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Do Borrowing Constraints Matter? An Analysis of Why the Permanent Income Hypothesis Does Not Apply in Japan

Miki Kohara, Charles Yuji Horioka
2006 Social Science Research Network  
whether or not a household is borrowing-constrained, and (3) that the Euler equation implication is rejected for both the full sample and for the subsample of unconstrained households.  ...  These results suggest that the life cycle/permanent income hypothesis does not apply in Japan and that the presence of borrowing constraints is not the main reason why it does not apply.  ...  Once we have rejected the Euler equation implication, we should seek the reason for it, checking each possible explanation one by one.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.911160 fatcat:6ginwi2c3nh47gdu344xur7uce

Do borrowing constraints matter? An analysis of why the permanent income hypothesis does not apply in Japan

Miki Kohara, Charles Yuji Horioka
2006 Japan and The World Economy  
whether or not a household is borrowing-constrained, and (3) that the Euler equation implication is rejected for both the full sample and for the subsample of unconstrained households.  ...  These results suggest that the life cycle/permanent income hypothesis does not apply in Japan and that the presence of borrowing constraints is not the main reason why it does not apply.  ...  Once we have rejected the Euler equation implication, we should seek the reason for it, checking each possible explanation one by one.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.japwor.2006.04.002 fatcat:z4ettisnerc2ljrmraflzmtpqm

Response to Bucy's comment on a paper by Udwadia and Kalaba

Firdaus E. Udwadia, Robert E. Kalaba
1996 Proceedings of the Royal Society A  
The reasons are as follows. 1.  ...  Nor did Lagrange, or Gibbs, or Appell, when each presented his equations of motion for non-holonomically constrained systems.  ...  Bucy (1994) has conclusions and value judgments which are not based on ob jective reasoning or inquiry.  ... 
doi:10.1098/rspa.1996.0053 fatcat:iknierlmnjbnzcdfbf4fiuxanu

New Type Of Fuzzy Relational Equations And Neutrosophic Relational Equations - To Analyse Customers Preference To Street Shops

Vasantha Kandasamy, Vidhyalakshmi Sekar
2014 Zenodo  
In this paper authors study the customer's preference of street shops to other eateries using Fuzzy Relation Equations (FREs) and Neutrosophic Relation Equations (NREs).  ...  except the reasonable cost and expert is not able to express about the quality of food.  ...  That is, the matrix equation (1) encompasses n × s simultaneous equations of the form (2) .  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.571460 fatcat:ssrmqvxnovbtzbd55z5hwrwfkm

New Type Of Fuzzy Relational Equations And Neutrosophic Relational Equations – To Analyse Customers Preference To Street Shops

Vasantha Kandasamy, Sekar.P, Vidhyalakshmi
2015 Zenodo  
In this paper authors study the customer's preference of street shops to other eateries using Fuzzy Relation Equations (FREs) and Neutrosophic Relation Equations (NREs).  ...  except the reasonable cost and expert is not able to express about the quality of food.  ...  That is, the matrix equation (1) encompasses n × s simultaneous equations of the form (2) .  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.22608 fatcat:nr62qo4evjforgzwowqioucqxu

Page 1559 of Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences Vol. 63, Issue 5 [page]

2006 Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences  
, constrained potential vorticity, and constrained pressure fields. 1.  ...  Another reasoning proposed by Daley (1978) relates the divergence to intrinsic mathematical properties of the initialization equations, namely, to the violation of ellipticity condition for the nonlinear  ... 

An algorithm for goal-driven simulation

Michel Page, Jérôme Gensel, Mahfoud Boudis
1999 Proceedings of the 31st conference on Winter simulation Simulation---a bridge to the future - WSC '99  
We propose to combine graph theoretic methods for monitoring the numerical solving process of the model and interval constraint reasoning for dealing with under-constrained and overconstrained problems  ...  This algorithm, implemented in a simulation environment called AMIA, has been successfully applied to several large models containing thousands of equations.  ...  For this reason, we also use interval constraint solving in our work, but only when necessary, i.e., for dealing with under-constrained problems, but not for equation solving.  ... 
doi:10.1145/324138.324438 fatcat:qeyyiw32crb4vegjuk3ducrylu

FARM LEVEL IMPACTS OF CREDIT CONSTRAINTS ON AGRICULTURAL INVESTMENT AND INCOME
English

Amanullah ., Wang Jing
2022 Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences  
These are referred as being socio-economical credit constrained (SCC), and the second, if the farmers did not want to apply for religious reasons, categorized as religious credit constraints (RCC) (Figure  ...  Moreover, the outcome also indicates that 34.2 percent of the rice farmers were institutionally credit constrained for the reasons, such as the high-interest rate charged by formal sources, lengthy and  ... 
doi:10.21162/pakjas/19.7872 fatcat:wsqoig436nc57f63pl5wpr3nrq

