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Concept Bottleneck Models [article]

Pang Wei Koh, Thao Nguyen, Yew Siang Tang, Stephen Mussmann, Emma Pierson, Been Kim, Percy Liang
2020 arXiv   pre-print
On x-ray grading and bird identification, concept bottleneck models achieve competitive accuracy with standard end-to-end models, while enabling interpretation in terms of high-level clinical concepts  ...  By construction, we can intervene on these concept bottleneck models by editing their predicted concept values and propagating these changes to the final prediction.  ...  Theoretically analyzing concept bottlenecks. In OAI, we found that concept bottleneck models outperform standard models on task accuracy.  ... 
arXiv:2007.04612v3 fatcat:jd5hh7sp2vbg5dgsmao4z3qt3a

Concept Bottleneck Model with Additional Unsupervised Concepts [article]

Yoshihide Sawada, Keigo Nakamura
2022 arXiv   pre-print
We refer to the proposed model as the concept bottleneck model with additional unsupervised concepts (CBM-AUC). We experimentally confirmed that the proposed model outperformed CBM and SENN.  ...  However, most methods utilize post-hoc approaches rather than training the interpretable model. In this article, we propose a novel interpretable model based on the concept bottleneck model (CBM).  ...  One interpretable model is called the concept bottleneck model (CBM) [2].  ... 
arXiv:2202.01459v1 fatcat:lrx7ps3nhrhxljypvzz3fkliuq

Concept Bottleneck Model With Additional Unsupervised Concepts

Yoshihide Sawada, Keigo Nakamura
2022 IEEE Access  
We refer to the proposed model as the concept bottleneck model with additional unsupervised concepts (CBM-AUC). We experimentally confirmed that the proposed model outperformed CBM and SENN.  ...  INDEX TERMS Explainability, interpretability, concept bottleneck model, self-explaining neural network.  ...  One interpretable model is called the concept bottleneck model (CBM) [2] .  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2022.3167702 fatcat:sfpahk5nwvewfemvbpm5v3po44

Do Concept Bottleneck Models Learn as Intended? [article]

Andrei Margeloiu, Matthew Ashman, Umang Bhatt, Yanzhi Chen, Mateja Jamnik, Adrian Weller
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Concept bottleneck models map from raw inputs to concepts, and then from concepts to targets.  ...  However, we find that concept bottleneck models struggle to meet these goals.  ...  The saliency maps of Concept Bottleneck Models consistently focus on areas outside the concept of interest. Figure 5: Independent model "bill shape" concept.  ... 
arXiv:2105.04289v1 fatcat:elhnhx3gurelxajivnokjjceve

Debiasing Concept-based Explanations with Causal Analysis [article]

Mohammad Taha Bahadori, David E. Heckerman
2021 arXiv   pre-print
We also model the completeness of the concepts set and show that our debiasing method works when the concepts are not complete.  ...  Concept-based explanation approach is a popular model interpertability tool because it expresses the reasons for a model's predictions in terms of concepts that are meaningful for the domain experts.  ...  We predict d as a function of y and use it in place of the concepts in the concept bottleneck models.  ... 
arXiv:2007.11500v4 fatcat:nwn25nigqrg37ftmzhsovecqqm

Explainable Neural Network-based Modulation Classification via Concept Bottleneck Models [article]

Lauren J. Wong, Sean McPherson
2021 arXiv   pre-print
This work investigates the use of CB models as a means to provide inherent decision explanations in the context of DL-based AMC.  ...  While RFML is expected to be a key enabler of future wireless standards, a significant challenge to the widespread adoption of RFML techniques is the lack of explainability in deep learning models.  ...  CONCEPT BOTTLENECK MODELS Concept Bottleneck (CB) models first predict a number of concepts, provided during training, then use these predicted concepts to predict the target label.  ... 
arXiv:2101.01239v1 fatcat:yy6suf4aq5bwfelhfhdpy3fc3i

Promises and Pitfalls of Black-Box Concept Learning Models [article]

Anita Mahinpei, Justin Clark, Isaac Lage, Finale Doshi-Velez, Weiwei Pan
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Machine learning models that incorporate concept learning as an intermediate step in their decision making process can match the performance of black-box predictive models while retaining the ability to  ...  However, we demonstrate that the concept representations learned by these models encode information beyond the pre-defined concepts, and that natural mitigation strategies do not fully work, rendering  ...  This has significant consequences for decision-making based on interpretations of Concept Bottleneck Models.  ... 
arXiv:2106.13314v1 fatcat:zby6rcz6sfeb7dw5rsn72m46z4

Smart Manufacturing through TOC based Efficiency Monitoring System (TBEMS)

