Gottlob Frege's Logico-philosophical Investigations

Kazuyuki NOMOTO
2006 Annals of the Japan Association for Philosophy of Science  
I have known already for about a year that my attempt to make classes entirely dispensable was a failure , for essentially the same reasons as you give ." (Russell to Frege 19: 1904. 12. 12.)  ...  successful, the reason being that you use function letters in isolation ...'  ... 
doi:10.4288/jafpos1956.14.73 fatcat:vydlny3zczal3f7hrawnxjr5im

Towards a Theory of Mathematical Argument [chapter]

Ian J. Dove
2013 The Argument of Mathematics  
Finally, I pose several open questions for the development of a theory of mathematical argument.  ...  It doesn't matter whether the reasoning is a full-fledged mathematical proof or merely some non-deductive mathematical justification: in either case, the methodology of assessment overlaps to a large extent  ...  The general premise would be: 'A 'No' answer for graph G is a sign/indication that there does not exist a Hamiltonian Path for G.'  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-94-007-6534-4_15 fatcat:jk36ixzsqzg57gblh37v6xeo5u

Towards a Theory of Mathematical Argument

Ian J. Dove
2008 Foundations of Science  
Finally, I pose several open questions for the development of a theory of mathematical argument.  ...  It doesn't matter whether the reasoning is a full-fledged mathematical proof or merely some non-deductive mathematical justification: in either case, the methodology of assessment overlaps to a large extent  ...  The general premise would be: 'A 'No' answer for graph G is a sign/indication that there does not exist a Hamiltonian Path for G.'  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10699-008-9156-5 fatcat:wlsuo4xga5fhznaw35qzda4q2q

Changing Philosophy Through Technology: Complexity and Computer-Supported Collaborative Argument Mapping

Michael H. G. Hoffmann
2013 Philosophy & Technology  
This paper discusses the potential of computer-supported argument visualization tools for coping with the complexity of philosophical arguments.  ...  Web-based argument mapping can overcome limits of space, time, and access, and it can empower users from all over the world to clarify their reasoning and to participate in deliberation and debate.  ...  Many thanks to Bryan Norton, Nancy Nersessian, Justin Biddle, and two anonymous reviewers for feedback that helped to improve this paper.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s13347-013-0143-6 fatcat:ujcqwjgp2rf7pozshkmba2uxla

Causal discovery and the problem of ignorance. An adaptive logic approach

Bert Leuridan
2009 Journal of Applied Logic  
A set of random variables V is studied but only partly tested for (conditional) independencies; i.e. for some variables A and B it is not known whether they are (conditionally) independent.  ...  It presupposes that a full list of (conditional) independence relations is on hand and it would lead to unsatisfactory results when applied to partial lists.  ...  Acknowledgements I would like to thank Joke Meheus, Dirk Batens, Erik Weber and Maarten Van Dyck for their helpful comments.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.jal.2007.11.004 fatcat:ualiepuixjd73dhrninud6wtde

A Formal Analysis of the French Temporal Connective alors

Myriam Bras, Anne Le Draoulec, Nicolas Asher
2009 Oslo Studies in Language  
We distinguish it from Strong-Result, which is inferred when lexical or other contextual information suggests a causal, discursive link.  ...  We argue that alors can be such a connective.  ...  For the same examples without alors, Strong-Result would be inferred too. However, unlike the (13)-(14) , (4), as we noted, is not very good, for reasons which remain to be explored.  ... 
doi:10.5617/osla.10 fatcat:ykemxh4mzfe57kcydri5peuena

Priority Structures in Deontic Logic

Johan van Benthem, Davide Grossi, Fenrong Liu
2013 Theoria  
The key junction is the well known Hansson conditional for dyadic obligations. These conditionals are generalized by pairing them with reasoning about syntactic priority structures.  ...  The resulting two-level approach to obligations is tested first against standard scenarios of contrary-to-duty obligations, leading also to a generalization for the Kanger-Anderson reduction of deontic  ...  Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers of Theoria for the many helpful remarks that allowed us to considerably improve the presentation of our work.  ... 
doi:10.1111/theo.12028 fatcat:xzzggofia5ebvoynp73fvd74ty

Rigorous Deductive Argumentation for Socially Relevant Issues [article]

Robert Dustin Wehr
2018 arXiv   pre-print
This thesis also documents progress towards a web system for collaboratively authoring and criticizing such arguments, which is the ultimate goal of this project.  ...  by a number of major examples.  ...  Multiplicity of reasons The most defeasible of defeasible argument types has this form: some n reasons R 1 , . . . , R n are given for a proposition G.  ... 
arXiv:1502.02272v2 fatcat:k7amzd3vlrfsxod3vhwf5zx22i

A Naturalistic Exploration of Forms and Functions of Analogizing

Robert R. Hoffman, Tom Eskridge, Cameron Shelley
2009 Metaphor and Symbol  
Each will require its own macrocognitive modeling, and each presents an opportunity for research on phenomena of reasoning that have been neglected.  ...  Psychological theories and computational models have generally relied on (a) a sparse set of ontological concepts (a property called "similarity" and a structuralist categorization of types of semantic  ...  The authors would like to thank The Psychological Corporation for providing a copy of the "Candidate Information Booklet" for the Miller Analogies Test (Psychological Corporation, 1993), and permission  ... 
doi:10.1080/10926480903028094 fatcat:avvwp2xaf5awrlxewc7womkdri

New Paradigms in the Psychology of Reasoning

Mike Oaksford, Nick Chater
2019 Annual Review of Psychology  
In the last 25 years, a new paradigm has arisen, which focuses on knowledge-rich reasoning for communication and persuasion and is typically modeled using Bayesian probability theory rather than logic.  ...  Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology, Volume 71 is January 4, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.  ...  If you wash up for me, then I will give you some money. Proposition 13. If you do not pay up, then I will send the debt collectors around. Proposition 14.  ... 
doi:10.1146/annurev-psych-010419-051132 pmid:31514580 fatcat:3e4hgkpg7bc7vekzn5qyf3sbku

Unraveling the Taste Fabric of Social Networks

Hugo Liu, Pattie Maes, Glorianna Davenport
2006 International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems (IJSWIS)  
If these latent semantic fabrics of taste could be harvested formally, the resultant resource would afford completely novel ways for representing and reasoning about web users and people in general.  ...  ., and machine learning was applied to infer a semantic fabric of taste.  ...  Acknowledgement This research was supported by a British Telecom Fellowship, an AOL Fellowship, and by the research consortia sponsors of the MIT Media Lab.  ... 
doi:10.4018/jswis.2006010102 fatcat:jli7bqxfdnfsrijzp6cdt3dfhq
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