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Blinded by Beauty: Attractiveness Bias and Accurate Perceptions of Academic Performance

Sean N. Talamas, Kenneth I. Mavor, David I. Perrett, Kun Guo
2016 PLoS ONE  
Given the ambiguity and various perspectives on the definition of intelligence and the growing consensus on the importance of conscientiousness over intelligence in predicting actual academic performance  ...  We investigated the limiting effects of the attractiveness halo on perceptions of actual academic performance in faces of 100 university students.  ...  Acknowledgments We thank Martin Campbell for his very helpful feedback on earlier versions of the manuscript. We also thank William Peter for his assistance in participant recruitment.  ... 
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0148284 pmid:26885976 pmcid:PMC4757567 fatcat:3efjt2copfdvtfhprghechgxre

Bias in mental testing since Bias in Mental Testing

Robert T. Brown, Cecil R. Reynolds, Jean S. Whitaker
1999 School psychology quarterly  
W e conclude that empirical research to date consistently finds that standardized cognitive tests are not biased in terms o f predictive and construct validity.  ...  The interpretation of mean differences in mental test scores for native-born, Eng lish-speaking ethnic/racial subgroups is a source of major professional and public controversy (e.g., Jacoby & Glauberman  ...  Consensus in conceptual definition is not needed in order to study a phenomenon.  ... 
doi:10.1037/h0089007 fatcat:yr3bgaxfnnfsngrotzoc72si34

Individual differences in reasoning: Implications for the rationality debate?

Keith E. Stanovich, Richard F. West
2000 Behavioral and Brain Sciences  
Performance errors are a minor factor in the gap; computational limitations underlie non-normative responding on several tasks, particularly those that involve some type of cognitive decontextualization  ...  In a series of experiments involving most of the classic tasks in the heuristics and biases literature, we have examined the implications of individual differences in performance for each of the four explanations  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENT Preparation of this paper supported by NIMH Grant MH57127 to the University of California, San Diego.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0140525x00003435 fatcat:yadsuargufctfeiqlyflp5mkm4

The implications of limitations in hydrocarbon research for neuropsychological assessment

P Lees-Haley
1997 Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology  
Examples from the social-cognitive psychological literature contribute to understanding how misleading research findings can lead experts to Jbrm expectancies that bias assessment of" individuals.  ...  Selection bias in recruitment of research participants, biased recall c~f research participants, and between-study variation in neuropsychological tests and results.  ...  A major source of error is that information retrieved from memory often is biased, especially in circumstances confounded by incentives or cognitive biases.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0887-6177(96)00035-2 pmid:14588413 fatcat:gvcfdmqlrvf67pdl7otk3woctq

What Is the Problem and Why Does It Matter? [chapter]

Gale M. Sinatra, Barbara K. Hofer
2021 Science Denial  
value, understand, and accept scientific methods and findings.  ...  While acknowledging the limits and fallibility of science, they argue that if the United States is to be a leader in sustainable economic and social progress, a greater percentage of Americans need to  ...  In Chapter 4, "How Do Cognitive Biases Influence Reasoning?," we give an overview of what social and cognitive psychology can teach us about typical mental pitfalls and how to guard against them.  ... 
doi:10.1093/oso/9780190944681.003.0001 fatcat:7s2dery4ljdilcpgituvekcr2u

Intelligence analysts' training through serious games: The Leila project

A. Zanasi, F. Ruini, A. Bonzio
2017 International Journal of Safety and Security Engineering  
) focuses on 'serious games' for improving the quality of intelligence analysts' training.  ...  Building upon an in-depth study of intelligence analysts' learning needs and inspired by a multitude of disciplines, LEILA developed a set of serious games, embedded into four comprehensive 'learning experiences  ...  in recognizing and mitigating the cognitive biases that commonly affect all types of intelligence analysis' [19] .  ... 
doi:10.2495/safe-v7-n3-380-389 fatcat:fsusupyncfcc3dhzargh3gfvf4

Assessing Social-Cognitive Deficits in Schizophrenia With the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test

S. M. Eack, C. G. Greeno, M. F. Pogue-Geile, C. E. Newhill, G. E. Hogarty, M. S. Keshavan
2008 Schizophrenia Bulletin  
, work in this area has been substantially limited by a lack of consensus regarding measurement strategies for assessing social cognition and a general absence of carefully validated measurement approaches  ...  In particular, the domain of social cognition is known to be quite broad and includes many different cognitive abilities, of which emotional intelligence is but one. 16 This point is underscored by our  ... 
doi:10.1093/schbul/sbn091 pmid:18648021 pmcid:PMC2833113 fatcat:vyyj2uzrsvaytagyy24oplcwgq

