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Configurable Proof Obligations in the Frog Toolkit

Simon Fraser, Richard Banach
2007 Fifth IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering and Formal Methods (SEFM 2007)  
The Frog tool embodies a construct-based specification syntax, and its meta-language Frog-CCL allows the generic configuration of both a construct's syntax and its proof obligations.  ...  For a specific system, Frog generates the system's verification conditions mechanically from the generic ones. Relationships between systems such as refinement and retrenchment can be configured.  ...  Frog is a toolkit supporting the rigorous development of model based specifications, generating proof obligations whose discharge would verify the associated development.  ... 
doi:10.1109/sefm.2007.12 dblp:conf/sefm/FraserB07 fatcat:wvt5hjpwhzd7bjpgjcptikti6q

The Citizen Observatory: Enabling Next Generation Citizen Science

Michael O'Grady, Gregory O'Hare, Stephanie Ties, Jamie Williams
2021 Business Systems Research  
Methods/Approach: A case study was undertaken in a UNESCO-designated Biosphere Reserve.  ...  Objectives: This paper seeks to validate a Citizen Observatory in a traditional citizen science context, that of butterfly recording.  ...  The Citizen Science Toolkit (http://www.birds.cornell.edu/citscitoolkit/toolkit) offers a compilation of resources to help initiate and manage new projects; CitSci.org (http://www.citsci.org) offers a  ... 
doi:10.2478/bsrj-2021-0029 fatcat:efapk36hvfcqzfljvhnno23a2y

Planarian regeneration as a model of anatomical homeostasis: Recent progress in biophysical and computational approaches

Michael Levin, Alexis M. Pietak, Johanna Bischof
2018 Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology  
In this review article, we first highlight several deep mysteries about planarian regeneration in the context of the current paradigm in this field.  ...  Despite recent advances in the molecular genetics of stem cell differentiation, this model organism's remarkable anatomical homeostasis provokes us with truly fundamental puzzles about the origin of large-scale  ...  This paper is dedicated to the memory of C. M. Child, G. Marsh, and H. W. Beams -original pioneers in the physiology of planarian regeneration.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.semcdb.2018.04.003 pmid:29635019 pmcid:PMC6234102 fatcat:cnavurdjwff7feolid2en4hliq

Invasive Alien Species and the Protection of Biodiversity: The Role of Quarantine Laws in Resolving Inadequacies in the International Legal Regime

S. Riley
2005 Journal of environmental law  
Although states are under obligations in international environmental law to prevent the entry of, and control, those alien species that threaten biodiversity, to date state practice has often been found  ...  their international trade law obligations.  ...  Burden of Proof In any dispute, the party who bears the burden of proof bears the legal obligation of adducing evidence and making arguments before a court, panel or tribunal. 82 In evaluations to determine  ... 
doi:10.1093/jel/eqi028 fatcat:4p6hiphbaffhniftmxfhq4236e

Bioengineering tools for the production of pharmaceuticals: current perspective and future outlook

Surendra Sarsaiya, Jingshan Shi, Jishuang Chen
2019 Bioengineered  
This review highlighted the advantages and current improvement in the plant, animal and microbial bioengineering tools and outlines feasible approaches by biological and process's bioengineering levels  ...  The bioengineering tools have significant advantages through less time-consuming and utilized as a promising stage for the production of pharmaceutical bioproducts under the single platform.  ...  In addition, hereditary strategies are the fair one portion of the vital toolkit for the successful improvement of unused therapeutics.  ... 
doi:10.1080/21655979.2019.1682108 pmid:31656120 pmcid:PMC6844412 fatcat:ld5w4og4njbobin6bsl3h2aoe4

The early history of F#

Don Syme
2020 Proceedings of the ACM on Programming Languages (PACMPL)  
The researchers engaged with the company through Project 7, the initial effort to bring multiple languages to .NET, leading to the initiation of . NET Generics in 1998 and F# in 2002.  ...  I start with the origins of strongly-typed functional programming (FP) in the 1970s, 80s and 90s. During the same period, Microsoft was founded and grew to dominate the software industry.  ...  The decomposition construct plays a similar role as pattern matching but arbitrary decomposition steps can be performed with a subsequent proof obligation.  ... 
doi:10.1145/3386325 fatcat:lk7zpwvyzfdc5gkscsmqmnze2e

Are there Psychological Species?

Joshua Fost
2014 Review of Philosophy and Psychology  
Three species concepts are repurposed from biology and used to understand relationships in that tree.  ...  I argue here that people are diverse with respect to reasoning-related processes, and that these processes satisfy the basic requirements for evolving entities: they are heritable, mutable, and subject  ...  I feel obliged to say that the emotional universes we inhabit are so distinct, and in deepest ways opposed, that nothing fruitful or sincere could ever emerge from association between us.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s13164-014-0227-y fatcat:q3nk5ozbrjdz7mliymuzciprq4

Evaluation of Active Living by Design

Laura K. Brennan, Ross C. Brownson, Peter Hovmand
2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine  
Yet, community partnerships working in communities with >40% of the population from a non-Caucasian racial and ethnic background and >40% of the population in poverty implemented fewer active living promotions  ...  Rigorous, systematic examination of the underlying causal structures related to the configurations of community characteristics, preparation efforts, and implementation strategies is needed.  ...  With special thanks to the many individuals who have contributed to these efforts from Transtria LLC ( Our team is grateful for the collaboration and support from the 25  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2012.07.007 pmid:23079267 pmcid:PMC4762708 fatcat:p2qu6iblc5bljgzuvzitpw7ypm

Does Evolution Have a Target Morphology?

