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HarDNet: A Low Memory Traffic Network [article]

Ping Chao, Chao-Yang Kao, Yu-Shan Ruan, Chien-Hsiang Huang, Youn-Long Lin
2019 arXiv   pre-print
State-of-the-art neural network architectures such as ResNet, MobileNet, and DenseNet have achieved outstanding accuracy over low MACs and small model size counterparts. However, these metrics might not be accurate for predicting the inference time. We suggest that memory traffic for accessing intermediate feature maps can be a factor dominating the inference latency, especially in such tasks as real-time object detection and semantic segmentation of high-resolution video. We propose a Harmonic
more » ... Densely Connected Network to achieve high efficiency in terms of both low MACs and memory traffic. The new network achieves 35%, 36%, 30%, 32%, and 45% inference time reduction compared with FC-DenseNet-103, DenseNet-264, ResNet-50, ResNet-152, and SSD-VGG, respectively. We use tools including Nvidia profiler and ARM Scale-Sim to measure the memory traffic and verify that the inference latency is indeed proportional to the memory traffic consumption and the proposed network consumes low memory traffic. We conclude that one should take memory traffic into consideration when designing neural network architectures for high-resolution applications at the edge.
arXiv:1909.00948v1 fatcat:ri532aj42vatxorz6yyys4wuum

The effect of pulsed laser annealing on the nickel silicide formation

Hou-Yu Chen, Chia-Yi Lin, Chien-Chao Huang, Chao-Hsin Chien
2010 Microelectronic Engineering  
Pulsed laser annealing (PLA) Schottky barrier height (SBH) Rapid thermal annealing (RTA) a b s t r a c t The pulsed laser annealing (PLA) is used to assist nickel silicide transformation for Schottky barrier height reduction and tensile strain enhancement and the effect of different laser power are investigated. In this report, a two-step annealing process which combine the conventional rapid thermal annealing with pulsed laser annealing is proposed to achieve a smooth silicon-rich NiSi x
more » ... acial layer on (1 0 0) silicon. With optimized laser energy, a 0.2 eV Schottky barrier height (SBH) modulation is observed from Schottky diode electrical characterization. Furthermore, PLA provides sufficient effective temperature during silicidation which also lead to increased tensile stress of silicide film than the two-step RTA silicide is also investigated. The SBH modulation and tensile stress enhancement benefits of PLA silicidation are considered as an alternative to the conventional rapid thermal annealing for ultra-scaled devices performance enhancement.
doi:10.1016/j.mee.2010.06.009 fatcat:gpaostqzgjaf7pwmu3bcq7he64

Inhibition of Amyloid Beta Aggregation and Deposition of Cistanche tubulosa Aqueous Extract

Chien-Liang Chao, Hsin-Wen Huang, Hui-Chi Huang, Hsin-Fan Chao, Shuen-Wen Yu, Muh-Hwan Su, Chao-Jih Wang, Hang-Ching Lin
2019 Molecules  
Cistanche tubulosa aqueous extract (CTE) is already used as a botanical prescription drug for treating dementia in China. Our previous studies reported that phenylethanoid glycosides of CTE have anti-Alzheimer's disease (AD) activity by inhibiting amyloid β peptide (Aβ) aggregation and deposition. However, recent studies considered that the phenylethanoid glycosides may be metabolized by intestinal bacteria, because all analysis results showed that the bioavailability of phenylethanoid
more » ... s is extremely low. In this study we demonstrate how iron chelation plays a crucial role in the Aβ aggregation and deposition inhibition mechanism of phenylethanoid glycosides of CTE. In addition, we further proved phenylethanoid glycosides (1–3) could reach brain. Active CTE component and action mechanism confirmation will be a great help for product quality control and bioavailability studies in the future. At the same time, we provide a new analysis method useful in determining phenylethanoid glycosides (1–3) in plants, foods, blood, and tissues for chemical fingerprint and pharmacokinetic research.
doi:10.3390/molecules24040687 fatcat:exnromal6fdm7ipuiupg54ccna

Separate or intrapulmonary metastasis?

Yu-Chao Yu, Chien-Sheng Huang, Biing-Shiun Huang
2018 Journal of Thoracic Disease  
doi:10.21037/jtd.2018.08.74 pmid:30370095 pmcid:PMC6186628 fatcat:es5twzybpfdcbfttgqx4j453je

Glaulactams A-C, daphniphyllum alkaloids from Daphniphyllum glaucescens

Chih-Hua Chao, Ju-Chien Cheng, Théo P Gonçalves, Kuo-Wei Huang, Chi-Chien Lin, Hui-Chi Huang, Syh-Yuan Hwang, Yang-Chang Wu
2018 Scientific Reports  
Glaulactams A-C (1-3), which possess a novel skeleton, as well as the known compound daphmanidin B (4), were isolated from the leaves of Daphniphyllum glaucescens and separated using ion-exchange chromatography aided by NMR fingerprinting. Their structures, including their absolute configurations, were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses and time-dependent density-functional-theory-calculated electronic circular dichroism spectra; the data were subsequently analyzed to gain insight into the
more » ... pective biogenetic relationships between the isolates, which exhibited anti-H1N1 and immunosuppressive activities.
doi:10.1038/s41598-018-33748-6 pmid:30337630 pmcid:PMC6193994 fatcat:7khffe2df5gx5nb4mvg2gaxd6a