Page 182 of Geographical Analysis Vol. 13, Issue 2 [page]

1981 Geographical Analysis  
origin-constrained trip distribution models may be determined by assessing the validity of equations (2)—(4) when ¢,; is defined by equation (7).  ...  Vk Fj a, + # j (8a) Similarly, evaluating the RHS of equation (2) yields Bi bi8 fn 4 9, Wk Fj Now, (8a) and (8b) are equal iff Og Ofix i — = 2,—— V finda, bk 3d,’ k#j and in general, there is no reason  ... 

Constrained Differential Optimization

John C. Platt, Alan H. Barr
1987 Neural Information Processing Systems  
We prove that the differential equations locally converge to a constrained minimum.  ...  The snake eventually attaches to the cities The constrained minimization in equations (29) and (30) is a reasonable method for approximately solving the TSP.  ...  As in equation ( 9 ), constrained extrema of the energy (5) are stationary points of equation (10). Notice, however, the sign inversion in the equation for i, as compared to equation (9) .  ... 
dblp:conf/nips/PlattB87 fatcat:f6agcrepivaypmhvs5dva2qnwi

Comment on Destination Independence and Separability In Origin-Constrained Trip Distribution Models

Edward H. Kaplan
2010 Geographical Analysis  
Vk Fj a, + # j (8a) Similarly, evaluating the RHS of equation (2) yields Bi bi8 fn 4 9, Wk Fj Now, (8a) and (8b) are equal iff Og Ofix i — = 2,—— V finda, bk 3d,’ k#j and in general, there is no reason  ...  origin-constrained trip distribution models may be determined by assessing the validity of equations (2)—(4) when ¢,; is defined by equation (7).  ... 
doi:10.1111/j.1538-4632.1981.tb00724.x fatcat:gscnkfdppndv5p4pnt7omtldfa

Canonical Equations of Singular Mechanical Systems in Terms of Quasi-coordinates

Zheng Mingliang
2019 JOURNAL OF MECHANICS OF CONTINUA AND MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES  
The constrained mechanical systems by quasi-coordinates are more universal than by generalized coordinates.  ...  In this paper, the motion equations of nonconservative singular mechanical systems by quasi-coordinates in phase space are studied.  ...  By reasonably constructing the quasi-velocity and combining the modified variational principle, the regular form of Boltzmann-Hamel equations for holonomic and nonholonomic singular systems is obtained  ... 
doi:10.26782/jmcms.2019.08.00001 fatcat:qn7bz7wqfzeybnzqlprjbctg2e

Euler Consumption Equation with Non-Separable Preferences over Consumption and Leisure and Collateral Constraints

Juha Kilponen
2009 Social Science Research Network  
During more tranquil times, evidence on collateral effects is more limited and nonseparability is sufficient to make the Euler consumption equation agree well with the data.  ...  This paper derives and estimates an aggregate Euler consumption equation which allows one to compare the importance of collateral constraints and nonseparability of consumption and leisure as alternative  ...  Derivation of the aggregate Euler equation Having derived the consumption Euler equations for the un-constrained and constrained households, the final step is to obtain the aggregate Euler equation, which  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.1428814 fatcat:wcq3vmn43jdz5osiaj3up2ajla

"COMMONSENSE" ARITHMETIC REASONING [chapter]

Reid Simmons
1990 Readings in Qualitative Reasoning About Physical Systems  
Arithmetic reasoning" can range in complexity  ...  This is in contrast to a system like MACSYMA which is designed to handle sets of equations where each equation involves most of the variables, that is, the resulting coefficient matrix will be  ...  For example, the types of domains handled by the Quantity Lattice are amenable to solution by setting up the equations in band matrix format and representing the matrix of equations as a linked  ... 
doi:10.1016/b978-1-4832-1447-4.50029-8 fatcat:wj3keu6q7fahrfmmkp26gdqcsq

The Model Evolution Calculus with Equality [chapter]

Peter Baumgartner, Cesare Tinelli
2005 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
For equational reasoning ME E uses an adapted version of the ordered paramodulation inference rule, where equations used for paramodulation are drawn (only) from the candidate model.  ...  In many theorem proving applications, a proper treatment of equational theories or equality is mandatory.  ...  Equality Reasoning on Constrained Clauses The ME E calculus operates with constrained clauses, defined below.  ... 
doi:10.1007/11532231_29 fatcat:4zmryafkqzct5g3kskjhn2ja4y
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