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Systematic Attack Surface Reduction For Deployed Sentiment Analysis Models [article]

Josh Kalin, David Noever, Gerry Dozier
2020 arXiv   pre-print
As another method, the systems can maintain a set of common substitutions such as alpha-numeric substitutions using alpha-numeric characters or other simple dictionary lookups.  ...  Attack Surface Reduction: Substitution Attacks This work features two specific types of character attacks -replacement and duplication.  ... 
arXiv:2006.11130v1 fatcat:5sw2isfxlrewldufknvxfv2iue

A compiled implementation of strong reduction

Benjamin Grégoire, Xavier Leroy
2002 SIGPLAN notices  
Our approach is based on compilation to the bytecode of an abstract machine performing weak reductions on non-closed terms, derived with minimal modifications from the ZAM machine used in the Objective  ...  An implementation in the Coq proof assistant demonstrates important speedups compared with the original interpreter-based implementation of strong reduction in Coq.  ...  Ours is broadly similar, with the exception that [13] uses explicit substitutions in the source language, while we perform classical substitution as part of the decompilation predicate in order to keep  ... 
doi:10.1145/583852.581501 fatcat:uftwfjnttve7bbxcdzfts6tb4i

A compiled implementation of strong reduction

Benjamin Grégoire, Xavier Leroy
2002 Proceedings of the seventh ACM SIGPLAN international conference on Functional programming - ICFP '02  
Our approach is based on compilation to the bytecode of an abstract machine performing weak reductions on non-closed terms, derived with minimal modifications from the ZAM machine used in the Objective  ...  An implementation in the Coq proof assistant demonstrates important speedups compared with the original interpreter-based implementation of strong reduction in Coq.  ...  Ours is broadly similar, with the exception that [13] uses explicit substitutions in the source language, while we perform classical substitution as part of the decompilation predicate in order to keep  ... 
doi:10.1145/581478.581501 dblp:conf/icfp/GregoireL02 fatcat:hyc6jim7rreu3jfllyghftt3ii

(Leftmost-Outermost) Beta Reduction is Invariant, Indeed

Beniamino Accattoli, Ugo Dal Lago, Dale Miller
2016 Logical Methods in Computer Science  
This is done by adopting the linear substitution calculus (LSC), a calculus of explicit substitutions modeled after linear logic proof nets and admitting a decomposition of leftmost-outermost derivations  ...  Useful evaluation avoids those steps that only unshare the output without contributing to beta-redexes, i.e. the steps that cause the blow-up in size.  ...  of substitutions, because they duplicate terms without ES by the subterm property.  ... 
doi:10.2168/lmcs-12(1:4)2016 fatcat:3gx2u54kxbc4xe6rmzb33gbws4

Closed types for a safe imperative MetaML

C. CALCAGNO, E. MOGGI, T. SHEARD
2003 Journal of functional programming  
We propose a type system, which exploits a notion of closed type, to check statically that an imperative multi-stage program does not cause run-time errors.  ...  In previous work, we introduced a closed type constructor , which was enough to ensure the safe execution of dynamically generated code in the pure fragment of MiniML meta ref .  ...  The • Term equivalence, written ≡, is α-conversion. FV(e) is the set of variables free in e. If E is a set of terms, then E 0 indicates the set of terms in E without free variables.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0956796802004598 fatcat:5lbvwvl3ojcq7pzegpdvzk4764

Close, But No Cigar

Gabriel Rossman, Oliver Schilke
2014 American Sociological Review  
We would like to log this variable but cannot as it has many zeroes; thus, we substitute the closely related inverse hyperbolic sine function (Burbidge, Magee, and Robb 1988) .  ...  In closing, we consider how prizes may shape entire fields.  ... 
doi:10.1177/0003122413516342 fatcat:mhrsrtn6uvgnhoptstuvmz4gvy

Graph Reduction, and How To Avoid It

Thomas Johnsson
1995 Electronical Notes in Theoretical Computer Science  
In Wadsworth's graph reducer, when applying the -reduction rule ( v:e)e 0 ) e e 0 =v] a c o p y of the graph of the body is created, with pointers to e 0 substituted for free occurrences of v.  ...  A completely di erent approach t o t h e e n vironment and substitution problem is taken by T urner 10], which in e ect uses substitution fairly directly.  ...  Thus expressions substituted have n o f r e e v ariables, thus name capture cannot occur, thus alpha conversion is not necessary. This simpli es the interpreter tremendously.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s1571-0661(05)80191-4 fatcat:gzahnac4mfe6rptlnr7mjep7by

Reduction and Conversion Strategies for the Calculus of (co)Inductive Constructions: Part I

Claudio Sacerdoti Coen
2007 Electronical Notes in Theoretical Computer Science  
We compare several reduction and conversion strategies for the Calculus of (co)Inductive Constructions by running benchmarks from the library of the Coq proof assistant.  ...  Its free variables are assigned values by the environment, that plays the role of an explicit simultaneous substitution.  ...  Reduction Reduction is defined only for CIC terms that are closed in a given environment and context.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.entcs.2007.02.050 fatcat:pq46n4chxfh7tjjtcf6lzg5tci

