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Computing the Probability of False Watermark Detection [chapter]

Matt L. Miller, Jeffrey A. Bloom
2000 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Several methods of watermark detection involve computing a v ector from some input media, computing the normalized correlation between that vector and a prede ned watermark vector, and comparing the result  ...  This expression depends only on the detection threshold and the dimensionality of the watermark vector.  ...  Acknowledgements The authors are grateful to Dr. Warren Smith and Dr. Harold Stone for their helpful discussions and insights.  ... 
doi:10.1007/10719724_11 fatcat:jt7mfwdmmvfbtf25whwvkdo7oi

A new approach to countering ambiguity attacks

Husrev Taha Sencar, Qiming Li, Nasir Memon
2007 Proceedings of the 9th workshop on Multimedia & security - MM&Sec '07  
exploiting the high false-positive rate of the watermarking scheme.  ...  The reduction in false-positive probability is analyzed and compared to single watermark embedding for the additive watermarking technique through numerical solutions.  ...  The probability of detection for each watermark p mul d and the false-positive probability of p mul f p of selective watermark detection can be computed similar to (10) as p mul d = Q τ − E(ν mul |H1)  ... 
doi:10.1145/1288869.1288898 dblp:conf/mmsec/SencarLM07 fatcat:vhgjofy6qbeplftwtfqoovuez4

Digital Watermarking of Chemical Structure Sets [chapter]

Joachim J. Eggers, Wolf-Dietrich Ihlenfeldt, Bernd Girod
2001 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
For large sets of different structures, the computation or measurement of these coordinates is an expensive process.  ...  A complete watermarking system including synchronization of the watermark detector and verification of the decoded watermark message is presented.  ...  The false negative probability depends on the bit error probability Ô and the number of verification bits and can be computed by ½ ´½ Ô µ Ä . Again, independent verification bits Ò are assumed.  ... 
doi:10.1007/3-540-45496-9_15 fatcat:wxfwolpeqbgyrapskdjywip6eu

Exhaustive geometrical search and the false positive watermark detection probability

Jeroen F. Lichtenauer, Iwan Setyawan, Ton Kalker, Reginald L. Lagendijk, Edward J. Delp III, Ping W. Wong
2003 Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents V  
The maximal number of detections that can be performed in a geometrical search is bounded by the maximum false positive detection probability required by the watermark application.  ...  Furthermore, the image and key dependency of the tested watermark detector increases the random-imagerandom-key false positive detection probability, compared to the Bernoulli experiment that was used  ...  From this computational point of view, the exhaustive geometrical search was chosen to contain 150,000 watermark detections.  ... 
doi:10.1117/12.503186 dblp:conf/sswmc/LichtenauerSKL03 fatcat:hmgxepxeoffdrmbqmb6t7o3yu4

False Positive Analysis of Correlation Ratio Watermark Detection Measure

Jun Tian, Jeffrey A. Bloom, Peter G. Baum
2007 Multimedia and Expo, 2007 IEEE International Conference on  
In this paper we analyze the false positive probability of the correlation ratio detection measure under a reasonable assumption about the distribution of unwatermarked works.  ...  This false positive probability is well understood for detectors that use a normalized correlation detection measure.  ...  WATERMARK DETECTION The probability of false watermark detection is determined by the design of the watermark detector and the distribution of unwatermarked content processed by it.  ... 
doi:10.1109/icme.2007.4284726 dblp:conf/icmcs/TianBB07 fatcat:tkhlogwssjdkfnzrrgumutagtq

Hiding correlation-based watermark templates using secret modulation

Jeroen F. Lichtenauer, Iwan Setyawan, Reginald L. Lagendijk, Edward J. Delp III, Ping W. Wong
2004 Security, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents VI  
detection probability exceeds the maximum false positive detection probability required for the application.  ...  Not detecting a watermark that has been embedded is called "false negative watermark detection" or "a miss". The probabilities of these two events determine the efficiency of the watermarking system.  ... 
doi:10.1117/12.526818 dblp:conf/sswmc/LichtenauerSL04 fatcat:jded3elwcfbc5gxukli3aozh2q

Data Authentication for Wireless Sensor Networks with High Detection Efficiency Based on Reversible Watermarking

Guangyong Gao, Zhao Feng, Tingting Han
2021 Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing  
Aiming at the problems of high false positive rate and poor robustness in group verification of existing reversible watermarking schemes in WSNs, this paper proposes a scheme using reversible watermarking  ...  Analysis and experimental results show that compared with the previously known schemes, the proposed scheme can avoid false positive rate, reduce computation cost, and own stronger grouping robustness.  ...  More forward the position is, the shorter the detection time is, the lower the probability of fail of detection is.  ... 
doi:10.1155/2021/6651137 doaj:d7d59a24496440f39af02e7978d20d5e fatcat:rbo7hobuzzdxjhz4dzaabaxzte

