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Controllable Text Simplification with Explicit Paraphrasing [article]

Mounica Maddela, Fernando Alva-Manchego, Wei Xu
2021 arXiv   pre-print
of each simplification operation applied to the input texts.  ...  Text Simplification improves the readability of sentences through several rewriting transformations, such as lexical paraphrasing, deletion, and splitting.  ...  Controllable text simplification has been attempted before, but only with limited capability.  ... 
arXiv:2010.11004v3 fatcat:fxuw7kfrwvbave6wosdavj7c6a

Controllable Text Simplification with Explicit Paraphrasing

Mounica Maddela, Fernando Alva-Manchego, Wei Xu
2021 Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies   unpublished
each simplification operation applied to the input texts. 1  ...  Text Simplification improves the readability of sentences through several rewriting transformations, such as lexical paraphrasing, deletion, and splitting.  ...  Controllable text simplification has been attempted before, but only with limited capability.  ... 
doi:10.18653/v1/2021.naacl-main.277 fatcat:3nnt7vwagzfmvj7pessq6ggqpy

Controllable Sentence Simplification [article]

Louis Martin, Benoît Sagot, Éric de la Clergerie, Antoine Bordes
2020 arXiv   pre-print
We adapt a discrete parametrization mechanism that provides explicit control on simplification systems based on Sequence-to-Sequence models.  ...  Text simplification aims at making a text easier to read and understand by simplifying grammar and structure while keeping the underlying information identical.  ...  We want to control the process of Sentence Simplification using explicit control tokens.  ... 
arXiv:1910.02677v3 fatcat:3cgak67hujghhgn5yhaamygsae

Par4Sim -- Adaptive Paraphrasing for Text Simplification [article]

Seid Muhie Yimam, Chris Biemann
2018 arXiv   pre-print
Learning from a real-world data stream and continuously updating the model without explicit supervision is a new challenge for NLP applications with machine learning components.  ...  In this work, we have developed an adaptive learning system for text simplification, which improves the underlying learning-to-rank model from usage data, i.e. how users have employed the system for the  ...  Design of the Par4Sim System Par4Sim is a text simplification tool based on an adaptive paraphrasing paradigm.  ... 
arXiv:1806.08309v1 fatcat:yitm5zywcjcyvphsbcjrdpw4eq

The Effect of Lexical Modification on Developing Vocabulary Knowledge in Relation to Language Proficiency Level

Gholam-Reza Abbasian, Helia Sakhaeian Haji Mohammadi
2016 Theory and Practice in Language Studies  
They were further categorized into two simplification and elaboration groups. The pertinent treatments were rendered through simplification and elaboration models of modification.  ...  This study was an attempt to comparatively investigate the effects of lexical modification models (simplification vs. elaboration) on developing EFL learners" vocabulary knowledge in relation to their  ...  While elaboration refers to changes in which unknown linguistic items are paraphrased with redundancy and explicitness.  ... 
doi:10.17507/tpls.0610.11 fatcat:cj2yugbkbvbv5ijxw5a4soyceu

Joint Copying and Restricted Generation for Paraphrase [article]

Ziqiang Cao, Chuwei Luo, Wenjie Li, Sujian Li
2016 arXiv   pre-print
Many natural language generation tasks, such as abstractive summarization and text simplification, are paraphrase-orientated. In these tasks, copying and rewriting are two main writing modes.  ...  We conduct extensive experiments on two different paraphrase datasets.  ...  In text simplification, we observe that the paraphrase rules of Simple Wikipedia are relatively fixed.  ... 
arXiv:1611.09235v1 fatcat:djllbvjyzzc53h5twfadojqk4i

An Analysis of Simplification Strategies in a Reading Textbook of Japanese as a Foreign Language

2016 Acta Linguistica Asiatica  
The present paper reviews previous research on the readability and simplification of Japanese texts, and presents an analysis of a collection of simplified texts for learners of Japanese as a foreign language  ...  The simplified texts are compared to their original versions to uncover different strategies used to make the texts more accessible to learners.  ...  Script simplification Script simplification occurred a few times, where non-standard or low-frequent Chinese characters were rewritten with hiragana: Vocabulary simplification Vocabulary simplification  ... 
doi:10.4312/ala.6.1.9-33 fatcat:zeohdqfjwjbcraznwfejprmhqa

ASSET: A Dataset for Tuning and Evaluation of Sentence Simplification Models with Multiple Rewriting Transformations [article]

Fernando Alva-Manchego, Louis Martin, Antoine Bordes, Carolina Scarton, Benoît Sagot, Lucia Specia
2020 arXiv   pre-print
Despite these varied range of possible text alterations, current models for automatic sentence simplification are evaluated using datasets that are focused on a single transformation, such as lexical paraphrasing  ...  In order to simplify a sentence, human editors perform multiple rewriting transformations: they split it into several shorter sentences, paraphrase words (i.e. replacing complex words or phrases by simpler  ...  Therefore, we can now assess the capabilities of these and other systems in scenarios with varying simplification expectations: lexical paraphrasing with TurkCorpus, sentence splitting with HSplit, and  ... 
arXiv:2005.00481v1 fatcat:nsiagoekprewhetbg32zagmx7a

