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Then, the desired 'Smart Grid' operation is enabled through coordination between the VPP system and the active control system on the distribution network that is in use by the distribution network operator ... This challenge is met by a coordinated execution of the network control system and DERAS. ... Comparable interface procedures between DERAS and EMS/SCADA are necessary for participation in system control operations at transmission level, like the primary and secondary control. ...doi:10.6100/ir774173 fatcat:xnmqoqpjgzbhfd62v7yopzuiey