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Contingency-Aware Exploration in Reinforcement Learning [article]

Jongwook Choi, Yijie Guo, Marcin Moczulski, Junhyuk Oh, Neal Wu, Mohammad Norouzi, Honglak Lee
2019 arXiv   pre-print
This paper investigates whether learning contingency-awareness and controllable aspects of an environment can lead to better exploration in reinforcement learning.  ...  Our experiments confirm that contingency-awareness is indeed an extremely powerful concept for tackling exploration problems in reinforcement learning and opens up interesting research questions for further  ...  Based on these discussions, we hypothesize that contingency awareness can be a powerful mechanism for tackling exploration problems in reinforcement learning.  ... 
arXiv:1811.01483v3 fatcat:2ock66anhfgehb7ihg667llfey

Subject awareness in differential classical eyelid conditioning

William A. Benish, David A. Grant
1980 Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society  
The discrimination required of the four groups was of varying complexity and was sufficiently difficult to produce a substantial number of subjects who were not aware of the reinforcement contingencies  ...  Moreover, it was found that the probability of a subject's learning to discriminate, conditional upon his being aware, was independent of treatment condition.  ...  to further explore this issue.  ... 
doi:10.3758/bf03334581 fatcat:7oycuwhgs5ctbm4hh6zewjurue

The Self: Can Behaviorism Inform the Study of The Self?

Gail Hunter
2019 Psychiatry Depression & Anxiety  
Though he recognizes that self-awareness is created by social contingencies that reinforce discrimination, he rejects the importance of self in subsequent operant relations [17] .  ...  Skinner's argument that self-awareness in animals and humans alike is the result of reinforcing social contingencies of individual discriminative behavior has since been extended to provide a relational  ... 
doi:10.24966/pda-0150/100021 fatcat:qhf24ue77vgine4iwr77ogbrhm

Win shifting in nectarivorous birds: selective inhibition of the learned win-stay response

Danielle Sulikowski, Darren Burke
2012 Animal Behaviour  
phases: birds reinforced to shift revisited locations in the exploration phase that were unrewarded; birds reinforced to stay revisited rewarded ones.  ...  melanocephala, and rainbow lorikeets, Trichoglossus haematodus, developed patterns of revisits/errors in the exploration phases that corresponded to the spatial contingency they experienced in the test  ...  This learning then manifested in the exploration phase, but not the test phase.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2011.11.030 fatcat:3udniq2d45dm3m5r4jwim5xgli

Page 58 of Psychological Abstracts Vol. 85, Issue 1 [page]

1998 Psychological Abstracts  
In this article, the im- plications of this claim for memory are explored.  ...  Ss not only biased responding in favor of the more densely reinforcing key, but when contingencies changed, Ss showed continued biased responding.  ... 

Effects of Depressive Symptoms, Feelings, and Interoception on Reward-Based Decision-Making: Investigation Using Reinforcement Learning Model

Hiroyoshi Ogishima, Shunta Maeda, Yuki Tanaka, Hironori Shimada
2020 Brain Sciences  
In the baseline testing, reinforcement learning modeling indicated a marginally-significant correlation between the exploration rate and depressive symptoms.  ...  In this study, we examined the relationships between reward-based decision-making in terms of learning rate, memory rate, exploration rate, and depression-related subjective emotional experience, in terms  ...  We hypothesized that an increase in indicators of interoception (awareness and attention) through this manipulation would be associated with an increase in the exploration rate in reinforcement learning  ... 
doi:10.3390/brainsci10080508 pmid:32752282 fatcat:yvxn4jftp5bnnke6wlupcbn5ye

Dissociable learning processes in comparative psychology

J. David Smith, Barbara A. Church
2017 Psychonomic Bulletin & Review  
We apply this approach in several comparative domains to show that different task variants change-in concert-the level of awareness, the declarative nature of knowledge, the dimensional breadth of knowledge  ...  It can offer simple behavioral paradigms for exploring explicit cognition to developmental researchers.  ...  The perspective offered here could put comparative psychology in a strong position to systematically explore animal awareness.  ... 
doi:10.3758/s13423-017-1353-1 pmid:28799092 fatcat:umqstwjmyndhbkjjemihqatybi

Page 486 of Journal of Personality Vol. 27, Issue 4 [page]

1959 Journal of Personality  
The experimental group was divided, on the basis of an inter- view, into two subgroups consisting of those who were aware of the reinforcement contingency and those who were unaware of it.  ...  Some personality correlates of learning without verbal awareness. J. Pers., 1958, 26, 216-228. Greenspoon, J. The reinforcing effect of two spoken sounds on the frequency of two responses. Amer. J.  ... 