Effects of unenhanced, enhanced, and elaborated input on learning English phrasal verbs

Parviz Birjandi, Seyed Mohammed Alavi, Shaban Najafi Karimi
2014 International Journal of Research Studies in Language Learning  
after reading the unenhanced and enhanced texts.  ...  It has been concluded that (a) typographical input enhancement better helps L2 learners learn English phrasal verbs as compared with unenhanced input, (b) lexical input elaboration better facilitates the  ...  Simplification refers to changes to the input so that there is less syntactical and lexical complexity, while elaboration refers to changes in which unfamiliar linguistic items are paraphrased with redundancy  ... 
doi:10.5861/ijrsll.2014.772 fatcat:n62ddqap6fcf5krfj37p2uwhju

A Survey on Lexical Simplification

Gustavo H. Paetzold, Lucia Specia
2017 The Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research  
Lexical Simplification is the process of replacing complex words in a given sentence with simpler alternatives of equivalent meaning.  ...  This task has wide applicability both as an assistive technology for readers with cognitive impairments or disabilities, such as Dyslexia and Aphasia, and as a pre-processing tool for other Natural Language  ...  SimplePPDB : Performs automatic SG with a filtered paraphrase database for simplification. We use the paraphrases provided by Pavlick and Callison-Burch (2016).  ... 
doi:10.1613/jair.5526 fatcat:vdzvoemabjh3pftykyyyz5a2me

Prior Attention for Style-aware Sequence-to-Sequence Models [article]

Lucas Sterckx, Johannes Deleu, Chris Develder, Thomas Demeester
2018 arXiv   pre-print
This is demonstrated for the task of sentence simplification, where the latent code vector allows control over output length and lexical simplification, and enables fine-tuning to optimize for different  ...  We extend sequence-to-sequence models with the possibility to control the characteristics or style of the generated output, via attention that is generated a priori (before decoding) from a latent code  ...  We facilitate this control through an input represented in a latent vector space (rather than, e.g., explicit 'style' attributes).  ... 
arXiv:1806.09439v1 fatcat:imd2bv7xhzdtnkueoojvco5kzy

Paraphrasing Strategy in EFL Ecuadorian B1 Students and Implications on Reading Comprehension

Isabel Escudero, Narcisa Fuertes, Ligia López
2018 English Language Teaching  
A base-line pre-test and a posttest to an experimental and control group were applied.  ...  The analysis of T-student test yielded that the experimental group outperformed the control group.  ...  Future researchers should develop this line of research with a focus on simplification of strategies and determine criteria to achieve the paraphrasing quality of source texts.  ... 
doi:10.5539/elt.v12n1p56 fatcat:qtiar4asgfbmpnede6cleoszh4

Towards Process-Oriented, Modular, and Versatile Question Generation that Meets Educational Needs [article]

Xu Wang, Simin Fan, Jessica Houghton, Lu Wang
2022 arXiv   pre-print
We argue that building effective human-NLP collaborative QG systems that emphasize instructor control and explainability is imperative for real-world adoption.  ...  We perform an in-depth need finding study with 11 instructors across 7 different universities, and summarize their thought processes and needs when creating questions.  ...  On the other hand, it is a question design scenario where the text input is explicit.  ... 
arXiv:2205.00355v1 fatcat:4twiro2lkjbehcyvtyvjcjl7r4

Learning How to Simplify From Explicit Labeling of Complex-Simplified Text Pairs

Fernando Alva-Manchego, Joachim Bingel, Gustavo Henrique Paetzold, Carolina Scarton, Lucia Specia
2017 Zenodo  
Current research in text simplification has been hampered by two central problems: (i) the small amount of high-quality parallel simplification data available, and (ii) the lack of explicit annotations  ...  explicit annotations.  ...  Introduction Text Simplification (TS) is the task of reducing the complexity of a text without changing its meaning.  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.1042505 fatcat:vcmaka3d7fgxdiclvdx4qxo4f4

Effects of Lexical Simplification and Elaboration on Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners' Learning and Retention of Phrasal Verbs

Melika Ghorbanian, Shadab Jabbarpoor
2017 Theory and Practice in Language Studies  
This study aimed at investigating the effect of lexical simplification and elaboration on Iranian intermediate EFL learners' learning and retention of phrasal verbs.  ...  After one month, the same test, with a different order of items, was administered as delayed posttest to check the participants' level of retention.  ...  Similar definition for input simplification is suggested by Urano (2000, p. 4 ) as controlling the text which is targeted for second language learners by removing unfamiliar linguistic items, in order  ... 
doi:10.17507/tpls.0711.09 fatcat:ao7wtnfrcfbsvk56oexaytxi4i
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