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Do Borrowing Constraints Matter? An Analysis of Why the Permanent Income Hypothesis Does Not Apply in Japan

2006
*
Social Science Research Network
*

whether or not a household is borrowing-

doi:10.2139/ssrn.911160
fatcat:6ginwi2c3nh47gdu344xur7uce
*constrained*, and (3) that the Euler*equation*implication is rejected for both the full sample and for the subsample of unconstrained households. ... These results suggest that the life cycle/permanent income hypothesis does not apply in Japan and that the presence of borrowing constraints is not the main*reason*why it does not apply. ... Once we have rejected the Euler*equation*implication, we should seek the*reason*for it, checking each possible explanation one by one. ...##
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Do borrowing constraints matter? An analysis of why the permanent income hypothesis does not apply in Japan

2006
*
Japan and The World Economy
*

whether or not a household is borrowing-

doi:10.1016/j.japwor.2006.04.002
fatcat:z4ettisnerc2ljrmraflzmtpqm
*constrained*, and (3) that the Euler*equation*implication is rejected for both the full sample and for the subsample of unconstrained households. ... These results suggest that the life cycle/permanent income hypothesis does not apply in Japan and that the presence of borrowing constraints is not the main*reason*why it does not apply. ... Once we have rejected the Euler*equation*implication, we should seek the*reason*for it, checking each possible explanation one by one. ...##
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Response to Bucy's comment on a paper by Udwadia and Kalaba

1996
*
Proceedings of the Royal Society A
*

The

doi:10.1098/rspa.1996.0053
fatcat:iknierlmnjbnzcdfbf4fiuxanu
*reasons*are as follows. 1. ... Nor did Lagrange, or Gibbs, or Appell, when each presented his*equations*of motion for non-holonomically*constrained*systems. ... Bucy (1994) has conclusions and value judgments which are not based on ob jective*reasoning*or inquiry. ...##
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New Type Of Fuzzy Relational Equations And Neutrosophic Relational Equations - To Analyse Customers Preference To Street Shops

2014
*
Zenodo
*

In this paper authors study the customer's preference of street shops to other eateries using Fuzzy Relation

doi:10.5281/zenodo.571460
fatcat:ssrmqvxnovbtzbd55z5hwrwfkm
*Equations*(FREs) and Neutrosophic Relation*Equations*(NREs). ... except the*reasonable*cost and expert is not able to express about the quality of food. ... That is, the matrix*equation*(1) encompasses n × s simultaneous*equations*of the form (2) . ...##
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New Type Of Fuzzy Relational Equations And Neutrosophic Relational Equations – To Analyse Customers Preference To Street Shops

2015
*
Zenodo
*

In this paper authors study the customer's preference of street shops to other eateries using Fuzzy Relation

doi:10.5281/zenodo.22608
fatcat:nr62qo4evjforgzwowqioucqxu
*Equations*(FREs) and Neutrosophic Relation*Equations*(NREs). ... except the*reasonable*cost and expert is not able to express about the quality of food. ... That is, the matrix*equation*(1) encompasses n × s simultaneous*equations*of the form (2) . ...##
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Page 1559 of Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences Vol. 63, Issue 5
[page]

2006
*
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences
*

,

*constrained*potential vorticity, and*constrained*pressure fields. 1. ... Another*reasoning*proposed by Daley (1978) relates the divergence to intrinsic mathematical properties of the initialization*equations*, namely, to the violation of ellipticity condition for the nonlinear ...##
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An algorithm for goal-driven simulation

1999
*
Proceedings of the 31st conference on Winter simulation Simulation---a bridge to the future - WSC '99
*

We propose to combine graph theoretic methods for monitoring the numerical solving process of the model and interval constraint

doi:10.1145/324138.324438
fatcat:qeyyiw32crb4vegjuk3ducrylu
*reasoning*for dealing with under-*constrained*and overconstrained problems ... This algorithm, implemented in a simulation environment called AMIA, has been successfully applied to several large models containing thousands of*equations*. ... For this*reason*, we also use interval constraint solving in our work, but only when necessary, i.e., for dealing with under-*constrained*problems, but not for*equation*solving. ...##
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FARM LEVEL IMPACTS OF CREDIT CONSTRAINTS ON AGRICULTURAL INVESTMENT AND INCOME

English

2022
*
Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences
*

English

These are referred as being socio-economical credit

doi:10.21162/pakjas/19.7872
fatcat:wsqoig436nc57f63pl5wpr3nrq
*constrained*(SCC), and the second, if the farmers did not want to apply for religious*reasons*, categorized as religious credit constraints (RCC) (Figure ... Moreover, the outcome also indicates that 34.2 percent of the rice farmers were institutionally credit*constrained*for the*reasons*, such as the high-interest rate charged by formal sources, lengthy and ...##
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Page 182 of Geographical Analysis Vol. 13, Issue 2
[page]

