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A Comprehensive Performance Evaluation of Deformable Face Tracking "In-the-Wild"

Grigorios G. Chrysos, Epameinondas Antonakos, Patrick Snape, Akshay Asthana, Stefanos Zafeiriou
2017 International Journal of Computer Vision  
In particular, we compare the following general strategies: (a) generic face detection plus generic facial landmark localisation, (b) generic model free tracking plus generic facial landmark localisation  ...  Recently, technologies such as face detection, facial landmark localisation and face recognition and verification have matured enough to provide effective and efficient solutions for imagery captured under  ...  Methods that employ a linear regression such as the supervised descent method (SDM) of Xiong and De la Torre (2013) tend to employ robust hand-crafted features (Xiong and De la Torre 2013; Asthana et al  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11263-017-0999-5 pmid:31983805 pmcid:PMC6953975 fatcat:edknqfajlfdvvmceaupqqosp6y

Human and Sheep Facial Landmarks Localisation by Triplet Interpolated Features [article]

Heng Yang and Renqiao Zhang and Peter Robinson
2015 arXiv   pre-print
In this paper we present a method for localisation of facial landmarks on human and sheep.  ...  We evaluate the proposed scheme on both human and sheep facial landmarks localisation.  ...  300w, which is a benchmark database for human facial landmark localisation.  ... 
arXiv:1509.04954v1 fatcat:a5kpqag7srdw7aeyhk5fsw6mkq

Advances in facial landmark detection

Zhen-Hua Feng, Josef Kittler
2018 Biometric Technology Today  
Typical CSR-based facial landmark detection approaches include Cascaded Pose Regression (CPR) [4] , Supervised Descent Method (SDM) [5] and Explicit Shape Regression (ESR) [6] .  ...  This range is likely to grow continuously, especially with the facial landmarking technology being continuously improved for increasingly challenging conditions in the future. About the Authors Dr.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0969-4765(18)30038-9 fatcat:oz4evam3hfd4fjexiubotqdefm

Cascaded Continuous Regression for Real-time Incremental Face Tracking [article]

Enrique Sánchez-Lozano and Brais Martinez and Georgios Tzimiropoulos and Michel Valstar
2016 arXiv   pre-print
More specifically, we first propose cascaded continuous regression (CCR) and show its accuracy is equivalent to the Supervised Descent Method.  ...  We address this question in the cascaded regression framework, the state-of-the-art approach for facial landmark localisation.  ...  The work of Tzimiropoulos was supported in part by the EPSRC project EP/M02153X/1 Facial Deformable Models of Animals.  ... 
arXiv:1608.01137v2 fatcat:qrkvaw6jinbx3h7f2mbrloobbm

Wing Loss for Robust Facial Landmark Localisation with Convolutional Neural Networks [article]

Zhen-Hua Feng, Josef Kittler, Muhammad Awais, Patrik Huber, Xiao-Jun Wu
2018 arXiv   pre-print
Last, the proposed approach is extended to create a two-stage framework for robust facial landmark localisation.  ...  We present a new loss function, namely Wing loss, for robust facial landmark localisation with Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs).  ...  ResNet-50, is used for facial landmark localisation. Wing loss The design of a proper loss function is crucial for CNNbased facial landmark localisation.  ... 
arXiv:1711.06753v5 fatcat:rlodaxlfhvhpjoamwjwrjknsii

Joint Action Unit localisation and intensity estimation through heatmap regression [article]

Enrique Sanchez-Lozano, Georgios Tzimiropoulos, Michel Valstar
2018 arXiv   pre-print
This paper proposes a supervised learning approach to jointly perform facial Action Unit (AU) localisation and intensity estimation.  ...  To generate the ground-truth heatmaps for a target AU, the facial landmarks are first estimated, and a 2D Gaussian is drawn around the points where the AU is known to cause changes.  ...  The advances in facial landmark localisation methods have also permitted to focus on the regions on which an Action Unit is meant to occur, and recent works have taken advantage of this information to  ... 
arXiv:1805.03487v2 fatcat:jk4tkx6qavhwdmbex3vvineg44

Wing Loss for Robust Facial Landmark Localisation with Convolutional Neural Networks

Zhen-Hua Feng, Josef Kittler, Muhammad Awais, Patrik Huber, Xiao-Jun Wu
2018 2018 IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition  
Last, the proposed approach is extended to create a two-stage framework for robust facial landmark localisation.  ...  We present a new loss function, namely Wing loss, for robust facial landmark localisation with Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) .  ...  ResNet-50, is used for facial landmark localisation. Wing loss The design of a proper loss function is crucial for CNNbased facial landmark localisation.  ... 
doi:10.1109/cvpr.2018.00238 dblp:conf/cvpr/FengKA0W18 fatcat:gm4mprmibjhnhjrjmdhnuly6ae

The First Facial Landmark Tracking in-the-Wild Challenge: Benchmark and Results

Jie Shen, Stefanos Zafeiriou, Grigoris G. Chrysos, Jean Kossaifi, Georgios Tzimiropoulos, Maja Pantic
2015 2015 IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision Workshop (ICCVW)  
Even though now well established benchmarks exist for facial landmark localisation in static imagery, to the best of our knowledge, there is no established benchmark for assessing the performance of facial  ...  Recently, we witnessed a burst of research in automatic facial landmark localisation in static imagery.  ...  As a baseline we trained a Supervised Descent Method (SDM) [63] using annotation/images released with the 300 W competition [14] 5 .  ... 
doi:10.1109/iccvw.2015.132 dblp:conf/iccvw/ShenZCKTP15 fatcat:yjkoh4n3gfczlae4y4t545pzna