An asymmetric subspace watermarking method for copyright protection

Jengnan Tzeng, Wen-Liang Hwang, I-Liang Chern
2005 IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing  
We investigate the conditions for a high detection probability, a low false positive probability, and the possibility of unauthorized users successfully hacking into our system.  ...  The robustness of our method is demonstrated by the simulation of various attacks.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors would like to express their gratitude to Reviewers 1 and 2 for their insightful suggestions.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tsp.2004.839921 fatcat:daihcikmmnbpfnd7rnmxpjnvle

Non-Blind Structure-Preserving Substitution Watermarking of H.264/CAVLC Inter-Frames

Thomas Stutz, Florent Autrusseau, Andreas Uhl
2014 IEEE transactions on multimedia  
The watermark detection works in the image domain and thus is robust to video format changes.  ...  Comparison to the state-of-the-art indicates a superior performance of our watermarking algorithm.  ...  The user-defined false positive probability determines how likely it is to detect the watermark in content that does not contain the watermark.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tmm.2014.2310595 fatcat:irblo6zjxrd6tl4wunyz6ut47u

An image adaptive, wavelet-based watermarking of digital images

Santa Agreste, Guido Andaloro, Daniela Prestipino, Luigia Puccio
2007 Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics  
Watermark detection applies a re-synchronization between the original and watermarked image.  ...  Experimentation on a large set of different images has shown to be resistant against geometric, filtering and StirMark attacks with a low rate of false alarm. Published by Elsevier B.V.  ...  with publisher of the images-I.D.S.  ... 
doi:10.1016/ fatcat:q4qndgz2e5byhdsjofnriyz7da

Practical Challenges for Digital Watermarking Applications

Ravi K. Sharma, Steve Decker
2002 EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing  
The application captures important aspects of watermarking systems and illustrates some of the design issues faced.  ...  We describe common attributes of watermarking systems and discuss the challenges in developing real world applications.  ...  In the original presentation of this material at MMSP01, the case study was accompanied by a demo.  ... 
doi:10.1155/s1110865702000574 fatcat:qojdomvvhbaqddgltdoomwweky

Asymptotically optimum embedding strategy for one-bit watermarking under Gaussian attacks

Pedro Comesaña, Neri Merhav, Mauro Barni, Edward J. Delp III, Ping Wah Wong, Jana Dittmann, Nasir D. Memon
2008 Security, Forensics, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents X  
The problem of asymptotically optimum watermark detection and embedding has been addressed in a recent paper by Merhav and Sabbag where the optimality criterion corresponds to the maximization of the false  ...  In particular Merhav and Sabbag derive the optimum detection rule under the assumption that the detector relies on the second order statistics of the received signal (universal detection under limited  ...  The design of the detection region was studied by Merhav and Sabbag. 12 The performance of one-bit watermarking is usually measured using the false positive and false negative probabilities, defined  ... 
doi:10.1117/12.771991 dblp:conf/sswmc/ComesanaMB08 fatcat:a3jb37zoevbgfg5tj46bzph4pu

Rotation-, scale-, and translation-invariant image watermark using higher order spectra

Hyung-Shin Kim
2003 Optical Engineering: The Journal of SPIE  
However, many of the proposed watermarking methods are vulnerable to the geometrical distortions which occur during normal use of the media.  ...  We use the higher order spectra (HOS), in particular bispectrum feature vector of an image as the watermark. Bispectrum is the Fourier spectrum of the triple correlation of a signal.  ...  False positive probability and false negative probability for various distortions of the 100 watermarked image Table 1.  ... 
doi:10.1117/1.1533796 fatcat:i36okrm7dzhrlhsvnh4bbbtday

Watermarking and ownership problem

Husrev T. Sencar, Nasir Memon
2005 Proceedings of the 5th ACM workshop on Digital rights management - DRM '05  
To mitigate these vulnerabilities, we aim at reducing the false positive rate of the watermark detection scheme.  ...  the watermark detection scheme.  ...  The probability of detection for each watermark p mul d and the false-positive probability of p mul f p of multiple watermark detection can be computed similar to (13) as p mul d = Q τ − E(d mul |H1)  ... 
doi:10.1145/1102546.1102563 dblp:conf/drm/SencarM05 fatcat:jo5pxvnairerldbb26zmjcxfeu

Video watermarking system for broadcast monitoring

Ton Kalker, Geert Depovere, Jaap Haitsma, Maurice J. Maes, Ping W. Wong, Edward J. Delp III
1999 Security and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents  
probability of false alarms, iv have a large payload at high rate, and v allow for a low complexity and a real-time detection.  ...  The key technology in the VIVA project is a new video watermarking technique by the name of JAWS Just Another Watermarking System.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors would like to acknowledge the support through the VIVA project from the ESPRIT program of the European commission.  ... 
doi:10.1117/12.344661 dblp:conf/sswmc/KalkerDHM99 fatcat:nc3jgvxwancszdoo47exmlz7ey
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