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Increasing Cognitive Load Reduces Interference from Masked Appetitive and Aversive but Not Neutral Stimuli

Rudolf Uher, Samantha J. Brooks, Savani Bartholdy, Kate Tchanturia, Iain C. Campbell, Michael A. Motes
2014 PLoS ONE  
Masked emotional (appetitive and aversive), but not neutral, stimuli interfered with performance accuracy but not response time on a cognitive task (n-back) at low (1-back), but not high (2-back) load.  ...  This study explored whether this load-dependent interference effect occurred in response to subliminal emotional stimuli.  ...  Moreover, some research groups have even reported that task load down-regulated neural activity at emotional processing sites in response to emotional stimuli [10, 14, [24] [25] [26] and reduced negative  ... 
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0094417 pmid:24709953 pmcid:PMC3978037 fatcat:umku3mgepvaofauexjq5wmnlsy

From Basic Processes to Real-World Problems: How Research on Emotion and Emotion Regulation Can Inform Understanding of Psychopathology, and Vice Versa

Daniel G. Dillon, Christen M. Deveney, Diego A. Pizzagalli
2011 Emotion Review  
Dysfunction in these mechanisms may serve as risk markers for psychopathology, while emotion regulation research demonstrates that some of them are susceptible to volitional control.  ...  Research on emotion and emotion regulation is expected to improve our understanding of psychopathology.  ...  The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NIMH, NCCAM, or NARSAD.  ... 
doi:10.1177/1754073910380973 pmid:21584224 pmcid:PMC3093667 fatcat:3nbntgph45bupkqjl3nrv5vxcm

Hippocampal regulation of aversive memories

Ki Ann Goosens
2011 Current Opinion in Neurobiology  
An emerging literature also links the hippocampus to prediction errors during fear learning and extinction.  ...  Recent studies have made important links between the hippocampus and regulation of stress hormones that affect aversive memory.  ...  Because hippocampal prediction errors may either enhance (during unexpected aversive events, for example) or reduce (during extinction) fear, it is difficult to speculate how such errors might be manipulated  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.conb.2011.04.003 pmid:21546244 pmcid:PMC3139021 fatcat:meai57qzcjgpveulmd5wrbj4ei

Altered Associative Learning and Learned Helplessness in Major Depression [chapter]

Carsten Diener
2013 Psychiatric Disorders - New Frontiers in Affective Disorders  
Their results are equivocal with studies showing enhanced activity in prefrontal, striatal and ventral tegmental areas coding reward-associated prediction errors [109] [110] [111] but also reduced prediction  ...  Only gain-related predictions and associated prediction errors were found to be expressed in the ventral striatum, while loss-related predictions and related prediction errors were localized in the amygdala  ... 
doi:10.5772/51787 fatcat:ymyt3elwzrewbk6odylvinsnlm

Emotional foundations of cognitive control

Michael Inzlicht, Bruce D. Bartholow, Jacob B. Hirsh
2015 Trends in Cognitive Sciences  
Appreciating the emotional foundations of control leads to testable predictions that can spur future research.  ...  Often seen as the paragon of higher cognition, here we suggest that cognitive control is dependent on emotion.  ...  Further evidence for the emotionally aversive nature of conflict comes from work relating response conflict to a number of other emotional primitives (Figure 2 ).  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.tics.2015.01.004 pmid:25659515 pmcid:PMC4348332 fatcat:igxs4pgfxbhyxoiesqafxgi764

Pavlovian conditioned diminution of the neurobehavioral response to threat

Adam M. Goodman, Nathaniel G. Harnett, David C. Knight
2018 Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews  
However, prior work has largely focused on the emotional response in anticipation of threat, rather than the emotional response to the threat itself.  ...  The current review is focused on recent behavioral, psychophysiological, and neural findings from Pavlovian conditioning research that is centered on the expression and regulation of the emotional response  ...  However, extinction learning assesses regulation of the anticipatory emotional response to a warning signal, while conditioned diminution procedures assess regulation of the emotional response to the threat  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2017.11.021 pmid:29203422 pmcid:PMC5744889 fatcat:b3wlpkvfyfck7h3dtca4drvpy4

Mindfulness Training Targets Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Addiction at the Attention-Appraisal-Emotion Interface

Eric L. Garland, Brett Froeliger, Matthew O. Howard
2014 Frontiers in Psychiatry  
emotions to reduce perseverative cognition and emotional arousal; enhancing metacognitive awareness to regulate drug-use action schema and decrease addiction attentional bias; promoting extinction learning  ...  Empirical evidence is presented suggesting that MBIs ameliorate addiction by enhancing cognitive regulation of a number of key processes, including: clarifying cognitive appraisal and modulating negative  ...  While acceptance of aversive mental experience may itself result in reduced negative affect (144) , mindfulness training may also exert downstream facilitative effects on cognitive regulation of emotion  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00173 pmid:24454293 pmcid:PMC3887509 fatcat:oagnw4y5pjgoxlphgzdtker4fy

Thinking like a trader selectively reduces individuals' loss aversion

P. Sokol-Hessner, M. Hsu, N. G. Curley, M. R. Delgado, C. F. Camerer, E. A. Phelps
2009 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America  
regulation strategies in reducing loss aversion both behaviorally and physiologically.  ...  Most importantly, the intentional cognitive regulation strategy, which emphasized "perspective-taking," uniquely reduced both behavioral loss aversion and arousal to losses relative to gains, largely by  ...  W e are not at the whim of our emotions-rather, research on emotion regulation suggests we have a degree of control over our affective state and can reduce or enhance the emotional impact of a given stimulus  ... 
doi:10.1073/pnas.0806761106 pmid:19289824 pmcid:PMC2656558 fatcat:ucnzalbvmfchja5hde3rjv2bei