Effects of noun imagery and awareness of the discriminative cue upon differential eyelid conditioning to grammatical and ungrammatical phrases

Louise C. Perry, David A. Grant, Marian Schwartz
1977 Memory & Cognition  
On the basis of these data, Grant's (1972) conditioning model proposed that the learning of CS-reinforcement contingencies is facilitated to the extent that these contingencies are congruent with contingency  ...  awareness by Vs than by Cs.  ...  A further purpose in including the awareness variable was to explore the relationship between awareness and imaginal processes.  ... 
doi:10.3758/bf03197381 pmid:24203009 fatcat:hl5bbkwqv5fpfc223n7ex2eqiy

Personal reinforcement and awareness

Willard E. Reitz
1971 Psychonomic Science  
Awareness of reinforcement contingency was greater (p < .001) under high-valency conditions than under low. The high-valency condition also resulted in higher pedormance and gains over trials.  ...  8s were administered a visual discrimination task for which reinforcements were A -V -L value statements. Positive and negative reinforcers were chosen to be high in valency (± 2 SD) or low (~1 SD).  ...  When valued personal incentives are available, however, awareness of the reinforcement contingency emerges, and S performs in such a way as to obtain the incentives.  ... 
doi:10.3758/bf03332592 fatcat:oei7zx5v3fdgdi3d7yv4cfbnpu

The conditioning of verbal behavior with negative cultural connotations1

Meira E. Zedek
1959 Journal of Personality  
In most of these studies the changes that oc- curred were not accompanied by awareness of the reinforcement contingency on the part of the Ss.  ...  SUMMARY The effect of reinforcement on the frequency of occurrence of verbal behavior with negative cultural connotations was explored.  ... 
doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.1959.tb01877.x pmid:13847150 fatcat:vmkwckcqhvbb7gpabmsqq4qvjq

Page 528 of Psychological Abstracts Vol. 41, Issue 5 [page]

1967 Psychological Abstracts  
Ss not aware of the contingency showed either no effects, or performance changes opposite to the direc- tion of reinforcement but consistent with their errone- ous hypothesis.  ...  Ss aware that they changed their estimates in the same direction as the reinforcement showed significant conditioning effects.  ... 

Influence of contingency awareness on neural, electrodermal and evaluative responses during fear conditioning

Katharina Tabbert, Christian J. Merz, Tim Klucken, Jan Schweckendiek, Dieter Vaitl, Oliver T. Wolf, Rudolf Stark
2010 Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience  
Differential responses of the hippocampus were specifically observed in learned aware subjects, indicating a role in the development of contingency awareness.  ...  The third group (learned aware) was not informed about the contingencies, but learned them despite the distractors.  ...  Activation was specifically enhanced in the hippocampus in the learned aware group. No other structures of interest showed a main effect of contingency awareness.  ... 
doi:10.1093/scan/nsq070 pmid:20693389 pmcid:PMC3150860 fatcat:v3xnolisdjcbdmegdxe357gole

Contingency learning in human fear conditioning involves the ventral striatum

Tim Klucken, Katharina Tabbert, Jan Schweckendiek, Christian Josef Merz, Sabine Kagerer, Dieter Vaitl, Rudolf Stark
2009 Human Brain Mapping  
not learn the contingencies (unaware), subjects, who learned the contingencies during the experiment (learned aware) and subjects, who were informed about the contingencies in advance (instructed aware  ...  Interestingly, this activation pattern was only found in learned but not in instructed aware subjects.  ...  Analysis of conditioning related VS activity in instructed aware subjects was explorative.  ... 
doi:10.1002/hbm.20791 pmid:19384886 fatcat:2zoprgynjjdgfmxby6sfvbc6rq

Page 744 of Psychological Abstracts Vol. 39, Issue 3 [page]

1965 Psychological Abstracts  
Multidimensional stimulus differences in discrimination learning and verbali- zation of the reinforcement contingency. /sycho- logical Reports, 1965, 16(1), 235-240.  ...  —This study explored the effects of the number of dimensional differences on discrimination learning in a_ verbal conditioning task.  ... 
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