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Constraint solving for high-level WCET analysis [article]

Adrian Prantl and Jens Knoop and Markus Schordan and Markus Triska
2009 arXiv   pre-print
In this paper, we highlight the TuBound approach to this challenge at whose heart is a constraint logic based approach for loop analysis.  ...  Worst case execution time (WCET) analysis is concerned with computing tight upper bounds for the execution time of a system in order to provide formal guarantees for the proper timing behaviour of a system  ...  The TuBound approach [16] , which we pursue in the CoSTA project [3] , is to improve on this by lifting the supporting analyses for WCET analysis to the source code level of a program.  ... 
arXiv:0903.2251v1 fatcat:oipthnumn5bbjnps6dckpwgyvm

Timing analysis enhancement for synchronous program

Pascal Raymond, Claire Maiza, Catherine Parent-Vigouroux, Fabienne Carrier, Mihail Asavoae
2015 Real-time systems  
In this paper, we aim at improving the estimated WCET when the analyzed binary code comes from a high-level synchronous design.  ...  Real-time aspects (computing fast enough) can be addressed with static timing analysis, that aims at discovering safe bounds on the Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET) of the binary code.  ...  The goal is to use this kind of properties to enhance the WCET. It requires to solve several problems: -How to trace information between the high-level design and the binary code?  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11241-015-9219-y fatcat:2fas7ox64feplafok7p3w3pk5y

Program Semantics in Model-Based WCET Analysis: A State of the Art Perspective

Mihail Asavoae, Claire Maiza, Pascal Raymond, Marc Herbstritt
2013 Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis  
On the positive side, the application is developed in a systematic way, while on the negative side, its high-level semantics may be obfuscated when represented at the lower levels.  ...  This paper overviews, in the context of WCET analysis, what are the existing techniques to extract, express and exploit the program semantics along the model-based development workflow.  ...  Third, the gap between the high-level driven MBD workflow and the low-level driven WCET analysis workflow requires a bi-directional transfer of the program semantics.  ... 
doi:10.4230/oasics.wcet.2013.32 dblp:conf/wcet/AsavoaeMR13 fatcat:oabyuwtwmvdkhakzwq5dgzmkee

Replacing conjectures by positive knowledge: Inferring proven precise worst-case execution time bounds using symbolic execution

Jens Knoop, Laura Kovács, Jakob Zwirchmayr
2017 Journal of symbolic computation  
A WCET analysis needs to provide a formal guarantee that a system meets its timing-constraints even in the worst case.  ...  In this article we address this challenge and describe a rigorous approach for the timing analysis of programs and for proving its results precise.  ...  We also acknowledge support of this research by the EU FP7 COST Action IC 1202 Timing Analysis on Code-Level (TACLe).  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.jsc.2016.07.023 fatcat:q6ryk5iwdvhc3gi56zzo5hun2q

Chronos: A timing analyzer for embedded software

Xianfeng Li, Yun Liang, Tulika Mitra, Abhik Roychoudhury
2007 Science of Computer Programming  
Such WCET estimates are crucial for schedulability analysis of real-time systems. In this paper, we present Chronos, a static analysis tool for generating WCET estimates of C programs.  ...  WCET is defined as the upper bound b on the execution time of a program P on a processor X such that for any input the execution time of P on X is guaranteed to not exceed b.  ...  Acknowledgments We would like to thank Vivy Suhendra for her help during the WCET Tool Challenge 2006.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.scico.2007.01.014 fatcat:lclrvtpvanfyzg4jzmep7xx3km

Timing analysis enhancement for synchronous program

Pascal Raymond, Claire Maiza, Catherine Parent-Vigouroux, Fabienne Carrier
2013 Proceedings of the 21st International conference on Real-Time Networks and Systems - RTNS '13  
High-level synchronous approaches are usually used to design hard realtime systems and specifically critical ones. Timing analysis used for WCET estimates are based on the executable binary program.  ...  Based on a realistic example, we show that there is a large possible improvement for a reasonable analysis time overhead.  ...  Two main issues must be solved to integrate these high-level semantic properties: (i) how to extract interesting semantic properties at the high-level, (ii) how to transfer information from one level to  ... 
doi:10.1145/2516821.2516841 dblp:conf/rtns/RaymondMPC13 fatcat:ab4hras6zzfanpbt6pk3jsf2de

Context-sensitive timing analysis of Esterel programs

Lei Ju, Bach Khoa Huynh, Samarjit Chakraborty, Abhik Roychoudhury
2009 Proceedings of the 46th Annual Design Automation Conference on ZZZ - DAC '09  
Apart from exploiting the specific structure of this C code to obtain tight WCET estimates, we capture program-level contexts across ticks in order to obtain tight estimates on response times of events  ...  Lately, a number of advances in Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET) analysis techniques, coupled with the growing use of software in domains such as automotives, have led to a considerable interest in timing  ...  Low level WCET analysis for a single Esterel tick is solved in [2] for a special Esterel processor, where the instruction set and micro-architecture are different from a general-purpose processor.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1629911.1630132 dblp:conf/dac/JuHCR09 fatcat:z7bgcgk2hzdifbmc62ivyyn6uy