Reduction Semantics in Markovian Process Algebra [article]

Mario Bravetti
2015 arXiv   pre-print
On the other hand, using a structural congruence relation is a useful mechanism that is commonly adopted, for instance, in order to define semantics in reduction style for non-basic process algebras such  ...  In this paper we show how to define semantics for Markovian process algebra when structural congruence is used while inferring transitions and, as an application example, we define the reduction semantics  ...  It is immediate to verify that there exists a permutation k i , with 1 ≤ i ≤ n, such that, by alpha-conversion we can write (νq 1 → λ 1 ) . . . (νq n → λ n )P as (νq k1 → λ k1 ) . . .  ... 
arXiv:1512.07098v1 fatcat:l7tbvuq7x5axnjbb2gfc7eghe4

Closing the Knowledge Gap in Foreign Markets - A Learning Perspective

Marjorie A. Lyles, Torben Pedersen, Bent Petersen
2005 Social Science Research Network  
The study explores how firms close their knowledge gaps in relation to business environments of foreign markets.  ...  The theory presumes that closing of the knowledge gap is a longwinded process because it takes time to acquire the 'experiential knowledge' (Penrose, 1959) without which management will be reluctant  ...  One of our contributions is the finding that firms perceive greater value in closing the knowledge gap through generation of experiential knowledge instead of via acquired explicit knowledge.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.982077 fatcat:6636u6w7inbrbdymjoxxoriuhy

Asymptotics, Reduction and Emergence

C. A. Hooker
2004 British Journal for the Philosophy of Science  
This paper examines four recent, central claims by Batterman concerning asymptotics and reduction.  ...  Thus asymptotics ultimately grounds claims about inter-theoretic explanation, reduction and emergence.  ...  This is closely related to the multiple realisation argument against reduction, namely that putative realisations of some property or object are endlessly diverse, thereby preventing reduction of the property  ... 
doi:10.1093/bjps/55.3.435 fatcat:t2kgypnvifglpg3vfzhwpi35sm

A neuro-inspired model-based closed-loop neuroprosthesis for the substitution of a cerebellar learning function in anesthetized rats

Roni Hogri, Simeon A. Bamford, Aryeh H. Taub, Ari Magal, Paolo Del Giudice, Matti Mintz
2015 Scientific Reports  
Recently, closed-loop neuroprostheses, bidirectionally interfaced with the brain, have begun to emerge, offering an opportunity to substitute malfunctioning brain structures.  ...  Currently, such closed-loop neuroprostheses are considered for substitution of malfunctioning central brain structures.  ...  explicit knowledge of its elements.  ... 
doi:10.1038/srep08451 pmid:25677559 pmcid:PMC4327125 fatcat:362kco3g45httcjvlagkhmf4s4

Dynamic rebinding for marshalling and update, via redex-time and destruct-time reduction

PETER SEWELL, GARETH STOYLE, MICHAEL HICKS, GAVIN BIERMAN, KEITH WANSBROUGH
2007 Journal of functional programming  
To do so, we must first explore refinements of the call-by-value reduction strategy that delay instantiation, to ensure computations make use of the most recent versions of rebound definitions.  ...  Standard capture-avoiding substitution of e for z in e is written {e/z }e . For now we will be concerned only with the behaviour of closed expressions, without external library functions.  ...  Reduction is closed under both, via the definition of reduction contexts E 3 .  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0956796807006600 fatcat:sq5shpaj3jg2dpvcwxsidiyhge

Serre's Reduction of Linear Functional Systems

M. S. Boudellioua, A. Quadrat
2010 Mathematics in Computer Science  
Finding an equivalent representation of a linear functional system containing fewer equations and fewer unknowns generally simplifies the study of its structural properties, its closed-form integration  ...  The purpose of this paper is to present a constructive approach to Serre's reduction for determined and underdetermined linear functional systems.  ...  Appendix: Worked examples using Maple We now demonstrate how Serre's reductions can be explicitly obtained on explicit examples using the package OreModules ( [7] ).  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11786-010-0057-y fatcat:w7ibqjwmmngy3drjhwnkly5le4

Reduction semantics in Markovian process algebra

Mario Bravetti
2018 Journal of Logical and Algebraic Methods in Programming  
Semantics in reduction style is, however, often used for complex languages, due to its simplicity and conciseness.  ...  As a consequence, technical settings previously considered do not make it possible to base Markovian semantics on directly computing reductions between communicating processes: this would require the ability  ...  It is immediate to verify that there exists a permutation k i , with 1 ≤ i ≤ n, and permutation a k i , with 1 ≤ i ≤ m such that, by alpha-conversion we can write (νq 1 ) . . .  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.jlamp.2018.01.002 fatcat:rjkpzxzcoradfj4tqqsvgsmch4
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