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##
###
Consistent Identification in the Limit of Rigid Grammars from Strings Is NP-hard
[chapter]

2002
*
Lecture Notes in Computer Science
*

These procedures take a set

doi:10.1007/3-540-45790-9_5
fatcat:s2kt6u7fubbvvcvud35jmk52ay
*of*structures (*strings*labeled with derivational information) as input and yield a set*of*hypotheses*in**the*form*of**grammars*. ...*The*time complexity*of*these functions however was still left an open question.*In*this paper we will show that*the*learning functions for these learnable classes are all*NP*-*hard*. ... Keywords: contextfree languages, categorial*grammar*,*identification**in**the**limit*, complexity*In*[Gol67]*the*notion*identification**in**the**limit*was introduced. ...##
###
Some Classes of Regular Languages Identifiable in the Limit from Positive Data
[chapter]

2002
*
Lecture Notes in Computer Science
*

Used with permission. p. 28
Beyond EDSM
p. 37

doi:10.1007/3-540-45790-9_6
fatcat:nmlknwqoyfbybhb6rpomqrn7qy
*Consistent**Identification**in**the**Limit**of**Rigid**Grammars**from**Strings**Is**NP*-*hard*p. 49 Some Classes*of*Regular Languages Identifiable*in**the**Limit*... k-testable Tree Languages and Applications p. 199 Fast Learning*from**Strings**of*2-Letter*Rigid**Grammars*p. 213 Learning Locally Testable Even Linear Languages*from*Positive Data p. 225 Inferring ...##
###
Finding Consistent Categorial Grammars of Bounded Value: A Parameterized Approach
[chapter]

2010
*
Lecture Notes in Computer Science
*

It was shown that for most

doi:10.1007/978-3-642-13089-2_17
fatcat:dq3dofgbpvgkvfxotvkz7jkyxa
*of*these classes, selecting a*grammar**from**the*class that*is**consistent*with*the*data*is**NP*-*hard*. ... These classes were shown to be learnable*from*text,*in**the*technical sense*of*identifiability*in**the**limit**from*positive data. ... This was originally neglected, since*the**consistency*problem was studied as an aspect*of*learning problems, specifically*of**identification**in**the**limit*. ...##
###
On families of categorial grammars of bounded value, their learnability and related complexity questions

2012
*
Theoretical Computer Science
*

It was shown that, for most

doi:10.1016/j.tcs.2012.05.016
fatcat:smkfmludnva2plrjoolamhh2ii
*of*these classes, selecting a*grammar**from**the*class that*is**consistent*with given data*is**NP*-*hard*. ... As far as*the*authors are aware, we have obtained*the*first such results for*grammar*induction problems and, more generally, learning problems*in**the**identification**in**the**limit*paradigm. 2 Apart*from*... Acknowledgments We would like to thank*the*two anonymous reviewers for their comments.*The*research was partly funded by*the*University*of*Trier, which allowed*the*first author to visit Trier. ...##
###
Fast Learning from Strings of 2-Letter Rigid Grammars
[chapter]

2002
*
Lecture Notes in Computer Science
*

It

doi:10.1007/3-540-45790-9_17
fatcat:sl4xqlen3vbtvcelpeqsuhfpem
*is*well-known that certain classes*of*classical categorial*grammars*are learnable, within Gold's paradigm*of**identification**in**the**limit*,*from*positive examples. ...*In**the*search for classes which can be learned efficiently*from**strings*, we study*the*class*of*2-letter*rigid**grammars*, which*is**the*class*of*classical categorial*grammars*with an alphabet*of*two letters ... Introduction It*is*well-known that certain classes*of*classical categorial*grammars*are learnable, within Gold's paradigm*of**identification**in**the**limit*,*from*positive examples. ...##
###
Encyclopedia of cognitive science

2003
*
ChoiceReviews
*

A categorial lexicon assigns one or more types to

doi:10.5860/choice.41-0046
fatcat:tpjsphfjqrebdnp7bt4zrng46y
*the*atomic elements*of*a language;*the*assembly*of*form and meaning*is*accounted for*in*terms*of**the*rules*of*inference for these types seen as formulas ... Cross-linguistic variation results*from*extending*the*invariant core*of**the**grammar*logic with facilities for structural reasoning. ... Kanazawa (1998) has studied formal learning theory for categorial*grammar*within Gold's paradigm*of**identification**in**the**limit*on*the*basis*of*positive data. ...##
###
Combinatory Categorial Grammar
[chapter]

2011
*
Taking Scope
*

One way to provide that explanation

doi:10.7551/mitpress/9780262017077.003.0006
fatcat:2uteapar2jd7tiku77rylcdkla
*is*to show that*the*constraints stem*from**limitations**in*automata-theoretic power*of**the**grammar*itself. ...*The*minimum apparatus besides competence*grammar*that*is*required for processing*consists**of**the*characteristic automaton for*the*relevant class*of**grammars*(including its possibly*limited*working memories ...##
###
Combinatory Categorial Grammar
[chapter]