C. Fields, M. Levin
2020
An important aspect of regulative development and regeneration is the ability of the system to reach the same anatomical configuration from different starting points and despite perturbations -a robustness  ...  We suggest here that evolutionary and developmental processes differ primarily in scale.  ...  Acknowledgements We thank Michael Reed and Elizabeth Crone for useful pointers to references in the ecological literature.  ... 
doi:10.13133/2532-5876/16961 fatcat:jmeuyt4d5fh77dvra3pbpg5oji

Dagstuhl Reports, Volume 6, Issue 10, September 2016, Complete Issue [article]

2017
For very unexpected reasons, she could unfortunately not participate in the seminar. Participants  ...  in the union of n arbitrary theories (including for instance propositional logic), as long as each of them comes with an MCSat-friendly inference system.  ...  extent CeTA can be used to discharge termination proof obligations that arise from function definitions in Isabelle itself.  ... 
doi:10.4230/dagrep.6.10 fatcat:wq33g6exi5bzll67no5ztodtoy

The Next Decade in AI: Four Steps Towards Robust Artificial Intelligence [article]

Gary Marcus
2020 arXiv   pre-print
In contrast, I propose a hybrid, knowledge-driven, reasoning-based approach, centered around cognitive models, that could provide the substrate for a richer, more robust AI than is currently possible.  ...  Recent research in artificial intelligence and machine learning has largely emphasized general-purpose learning and ever-larger training sets and more and more compute.  ...  The first major claim this essay is this: To build a robust, knowledge-driven approach to AI we must have the machinery of symbol-manipulation in our toolkit.  ... 
arXiv:2002.06177v3 fatcat:evtkborprvcbjmk5b4vznuklli

Does the pachytene checkpoint, a feature of meiosis, filter out mistakes in double-strand DNA break repair and as a side-effect strongly promote adaptive speciation?

Victoria E Foe
2022 Integrative Organismal Biology  
During meiosis, the synaptonemal complex aligns homologous chromosome pairs and the pachytene checkpoint detects, selectively arrests, and in many organisms actively destroys gamete-producing cells with  ...  Additionally, padding transcription units with non-coding DNA (often many thousands of base pairs long) provides a readily evolvable way to set how soon in a cell cycle the various mRNAs will begin being  ...  I thank Victoria Seaver Dean for her interest in and The Seaver Institute for their support of my work.  ... 
doi:10.1093/iob/obac008 fatcat:4eypils4dretjp7ypf6d2w3mnq

Blue-Light Receptors for Optogenetics

Aba Losi, Kevin H. Gardner, Andreas Möglich
2018 Chemical Reviews  
Additionally, modified versions of these same sensory photoreceptors serve as fluorescent proteins and generators of singlet oxygen, thereby further enriching the optogenetic toolkit.  ...  The available and upcoming UV/blue-light-sensitive actuators and reporters enable the detailed and quantitative interrogation of cellular signal networks and processes in increasingly more precise and  ...  obligate post-translational maturation step permitted visualization of the infection dynamics on the minutes timescale.  ... 
doi:10.1021/acs.chemrev.8b00163 pmid:29984995 pmcid:PMC6500593 fatcat:ffigpqatwjeh5ddpaaegxmugz4

Complete Issue (2.5MB)

Daniel Grafton
2011 Commonwealth Journal of Local Governance  
Steve Martin tracks the recent history of performance evaluation in local government in the UK.  ...  Stephen Greasley's paper examines the effectiveness and stability of cabinet-style local government which was introduced in the UK in 2000.  ...  Thanks are also expressed to respondents in Freiburg for their willingness to share their experiences and to the referees who provided insightful comments on a first draft of this article.  ... 
doi:10.5130/cjlg.v0i8/9.2426 fatcat:5ujyzjqzujcwtjieymqthjigqq

Exhaustivity operators and fronted focus in Italian [chapter]

Denis Delfitto, Gaetano Fiorin
2015 Linguistics Today  
However, if our analysis of EIs as the head of DegP is right, then the external EIs seem to support syntactic movement since, as shown in the previous section, the movement comes with a crucial semantic  ...  effect. * We gratefully acknowledge the Oneida speakers from the Oneida Nation of the Thames in Ontario, Canada, who, since 1979, have so willingly and enthusiastically shared their knowledge of the Oneida  ...  (R53) the proof that the lady Lagueumelle that she washes not often the little room 'the proof that Lady L.  ... 
doi:10.1075/la.223.08del fatcat:mejhq3rgazfp3p44bv5rspipou
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