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The authors used the Adult 372 Cinzia Perlini et al. ... Cinzia Perlini, 0000-0002-4281-0920. Table 1 . 1 Neuroimaging studies of functional and structural neural correlates of attachment Reference Participants Mean age (S.D.) ...doi:10.1017/s2045796019000271 pmid:31088586 pmcid:PMC6998975 fatcat:k4w3bveub5cjxfpbwpgouguaam
According to the social brain hypothesis, the human brain includes a network designed for the processing of social information. This network includes several brain regions that elaborate social cues, interactions and contexts, i.e. prefrontal paracingulate and parietal cortices, amygdala, temporal lobes and the posterior superior temporal sulcus. While current literature suggests the importance of this network from both a psychological and evolutionary perspective, little is known about itsdoi:10.1017/s2045796021000135 pmid:33820592 fatcat:gdiukvtzhzfkpfi6fpulxzip5i
more »... obiological bases. Specifically, only a paucity of studies explored the neural underpinnings of constructs that are ascribed to the social brain network functioning, i.e. objective social isolation and perceived loneliness. As such, this review aimed to overview neuroimaging studies that investigated social isolation in healthy subjects. Social isolation correlated with both structural and functional alterations within the social brain network and in other regions that seem to support mentalising and social processes (i.e. hippocampus, insula, ventral striatum and cerebellum). However, results are mixed possibly due to the heterogeneity of methods and study design. Future neuroimaging studies with longitudinal designs are needed to measure the effect of social isolation in experimental v. control groups and to explore its relationship with perceived loneliness, ultimately helping to clarify the neural correlates of the social brain.
Since its discovery in 1997, the default mode network (DMN) and its components have been extensively studied in both healthy individuals and psychiatric patients. Several studies have investigated possible DMN alterations in specific mental conditions such as bipolar disorder (BD). In this review, we describe current evidence from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging studies with the aim to understand possible changes in the functioning of the DMN in BD. Overall, several types ofdoi:10.1017/s2045796020000803 pmid:32895076 fatcat:mrtq6xmhmrdj3idt6fg3kg7ohy
more »... analyses including seed-based and independent component have been conducted on heterogeneous groups of patients highlighting different results. Despite the differences, findings seem to indicate that BD is associated with alterations in both frontal and posterior DMN structures, mainly in the prefrontal, posterior cingulate and inferior parietal cortices. We conclude this review by suggesting possible future research directions.
Impairments in neuro and social cognition are considered core features of schizophrenia (SCZ) since they affect patients' functioning and contribute to poor socio-occupational outcomes. Therefore, the improvement of cognitive performances has become a primary goal in the care of patients with SCZ, especially in the first phases of the disease, as early interventions may favour better long-term outcomes. Cognitive remediation (CR) is a behavioural training aimed at improving cognitive functionsdoi:10.1017/s2045796019000532 pmid:31556864 fatcat:sm3lstgmgzd3bofdcj5ubslv6u
more »... ith the goal of durability and generalisation in everyday life. Neuroimaging studies suggest that CR leads to neuroplasticity in chronic SCZ, whereas only a few studies tested the neural effects of CR in the early phase of the disease. Thus, in this review, we aimed at summarising CR-induced structural and functional brain changes in early SCZ. Existing evidence showed a protective effect of CR on grey matter volume in selected medial-temporal (i.e. hippocampus, parahippocampus and amygdala) and thalamic regions whereas functional changes affected mostly dorsolateral prefrontal and insular cortices both associated with improvements in cognitive performance and emotion regulation. Overall, CR in early SCZ appears to be associated with neural adaptations mostly allocated in prefrontal and limbic regions, however future longitudinal studies are needed to clarify whether the positive effects of cognitive training persist over time. It may also be interesting to investigate whether the application of CR in the early v. the late stage of the disease may lead to incremental benefits.