2011
*
Non-Transformational Syntax
*

One way to provide that explanation

doi:10.1002/9781444395037.ch5
fatcat:nfovjbngrrfwxjfiqjlkiv5g6u
*is*to show that*the*constraints stem*from**limitations**in*automata-theoretic power*of**the**grammar*itself. ...*The*minimum apparatus besides competence*grammar*that*is*required for processing*consists**of**the*characteristic automaton for*the*relevant class*of**grammars*(including its possibly*limited*working memories ...##
###
Combinatory Categorial Grammar
[chapter]

2006
*
Encyclopedia of Language & Linguistics
*

One way to provide that explanation

doi:10.1016/b0-08-044854-2/02028-9
fatcat:ks4myyz6zna25jm2l433h2xqgi
*is*to show that*the*constraints stem*from**limitations**in*automata-theoretic power*of**the**grammar*itself. ...*The*minimum apparatus besides competence*grammar*that*is*required for processing*consists**of**the*characteristic automaton for*the*relevant class*of**grammars*(including its possibly*limited*working memories ...##
###
Improving dynamic software analysis by applying grammar inference principles

2008
*
Journal of Software Maintenance and Evolution Research and Practice
*

*Grammar*inference

*is*a family

*of*machine learning techniques that aim to infer

*grammars*

*from*a sample

*of*sentences

*in*some (unknown) language. ... Dynamic analysis

*is*a family

*of*techniques

*in*

*the*domain

*of*software engineering that attempts to infer rules that govern

*the*behaviour

*of*software systems

*from*a sample

*of*executions. ... ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

*The*authors thank

*the*anonymous referees for their valuable comments. ...

##
###
Fundamental methodological issues of syntactic pattern recognition

2013
*
Pattern Analysis and Applications
*

Methodological considerations on crucial issues

doi:10.1007/s10044-013-0322-1
fatcat:42h3kj4zhjdkpoiwjl5plbyece
*in*areas*of**string*and graph*grammar*-based syntactic methods are made. ... Fundamental open problems, which are frontiers*of*syntactic pattern recognition are discussed*in**the*paper. ... It results*from*a uniform*rigid*structure*of**strings*. However,*in*case*of*graph*grammars*we have to specify how to embed*the*righthand side graph*in**the*rest-graph*in*an explicit way. ...##
###
Learning Recursive Automata from Positive Examples

2006
*
Revue d'intelligence artificielle : Revue des Sciences et Technologies de l'Information
*

Finally, new learnable subclasses

doi:10.3166/ria.20.775-804
fatcat:s4kxnkdtefb7daokgwnihiaq5i
*of*categorial*grammars*are defined, for which learning*from**strings**is*nearly not more expensive than*from*structures. RÉSUMÉ. ...*The*relation between these generalized automata and categorial*grammars**is*studied*in*detail. ...*is*also*NP*-*hard*(Florêncio, 2001) . ...##
###
Parameterized Complexity in Cognitive Modeling: Foundations, Applications and Opportunities

2007
*
Computer journal
*

*In*this paper, we consider

*the*particular benefits

*of*

*the*parameterized complexity framework for identifying sources

*of*intractability

*in*cognitive models. ... We review existing applications

*of*

*the*parameterized framework to this end

*in*

*the*domains

*of*perception, action and higher cognition. ... complexity results can and should play

*in*linguistics. ...

##
###
An Extension of Finite-state Markov Decision Process and an Application of Grammatical Inference
[chapter]

2008
*
Reinforcement Learning
*

A context-free

doi:10.5772/5276
fatcat:2rtphxd6sne2jftvmxqc3zf3qi
*grammar*(CFG)*is*a quadruple denoted by , where V*is*a finite set*of*nonterminal symbols, Σ*is*a finite set*of*terminal symbols, R ⊂ V×(V ∪ Σ)**is*a finite set*of*production rules, and S ... ∈V*is**the*start symbol. ...*Identification**in**the**limit**of*right-unique simple*grammars**from*positive data 4.1 Learning simple*grammars*A most*rigid*theoretical model for learning concepts would be*identification**in**the**limit*proposed ...##
###
Clinical Text Summarization with Syntax-Based Negation and Semantic Concept Identification
[article]

2020
*
arXiv
*
pre-print

*In*

*the*era

*of*clinical information explosion, a good strategy for clinical text summarization

*is*helpful to improve

*the*clinical workflow. ... Our research objective

*is*to use

*the*biomedical ontology with semantic information, and take

*the*advantage

*from*

*the*language hierarchical structure,

*the*constituency tree,

*in*order to identify

*the*correct ...

*The*capability

*of*using regular expression

*in*linear

*string*structure

*is*interpretable but

*limited*since human assembles language

*in*a hierarchical geometrical structure rather than linear way [Hamburger ...

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