Balaji V, P. Venkumar, Sabitha MS
2018 International Journal of Engineering & Technology  
In a manufacturing environment, thus, there had been a number of techniques and concepts adapted to improvise the effectiveness thereby profits continuously.  ...  This paper deals with a novel idea of implementing TOC concept blended with Internet of Things (IoT), thereby, the speed of implementation could be augmented for early results.  ...  In a production planning environment, TOC seeks to identify and manage the bottleneck operations, which is popularly termed as DBR (Drum Buffer Rope) concept.  ... 
doi:10.14419/ijet.v7i4.10.20820 fatcat:lnk2wvjvw5hffpusiv3tolrb5q

Proposed Data-Driven Performance Measures for Comparing and Ranking Traffic Bottlenecks

David Hale, Ali Hajbabaie, Jiaqi Ma, Jia Hu, Hyoshin Park, Joe Bared
2016 Transportation Research Procedia  
It will present concepts and evidence to imply superiority of the proposed new measures.  ...  There has been a movement towards "reliability" modeling, which attempts to capture these annual effects.  ...  Figure 1 : 1 HCM Reliability Modeling Concepts (Transportation Research Board, 2010) Figure 2 : 2 Illustrations of ARM and STM Concepts Figure 3 : 3 Example ARM Based on Vehicle-Hours of Delay, as  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.trpro.2016.06.041 fatcat:6d4zbtpmezavnf4ecnuqcjngye

Concept Embedding Analysis: A Review [article]

Gesina Schwalbe
2022 arXiv   pre-print
For the computer vision domain in specific, practical assessment of DNNs requires a globally valid association of human interpretable concepts with internals of the model.  ...  The research field of concept (embedding) analysis (CA) tackles this problem: CA aims to find global, assessable associations of humanly interpretable semantic concepts (e.g., eye, bearded) with internal  ...  Concept bottleneck models General concept enforcement will ensure a set of interpretable outputs.  ... 
arXiv:2203.13909v1 fatcat:tpu2eobm2zeo7evuerphqoj7di

Deep hierarchical bottleneck MRASTA features for LVCSR

Zoltan Tuske, Ralf Schluter, Hermann Ney
2013 2013 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing  
The final system based on deep bottleneck TANDEM features clearly outperforms the hybrid approach, even if the long-term features are also presented to the deep MLP acoustic model.  ...  Furthermore, introducing a deeper structure in the hierarchical bottleneck processing the relative gain increases to 25%.  ...  As [9] has shown, the combination of the bottleneck and hierarchical concept resulted in better performance.  ... 
doi:10.1109/icassp.2013.6639013 dblp:conf/icassp/TuskeSN13 fatcat:adoujiz3tzheflnoztob7xhfgy

Stochastic or deterministic: what is the effective population size of HIV-1?

Roger D. Kouyos, Christian L. Althaus, Sebastian Bonhoeffer
2006 Trends in Microbiology  
There are important assumptions underlying the concept of N e that represent potential pitfalls when applying this concept to real data.  ...  Differential impact of bottlenecks on neutral and selected diversity Here, we consider an extension of the Wright-Fisher model incorporating selection and bottlenecks.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.tim.2006.10.001 pmid:17049239 fatcat:egac5adflzaxxfeus4tl2xxbou

Experiences with backward simulation based approach for lot release planning

Sanjay Jain, Stephen Chan
1997 Proceedings of the 29th conference on Winter simulation - WSC '97  
Bottleneck based scheduling approach suggests planning the release of lots based on the capacity of the bottleneck machines in the manufacturing process.  ...  Many scheduling systems determine the start of the first operation of the lot based on backward scheduling from its operation on the bottleneck machine.  ...  A base simulation model was built for modeling the current lot release procedures and executed with the data.  ... 
doi:10.1145/268437.268622 fatcat:5peim4naa5fdnmhs5mlnqb75vi

Monitoring Bottlenecks in Agile and Lean Software Development Projects – A Method and Its Industrial Use [chapter]

Miroslaw Staron, Wilhelm Meding
2011 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
To achieve the desired high speed of the projects and the optimal capacity, bottlenecks existing in the projects have to be monitored and effectively removed.  ...  helping other organizations to start monitoring bottlenecks in an effective way -in particular what to focus on when designing such a measurement system.  ...  Their approach was based on building a model of requirements engineering phase and using simulations to identify where bottlenecks appear. We used similar concepts as Höst et al.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-21843-9_3 fatcat:uwgbdamdvvfx3gphjtxrqt3kqm

Librarians and instructors developing student learning outcomes

Kacy Lundstrom, Britt Anna Fagerheim, Elizabeth Benson
2014 Reference Services Review  
Practical Implications (if applicable): This study can serve as a model for future collaborations with any department faculty, especially when information literacy learning outcomes need to be articulated  ...  Three significant frameworks, including threshold concepts, backward design, and decoding the disciplines, were used to facilitate effective discussion and revise learning outcomes.  ...  model, describing "learning bottlenecks" (2004).  ... 
doi:10.1108/rsr-04-2014-0007 fatcat:sdpfhf7k4fgbnkova6eji75blu
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