Hypothalamic abnormalities in schizophrenia have been associated with endocrine dysfunctions and stress response. The hypothalamus is involved in several pathways found disrupted in schizophrenia (e.g. hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, HPA axis); however the available results on potential structural hypothalamic alterations are still controversial. The aim of the study was to investigate the volumes of the hypothalamus and the mammillary bodies in patients with schizophrenia and healthydoi:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2012.10.006 pmid:23217575 fatcat:uftjio4qtbd3zaa5g33bmgfbeu
more »... ols. Twenty-six patients with schizophrenia and 26 healthy controls underwent a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Hypothalamus and mammillary bodies were manually traced by a rater who was blind to subjects' identity. The General Linear Model was used in group comparisons of the volumes of the hypothalamus and the mammillary bodies. The hypothalamus and mammillary body volumes were significantly larger in patients with schizophrenia than controls, with significant enlargement of the left hypothalamus and trends for significantly increased right hypothalamus and right mammillary body. The size of the mammillary bodies was inversely correlated with negative symptoms and directly correlated with anxiety. This study showed abnormally increased sizes of the hypothalamus and the mammillary bodies in schizophrenia. Mammillary bodies volumes were associated to negative symptoms and anxiety. Future longitudinal studies on the volumes of the hypothalamus and the mammillary bodies with respect to the levels of related hormones will clarify their role in modulating HPA axis in schizophrenia.
limitations critically discussed QATSDD Total Score % QATSDD Total Score D'Souza et al. 2008  Table 2 2 Assessment of studies' quality based on QATSDD method (Continued) Perlini ...doi:10.1186/s12913-020-05172-y pmid:32450871 fatcat:w2r3uen2qjd3vbscxya6yzeqvu
doi:10.1016/j.schres.2017.06.060 pmid:28729037 fatcat:lxzj5pl2pzcjxgotkpbculxvtu
Perlini, P. Rajagopalan, P. Saharan, G. Rambaldelli, M. Bellani, N. Dusi, R. Cerini, R. Pozzi Mucelli, M. Tansella and P. M. ...doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.111.105700 pmid:23284150 pmcid:PMC4113031 fatcat:464thaomjjbhzd4z326rjcim6m
Bellani M, Marzi CA, Savazzi S, Perlini C, Cerruti S, Ferro A, et al. Laterality effects in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. ... Tomasino B, Bellani M, Perlini C, Rambaldelli G, Cerini R, Isola M, et al. Altered microstructure integrity of the amygdala in schizophrenia: a bimodal MRI and DWI study. ...doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0178089 pmid:28658249 pmcid:PMC5489157 fatcat:pcos45pyw5flfk3ftnum7aj6iq
ObjectivesTo investigate the early information needs of women with a recent diagnosis of breast cancer (BC) according to their employment status.DesignCross-sectional.SettingSecondary-care patients attending three outpatient oncology clinics in northern Italy.Participants377 women with a recent diagnosis of early-stage, non-metastatic BC aged 18–75 were recruited. Of them, 164 were employed, 103 non-employed and 110 retired.Outcome measuresThe first consultation visit with an oncologist wasdoi:10.1136/bmjopen-2020-038543 pmid:32994250 pmcid:PMC7526300 fatcat:fwiov2yjvfbl3c53grswdcggcu
more »... o-recorded and analysed for the number and type of questions asked. Linear regression models considering consultations' and patients' characteristics as confounding variables were applied.ResultsEmployed patients asked significantly more questions than non-employed and retired patients (17 vs 13 and 14; F=6.04; p<0.01). When age and education were included in the statistical model, the significance of employment status was rearranged among all the variables and was no more significant (b=1.2, p=0.44). Employed women asked more questions concerning disease prognosis (0.7 vs 0.4 and 0.6; F=3.5; p=0.03), prevention (1.4 vs 0.6 and 0.7; F=10.7; p<0.01), illness management (7.2 vs 6 and 5.4; F=3.8; p=0.02) and social functioning (37% vs 18% and 20%; χ2=14.3; p<0.01) compared with the other two groups. Finally, they attended more frequently the consultation alone (37% vs 18% and 25%; χ2=10.90, p<0.01), were younger (50 vs 58 and 67 years; F=63.8; p<0.01) and with a higher level of education (77% vs 27% and 45%; χ2=68.2; p<0.01).ConclusionsEmployment status is related to the type of questions asked during the first consultation. Also, it interrelates with other patients' characteristics like age and education in determining the number of questions asked. Patients' characteristics including employment status could be considered in tailoring work and social-related information provided during the first oncological consultation. Future studies could explore potential differences in information needs according to the different kinds of work.