1981
*
Geographical Analysis
*

origin-

*constrained*trip distribution models may be determined by assessing the validity of*equations*(2)—(4) when ¢,; is defined by*equation*(7). ... Vk Fj a, + # j (8a) Similarly, evaluating the RHS of*equation*(2) yields Bi bi8 fn 4 9, Wk Fj Now, (8a) and (8b) are equal iff Og Ofix i — = 2,—— V finda, bk 3d,’ k#j and in general, there is no*reason*...##
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Constrained Differential Optimization

1987
*
Neural Information Processing Systems
*

We prove that the differential

dblp:conf/nips/PlattB87
fatcat:f6agcrepivaypmhvs5dva2qnwi
*equations*locally converge to a*constrained*minimum. ... The snake eventually attaches to the cities The*constrained*minimization in*equations*(29) and (30) is a*reasonable*method for approximately solving the TSP. ... As in*equation*( 9 ),*constrained*extrema of the energy (5) are stationary points of*equation*(10). Notice, however, the sign inversion in the*equation*for i, as compared to*equation*(9) . ...##
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Comment on Destination Independence and Separability In Origin-Constrained Trip Distribution Models

2010
*
Geographical Analysis
*

Vk Fj a, + # j (8a)
Similarly, evaluating the RHS of

doi:10.1111/j.1538-4632.1981.tb00724.x
fatcat:gscnkfdppndv5p4pnt7omtldfa
*equation*(2) yields Bi bi8 fn 4 9, Wk Fj Now, (8a) and (8b) are equal iff Og Ofix i — = 2,—— V finda, bk 3d,’ k#j and in general, there is no*reason*... origin-*constrained*trip distribution models may be determined by assessing the validity of*equations*(2)—(4) when ¢,; is defined by*equation*(7). ...##
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Canonical Equations of Singular Mechanical Systems in Terms of Quasi-coordinates

2019
*
JOURNAL OF MECHANICS OF CONTINUA AND MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES
*

The

doi:10.26782/jmcms.2019.08.00001
fatcat:qn7bz7wqfzeybnzqlprjbctg2e
*constrained*mechanical systems by quasi-coordinates are more universal than by generalized coordinates. ... In this paper, the motion*equations*of nonconservative singular mechanical systems by quasi-coordinates in phase space are studied. ... By*reasonably*constructing the quasi-velocity and combining the modified variational principle, the regular form of Boltzmann-Hamel*equations*for holonomic and nonholonomic singular systems is obtained ...##
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Euler Consumption Equation with Non-Separable Preferences over Consumption and Leisure and Collateral Constraints

2009
*
Social Science Research Network
*

During more tranquil times, evidence on collateral effects is more limited and nonseparability is sufficient to make the Euler consumption

doi:10.2139/ssrn.1428814
fatcat:wcq3vmn43jdz5osiaj3up2ajla
*equation*agree well with the data. ... This paper derives and estimates an aggregate Euler consumption*equation*which allows one to compare the importance of collateral constraints and nonseparability of consumption and leisure as alternative ... Derivation of the aggregate Euler*equation*Having derived the consumption Euler*equations*for the un-*constrained*and*constrained*households, the final step is to obtain the aggregate Euler*equation*, which ...##
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"COMMONSENSE" ARITHMETIC REASONING
[chapter]

1990
*
Readings in Qualitative Reasoning About Physical Systems
*

Arithmetic

doi:10.1016/b978-1-4832-1447-4.50029-8
fatcat:wj3keu6q7fahrfmmkp26gdqcsq
*reasoning*" can range in complexity ... This is in contrast to a system like MACSYMA which is designed to handle sets of*equations*where each*equation*involves most of the variables, that is, the resulting coefficient matrix will be ... For example, the types of domains handled by the Quantity Lattice are amenable to solution by setting up the*equations*in band matrix format and representing the matrix of*equations*as a linked ...##
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The Model Evolution Calculus with Equality
[chapter]

2005
*
Lecture Notes in Computer Science
*

For

doi:10.1007/11532231_29
fatcat:4zmryafkqzct5g3kskjhn2ja4y
*equational**reasoning*ME E uses an adapted version of the ordered paramodulation inference rule, where*equations*used for paramodulation are drawn (only) from the candidate model. ... In many theorem proving applications, a proper treatment of*equational*theories or equality is mandatory. ... Equality*Reasoning*on*Constrained*Clauses The ME E calculus operates with*constrained*clauses, defined below. ...
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