DenseReg: Fully Convolutional Dense Shape Regression In-the-Wild [article]

Riza Alp Guler, Yuxiang Zhou, George Trigeorgis, Epameinondas Antonakos, Patrick Snape, Stefanos Zafeiriou, Iasonas Kokkinos
2018 arXiv   pre-print
We report state-of-the-art performance on the challenging 300W benchmark for facial landmark localization and on the MPII and LSP datasets for human pose estimation.  ...  To train DenseReg we construct a supervision signal by combining 3D deformable model fitting and 2D landmark annotations.  ...  It should be noted that we do not use any explicit supervision for landmark detection nor focus on ad-hoc methods to cope with this issue.  ... 
arXiv:1803.02188v1 fatcat:uyoix7rytbfl7byxu5pz7x4y2y

A Functional Regression Approach to Facial Landmark Tracking

Enrique Sanchez-Lozano, Georgios Tzimiropoulos, Brais Martinez, Fernando De la Torre, Michel Valstar
2018 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence  
We incorporate Continuous Regression into the cascaded regression framework, and show its computational benefits for both training and testing.  ...  We then present a fast approach for incremental learning within Cascaded Continuous Regression, coined iCCR, and show that its complexity allows real-time face tracking, being 20 times faster than the  ...  We are also grateful for access to the University of Nottingham High Performance Computing Facility.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tpami.2017.2745568 pmid:28858786 fatcat:vteox54plzfr7kgbeat2sjwmae

Cascaded Continuous Regression for Real-Time Incremental Face Tracking [chapter]

Enrique Sánchez-Lozano, Brais Martinez, Georgios Tzimiropoulos, Michel Valstar
2016 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Please see the repository url above for details on accessing the published version and note that access may require a subscription.  ...  The work of Tzimiropoulos was supported in part by the EPSRC project EP/M02153X/1 Facial Deformable Models of Animals.  ...  We are also grateful for the given access to the University of Nottingham High Performance Computing Facility, and we would like to thank Jie Shen and Grigoris Chrysos for their insightful help in our  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-46484-8_39 fatcat:wlwp25ijy5dmxbouwynihbqpca

Constrained Local Neural Fields for Robust Facial Landmark Detection in the Wild

Tadas Baltrusaitis, Peter Robinson, Louis-Philippe Morency
2013 2013 IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision Workshops  
We present the Constrained Local Neural Field model for facial landmark detection. Our model includes two main novelties.  ...  Facial feature detection algorithms have seen great progress over the recent years. However, they still struggle in poor lighting conditions and in the presence of extreme pose or occlusions.  ...  We compare our approach to CLM [15] , tree based method [22] , DRMF [1] , AOM [17] , and supervised descent [21] methods.  ... 
doi:10.1109/iccvw.2013.54 dblp:conf/iccvw/Baltrusaitis0M13 fatcat:xffklsp3rjbtxpuci5iv7vcjyu

DenseReg: Fully Convolutional Dense Shape Regression In-the-Wild

Riza Alp Guler, George Trigeorgis, Epameinondas Antonakos, Patrick Snape, Stefanos Zafeiriou, Iasonas Kokkinos
2017 2017 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)  
We thoroughly evaluate our method on a host of facial analysis tasks, and demonstrate its use for other correspondence estimation tasks, such as the human body and the human ear.  ...  We formulate this task as a regression problem and train our network by leveraging upon manually annotated facial landmarks "in-the-wild".  ...  It should be noted that we do not use any explicit supervision for landmark detection nor focus on ad-hoc methods to cope with this issue.  ... 
doi:10.1109/cvpr.2017.280 dblp:conf/cvpr/GulerTASZK17 fatcat:lewwu53nsbesbgybhvajjntima

DenseReg: Fully Convolutional Dense Shape Regression In-the-Wild [article]

Rıza Alp Güler, George Trigeorgis, Epameinondas Antonakos, Patrick Snape, Stefanos Zafeiriou, Iasonas Kokkinos
2017 arXiv   pre-print
We thoroughly evaluate our method on a host of facial analysis tasks and also provide qualitative results for dense human body correspondence.  ...  We formulate this task as a regression problem and train our network by leveraging upon manually annotated facial landmarks "in-the-wild".  ...  It should be noted that in our work we do not use any explicit supervision for landmark detection nor focus on ad-hoc methods to cope with this issue.  ... 
arXiv:1612.01202v2 fatcat:fsfiinvf3bcohmmlq45ybyvboe

Unsupervised Discovery of Object Landmarks as Structural Representations [article]

Yuting Zhang, Yijie Guo, Yixin Jin, Yijun Luo, Zhiyuan He, Honglak Lee
2018 arXiv   pre-print
The encoding module outputs landmark coordinates, whose validity is ensured by constraints that reflect the necessary properties for landmarks.  ...  Our discovered landmarks are semantically meaningful and more predictive of manually annotated landmarks than those discovered by previous methods.  ...  The proposed method discovers visually meaningful landmarks without supervision for a variety of objects.  ... 
arXiv:1804.04412v1 fatcat:cabwrmgygfb2ti6hm3cw6wepam
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