Mindfulness and Behavior Change

Zev Schuman-Olivier, Marcelo Trombka, David A. Lovas, Judson A. Brewer, David R. Vago, Richa Gawande, Julie P. Dunne, Sara W. Lazar, Eric B. Loucks, Carl Fulwiler
2020 Harvard Review of Psychiatry  
A theoretical model of mindfulness that integrates these mechanisms with the cognitive, emotional, and self-related processes commonly described, while applying an integrated model to health behavior change  ...  The review provides insight into the limitations of current research and proposes potential mechanisms to be tested in future research and targeted in clinical practice to enhance the impact of mindfulness  ...  error signal in the NAc. 246 Therefore, with aversive experiential learning, the freeze response and fear memory get conditioned first, but then successful avoidance action gets conditioned through engagement  ... 
doi:10.1097/hrp.0000000000000277 pmid:33156156 pmcid:PMC7647439 fatcat:57d6fdkd5jgvzodwfr5a5gjbne

Reappraising fear: is up-regulation more efficient than down-regulation?

Julian Wiemer, Milena M. Rauner, Yannik Stegmann, Paul Pauli
2021 Motivation and Emotion  
Participants (N = 47) were asked (within-subjects) to down-regulate, to up-regulate and to maintain their natural emotional response.  ...  Valence and arousal ratings indicated successful up- and down-regulation of the emotional experience, while heart rate and pupil dilation increased during up-regulation, but showed no reduction in down-regulation  ...  Delgado et al. (2008) who found that thinking about something calming in nature while viewing a conditioned stimulus (CS+) predicting an aversive electric shock (unconditioned stimulus, US) reduces the  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11031-021-09871-9 fatcat:efxn3u55bjauhipq3ijnskakla

The neural correlates of sex differences in emotional reactivity and emotion regulation

Gregor Domes, Lars Schulze, Moritz Böttger, Annette Grossmann, Karlheinz Hauenstein, Petra H. Wirtz, Markus Heinrichs, Sabine C. Herpertz
2009 Human Brain Mapping  
We analyzed BOLD responses to aversive compared to neutral pictures in the initial viewing phase and the effect of cognitive reappraisal in the subsequent regulation phase.  ...  Women showed enhanced amygdala responding to aversive stimuli in the initial viewing phase, together with increased activity in small clusters within the prefrontal cortex and the temporal cortex.  ...  Thus, sex differences in emotional responding might be attributed to both enhanced emotional reactivity and/or reduced capabilities to cognitively regulate in terms of reappraisal.  ... 
doi:10.1002/hbm.20903 pmid:19957268 fatcat:524trzvofvce3li7z25t72x65m

Understanding Brain Mechanisms of Reactive Aggression

Katja Bertsch, Julian Florange, Sabine C. Herpertz
2020 Current Psychiatry Reports  
Provocation-induced aggression is strongly associated with anger and deficits in cognitive control including emotion regulation and inhibitory control.  ...  Recent Findings Aggressive reactions are closely related to activations in the brain's threat circuitry.  ...  In this study, youths with DBD also showed enhanced responsiveness to frustration, namely, negative prediction errors (punishment was greater than expected) during feedback which was processed in the caudate  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11920-020-01208-6 pmid:33180230 fatcat:yqb3nuogwreilc26xzlka7zc6u

Choosing to regulate: does choice enhance craving regulation?

Danielle Cosme, Arian Mobasser, Dagmar Zeithamova, Elliot T Berkman, Jennifer H Pfeifer
2018 Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience  
However, contrary to this prediction, choice slightly reduced regulation success.  ...  To investigate how choice affects neural activity and regulation success, participants reappraised their responses to images of personally-craved foods while undergoing functional neuroimaging.  ...  However, it is unknown whether choice will similarly enhance emotion regulation in response to appetitive stimuli.  ... 
doi:10.1093/scan/nsy010 pmid:29462475 pmcid:PMC5836273 fatcat:aobo32bmbjfahas37okzrl7zi4

Your Error's Got me Feeling – How Empathy Relates to the Electrophysiological Correlates of Performance Monitoring

Patrizia Thoma, Christian Bellebaum
2012 Frontiers in Human Neuroscience  
The error-related and feedback-related negativities (ERN and FRN) represent negative event-related potentials associated with the processing of errors and (negative) response outcomes.  ...  Empathy is conceived of as a multifaceted construct involving both cognitive and affective components, partly also supported by the ACC.  ...  INDIRECT EVIDENCE FOR A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EMPATHY AND THE ERN/FRN REPRESENTATION OF AVERSIVE EMOTIONAL STATES Given the prominent role of the ACC in cognitive and emotional control, it is not surprising  ... 
doi:10.3389/fnhum.2012.00135 pmid:22629240 pmcid:PMC3354614 fatcat:nrhzbmijsjdgpocioow4e2jcuu

The Influence of Emotion on Fairness-Related Decision Making: A Critical Review of Theories and Evidence

Ya Zheng, Zhong Yang, Chunlan Jin, Yue Qi, Xun Liu
2017 Frontiers in Psychology  
or situational source, and the interaction of emotion and cognition) on fairness-related decision making.  ...  Finally, we propose that future research on fairness-related decision making should focus on inducing incidental social emotion, avoiding irrelevant emotion when regulating, exploring the individual differences  ...  Overall, both behavioral and neural studies have shown that negative emotions enhance participants' negative responses to behaviors that violate fairness norms and reduce reward activation for fair offers  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01592 pmid:28974937 pmcid:PMC5610693 fatcat:i3scnnxc65bvbkyfhbu5of4sni
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