Adele Ferro PsyD, PhD, Cinzia Perlini, PsyD, PhD, Nicola Dusi, MD, PhD, and Veronica Marinelli, PsyD, PhD, participated in recruitment, and in collection of clinical and MRI data. ... VBM) because although VBM is rapid and fully automated, the ROI approach has more strength, namely anatomic validity (Perlini et al., 2012) . ...doi:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2017.06.010 pmid:28732208 fatcat:dduhvfhbqffd3pcf2cpgbl2pzu
This explorative cross-sectional study aims at exploring emotional distress, psychological profiles, and the attitude towards receiving psychological support in eighty-seven patients with chronic migraine (CM) undergoing OnabotulinumtoxinA prophylactic treatment (OBT-A, n = 40) or withdrawal treatment (WT, n = 47). The outcomes were explored through a specific battery of questionnaires. 25% of patients undergoing OBT-A and almost half of the patients undergoing WT reported psychologicaldoi:10.3390/toxins12090577 pmid:32911799 pmcid:PMC7551686 fatcat:plx4nkzngbekzn22qbvpam4mz4
more »... of at least moderate-severe level, respectively. Coping strategies, self-efficacy, and perceived social support were similar in the two groups. Patients undergoing OBT-A presented lower psychological inflexibility than patients undergoing WT. Predictors of higher psychological distress were low perceived social support by friends, low self-efficacy, and higher avoidance strategies. In both groups, most of the patients evaluated receiving psychological support to be useful (79%). The potential beneficial effects of OBT-A on the severity of symptoms and psychological distress might further support its role in the multidisciplinary management of patients with CM. Identifying patients with psychological vulnerabilities who may benefit from psychological support is relevant in patients with CM.
Objective: To assess the psychological distress of healthcare providers (HCPs) working in the field of obstetrics during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and to identify factors associated with psychological distress at the individual, interpersonal, and organizational level.Design: Cross-sectional survey study.Setting: Four University hospitals in Italy.Participants: HCPs working in obstetrics, including gynecologists, residents in gynecology and obstetrics, anddoi:10.3389/fpsyg.2021.632999 pmid:33897540 pmcid:PMC8062879 fatcat:yjmdxyzpnja7ffpufyjt347o3u
more »... : The 104-item survey Impatto PSIcologico COVID-19 in Ostetricia (IPSICO) was created by a multidisciplinary expert panel and administered to HCPs in obstetrics in May 2020 via a web-based platform.Main Outcome Measures: Psychological distress assessed by the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) included in the IPSICO survey.Results: The response rate to the IPSICO survey was 88.2% (503/570), and that for GHQ-12 was 84.4% (481/570). Just over half (51.1%; 246/481) of the GHQ-12 respondents reported a clinically significant level of psychological distress (GHQ-12 ≥3). Psychological distress was associated with either individual (i.e., female gender, stressful experience related to COVID-19, exhaustion, and the use of dysfunctional coping strategies), interpersonal (i.e., lower family support, limitations in interactions with colleagues), and organizational (i.e., reduced perception of protection by personal protective equipment, perceived delays on updates and gaps in information on the pandemic) factors in dealing with the pandemic.Conclusions: Results confirm the need for monitoring and assessing the psychological distress for HCPs in obstetrics. Interventions at the individual, interpersonal, and organizational level may relieve the psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic and foster resilience skills in facing emotional distress.
doi:10.1007/s00406-018-0913-3 pmid:29948252 fatcat:y5teyotbavgujcnewg7sedgxzi
Several magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and postmortem studies have supported the role of the thalamus in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Interestingly, a recent small diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) study showed abnormal thalamic microstructure in patients with schizophrenia. The objective of our study was to use structural MRI and DWI to explore for the first time both thalamic volumes and integrity in schizophrenia. We measured thalamic volumes and apparent diffusion coefficientpmid:18787663 pmcid:PMC2527722 fatcat:i2dsdqjwabeg3nnnn22cxtzipq
more »... measures bilaterally in 71 patients with schizophrenia, representative of those living in the geographically defined catchment area of South Verona (i.e., 100 000 inhabitants), and 75 individuals without schizophrenia. The presence of the adhesio interthalamica was also detected. We found no significant differences in thalamus size between patients with schizophrenia and participants in the control group, with only a trend for decreased left volumes. No abnormal frequency of the adhesio interthalamica was found. In contrast, significantly increased thalamic ADC values were shown in schizophrenia patients. Age significantly inversely correlated with thalamic volumes in both groups and correlated positively with posterior ADCs in patients with schizophrenia. No significant associations between clinical variables and either volumes or ADC values were reported. Widespread altered microstructure integrity and partially preserved thalamus size were found in schizophrenia patients. Therefore, subtle thalamic structural abnormalities are present in schizophrenia, even with maintained volumes. This may result from disruption at the cytoarchitecture level, ultimately supporting corticothalamic misconnection. Future imaging studies should further explore thalamic tissue coherence and its role for cognitive disturbances in patients at high risk for schizophrenia and in first-degree relatives.
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