How to compute worst-case execution time by optimization modulo theory and a clever encoding of program semantics

Julien Henry, Mihail Asavoae, David Monniaux, Claire Maïza
2014 Proceedings of the 2014 SIGPLAN/SIGBED conference on Languages, compilers and tools for embedded systems - LCTES '14  
We experimented our approach on a variety of control programs, using the OTAWA analyzer both as baseline and as underlying microarchitectural analysis for our analysis, and show notable improvement on  ...  the WCET bound on a variety of benchmarks and control programs.  ...  of the program, either by analysis of the high-level specification from which the program is extracted [1] .  ... 
doi:10.1145/2597809.2597817 dblp:conf/lctrts/HenryAMM14 fatcat:ai265vopxzfxhcx5mt3jxdtldq

How to compute worst-case execution time by optimization modulo theory and a clever encoding of program semantics

Julien Henry, Mihail Asavoae, David Monniaux, Claire Maïza
2014 SIGPLAN notices  
We experimented our approach on a variety of control programs, using the OTAWA analyzer both as baseline and as underlying microarchitectural analysis for our analysis, and show notable improvement on  ...  the WCET bound on a variety of benchmarks and control programs.  ...  of the program, either by analysis of the high-level specification from which the program is extracted [1] .  ... 
doi:10.1145/2666357.2597817 fatcat:xaeddgjiorgqnnk3ojn37ixf2e

How to Compute Worst-Case Execution Time by Optimization Modulo Theory and a Clever Encoding of Program Semantics [article]

Julien Henry, David Monniaux
2014 arXiv   pre-print
We experimented our approach on a variety of control programs, using the OTAWA analyzer both as baseline and as underlying microarchitectural analysis for our analysis, and show notable improvement on  ...  In systems with hard real-time constraints, it is necessary to compute upper bounds on the worst-case execution time (WCET) of programs; the closer the bound to the real WCET, the better.  ...  of the program, either by analysis of the high-level specification from which the program is extracted [1] .  ... 
arXiv:1405.7962v1 fatcat:stbzfw7rera7ncbdy6mncxtgra

PLEA: Parametric loop bound estimation in WCET analysis

Saeed PARSA, Mehdi SAKHAEI-NIA
2016 Turkish Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences  
In this paper, a new method is presented for the parametric loop bound analysis based on path analysis.  ...  Parametric WCET analysis represents the WCET of the program as a formula, where the unknown values affecting the WCET are parameterized.  ...  Acknowledgment The authors express appreciation to Dr Björn Lisper for his valuable and constructive suggestions.  ... 
doi:10.3906/elk-1402-250 fatcat:siwrwh34mfek3m4x4g33zn7uje

Beyond loop bounds: comparing annotation languages for worst-case execution time analysis

Raimund Kirner, Jens Knoop, Adrian Prantl, Markus Schordan, Albrecht Kadlec
2010 Journal of Software and Systems Modeling  
Worst-case execution time (WCET) analysis is concerned with computing a precise-as-possible bound for the maximum time the execution of a program can take.  ...  Starting with the initial works of Chen, Mok, Puschner, Shaw, and others in the mid and late 1980s, WCET analysis turned into a well-established and vibrant field of research and development in academia  ...  Acknowledgments We gratefully acknowledge the helpful comments of the anonymous referees and the feedback of the participants of the WCET'07 workshop.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10270-010-0161-0 fatcat:gzexuwk7l5hv7n7g3psastxvla

Timing Analysis of PL Programs

Man Lin
1999 IFAC Proceedings Volumes  
Timing analysis for multiple-period PL programs is also studied in the paper.  ...  Two methods are provided to calculate the WCET of a PL program while taking the infeasibility constraints into account.  ...  High-level timing analysis is not a new topic in real-time programming community. The major di erence between this paper and the studies in the literature are the language constructs.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s1474-6670(17)39988-3 fatcat:m4p76vtrqbev7nnqco3uyx5cum

Timing analysis of PL programs

Man Lin
2000 Control Engineering Practice  
Timing analysis for multiple-period PL programs is also studied in the paper.  ...  Two methods are provided to calculate the WCET of a PL program while taking the infeasibility constraints into account.  ...  High-level timing analysis is not a new topic in real-time programming community. The major di erence between this paper and the studies in the literature are the language constructs.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0967-0661(00)00022-8 fatcat:j5darvlfprchhjcyrm6vc2b7rm

Worst-Case Execution Time Calculation for Query-Based Monitors by Witness Generation [article]

Márton Búr and Kristóf Marussy and Brett H. Meyer and Dániel Varró
2021 arXiv   pre-print
This paper presents a WCET analysis method for data-driven monitoring programs derived from graph queries.  ...  The method incorporates results obtained from low-level timing analysis into the objective function of a modern graph solver.  ...  Existing WCET analysis methods. Static WCET analysis is typically divided into two major phases: flow analysis and low-level analysis.  ... 
arXiv:2102.03116v1 fatcat:v66xyjydrfgerpnosiztql7kq4
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