Epistemological Intelligence

Steven James Bartlett
2017 Social Science Research Network  
We come face-to-face with the same issue in connection with any definition of a form of intelligence: Does that definition, one might ask, really discriminate reality along naturally existing lines of  ...  Unlike stipulative definitions, real definitions are thought to inform one about reality, and not simply to express a meaning that is to be agreed upon on the basis of mere convention.  ...  He is the author or editor of more than 20 books and monographs, and many papers and research studies in the fields of psychology, epistemology, mathematical logic, and philosophy of science.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.3089934 fatcat:jb65tsklwjdvjj5v2eni6p7yty

Human Capital and Administrative Burden: The Role of Cognitive Resources in Citizen‐State Interactions

Julian Christensen, Lene Aarøe, Martin Baekgaard, Pamela Herd, Donald P. Moynihan
2019 PAR. Public Administration Review  
Integrating insights from various disciplines, this article focuses on one aspect of human capital: cognitive resources.  ...  These factors create a human capital catch-22, increasing people's likelihood of needing state assistance while simultaneously undermining the cognitive resources required to negotiate the burdens they  ...  Acknowledgments This article is part of the Psychology of Administrative Burden project, which is funded by the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation  ... 
doi:10.1111/puar.13134 pmid:32025058 pmcid:PMC6988471 fatcat:whrz3rtzvrhpnidl7qkqjl3l7m

Modeling the cognitive antecedents and consequences of emotion

Jonathan Gratch, Stacy Marsella, Paolo Petta
2009 Cognitive Systems Research  
Introduction The last decade has seen an explosion of interest in emotion in both the social and computational sciences. Emotions arise from interactions with both people and technology.  ...  Army Research, Development, and Engineering Command (RDECOM) and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under the grant #FA9550-06-1-0206.  ...  The content does not necessarily reflect the position or the policy of the Government, and no official endorsement should be inferred.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.cogsys.2008.06.001 fatcat:4votx3q3urci5ihecqwfa2hrjy

The ethics of AI-assisted warfighter enhancement research and experimentation: Historical perspectives and ethical challenges

Jonathan Moreno, Michael L. Gross, Jack Becker, Blake Hereth, Neil D. Shortland, Nicholas G. Evans
2022 Frontiers in Big Data  
The military applications of AI raise myriad ethical challenges. Critical among them is how AI integrates with human decision making to enhance cognitive performance on the battlefield.  ...  As these technologies mature, AI-wired warfighters face potential affronts to cognitive liberty, psychological and physiological health risks and obstacles to integrating into military and civil society  ...  These algorithmic biases undermine the permissibility of unthinking reliance on purportedly "unbiased" AI.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fdata.2022.978734 fatcat:sxqjiyn6mnhzfh356sd5ymy7hq

The Elusive Muse: Understanding Musical Giftedness [chapter]

Roland S. Persson
2009 International Handbook on Giftedness  
Based on available research a conceptual model of musical giftedness is outlined based on domain generality and domain specificity, thus proposing an understanding of musical giftedness as a set of core  ...  Recent research on giftedness identification is also discussed followed by a concluding overview of potential research pitfalls as the understanding of musical giftedness continues to be explored.  ...  More recent understandings focus more on intelligence function, namely to find and solve problems.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-6162-2_36 fatcat:ak4bttqc2bhchcolkwjs6dfxtu

Recent Attribution Research in Consumer Behavior: A Review and New Directions

Valerie S. Folkes
1988 Journal of Consumer Research  
Most studies on antecedents of causal inferences focus on how information about a product influences attributions, how the discounting effect influences liking for products, and how self-perception processes  ...  Research examining consequences of causal inferences focuses on product satisfaction. Major trends in attribution theory and future research directions are indicated.  ...  Having documented these biases, future research should determine which situations give rise to motivational and cognitive biases. Other research might examine implications of these biases.  ... 
doi:10.1086/209135 fatcat:hengu53kmjegjh7hul7zsxxc5m

How to Survive the Anthropocene: Adaptive Atheism and the Evolution of Homo deiparensis

F. Shults
2015 Religions  
This article unveils some of the religious biases whose covert operation facilitates the repression or rejection of warnings about the consequences of extreme climate change and excessive capitalist consumption  ...  Learning how to contest these phylogenetically inherited and culturally fortified biases may be a necessary condition for adapting to and altering our current natural and social environments in ways that  ...  In other words, religious credulity and religious congruity biases reinforce one another. Why is this relevant for understanding and responding to climate change?  ... 
doi:10.3390/rel6020724 fatcat:5uf76yreujeute2x5hasgfow3i

Precautionary Governance and the Limits of Scientific Knowledge: A Democratic Framework for Regulating Nanotechnology

Oren Perez
2010 UCLA Journal of Environmental Law and Policy  
such as citizens' juries, focus groups and consensus conferences.' 0 7 This need reflects the limitations of the current participatory toolkit in terms of costs, limited accessibility and the unimpressive  ...  can somehow correct for our inevitable cognitive limitations?  ... 
doi:10.5070/l5281019947 fatcat:4kretabqj5emvp4x5h2ia775am
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