Nickel Silicide Formation using Pulsed Laser Annealing for nMOSFET Performance Improvement

Hou-Yu Chen, Chia-Yi Lin, Min-Cheng Chen, Chien-Chao Huang, Chao-Hsin Chien
2011 Journal of the Electrochemical Society  
The formation of a uniform, high tensile stress and low silicide/Si interfacial resistance nickel silicide in nMOSFET by introducing pulsed laser annealing (PLA) is reported. This annealing approach facilitated the phase transformation of nickel silicide to Si-rich NiSi x compounds using a low-thermal-budget process, improves the silicide/Si interface regularity and avoids familiar (111) NiSi 2 facet formation at a laser energy of 1.5 J cm À2 . By increasing laser energy density up to 2.3 J cm
more » ... 2 , the device performance and statistics junction leakage distribution were degraded due to the increased sheet resistance of silicide layer and the destroyed silicide/Si interface morphology. When the PLA with a laser energy density of 1.5 J cm À2 was employed for nickel silicidation on the p-type Schottky diodes, a 0.16 eV hole Schottky barrier height (SBH) increase from 0.52 to 0.68 eV was observed. In addition, the application of PLA for source/drain silicidation of nMOSFETs demonstrated an 8% enhancement in I on ÀI off characteristic relative to that obtained through the conventional two-step rapid thermal annealing (RTA). This PLA method holds promise as a potential replacement for current nickel silicide annealing approaches toward extremely scaled-down transistors.
doi:10.1149/1.3601849 fatcat:rija6ykjebefzapj2v3xty6x7q

Highly Flexible Modularized Sensor Platform

Kai-Chao Yang, Chun-Ming Huang, Chih-Chiao Yang, Chien-Ming Wu
2013 Zenodo  
Huang and C.  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.1086680 fatcat:dw6iz2fcq5fuhomdg5wps57ply

Pulmonary hamartoma mimicking primary bronchoalveolar cell carcinoma

Chun-Chao Huang, Chin-Yin Sheu, Chi-Yuan Tzen, Wen-Chien Huang
2011 Thorax  
Chun-Chao Huang, 1,2 Chin-Yin Sheu, 1 Chi-Yuan Tzen, 3 Wen-Chien Huang 4 Figure 1 1 Chest CT image with soft tissue window settings (A) and lung window settings (B) showing a 2.832.4 cm well-circumscribed  ... 
doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2011-200914 pmid:22116815 fatcat:dzyue52r5jeflpmfb3anuhlf44

Brefeldin A Effectively Inhibits Cancer Stem Cell-Like Properties and MMP-9 Activity in Human Colorectal Cancer Colo 205 Cells

Chao-Neng Tseng, Chien-Fu Huang, Chung-Lung Cho, Hsueh-Wei Chang, Chao-Wei Huang, Chien-Chih Chiu, Yung-Fu Chang
2013 Molecules  
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a small subset of cancer cells with indefinite potential for self-renewal and the capacity to drive tumorigenesis. Brefeldin A (BFA) is an antibiotic that is known to block protein transport and induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in eukaryotic cells, but its effects on colorectal CSCs are unknown. We investigated the inhibitory effect of BFA on human colorectal cancer Colo 205 cells. We found that BFA effectively reduced the survival of suspension Colo 205
more » ... s (IC 50 = ~15 ng/mL) by inducing apoptosis, and inhibited the clonogenic activity of Colo 205 CSCs in tumorsphere formation assay and soft agar colony formation assay in the same nanogram per milliliter range. We also discovered that at such low concentrations, BFA effectively induced OPEN ACCESS Molecules 2013, 18 10243 endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response as indicated by the increased mRNA expression of ER stress-related genes, such as glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). Finally, we found that BFA reduced the activity of matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9). These findings suggest that BFA can effectively suppress the progression of colorectal cancer during the tumorigenesis and metastasis stages. These results may lead to the development of novel therapies for the treatment of colorectal cancer.
doi:10.3390/molecules180910242 pmid:23973996 fatcat:ol3vp5lcw5g3rppzc4nbnk64fe

Chicken Essence Improves Exercise Performance and Ameliorates Physical Fatigue

Wen-Ching Huang, Ching-I Lin, Chien-Chao Chiu, Yi-Ting Lin, Wei-Kai Huang, Hui-Yu Huang, Chi-Chang Huang
2014 Nutrients  
Author Contributions Hui-Yu Huang and Chi-Chang Huang designed the experiments. Wen-Ching Huang, Ching-I Lin, Chien-Chao Chiu, Yi-Ting Lin and Wei-Kai Huang carried out the laboratory experiments.  ...  Wen-Ching Huang, Ching-I Lin, Hui-Yu Huang and Chi-Chang Huang analyzed the data, interpreted the results, prepared figures, and wrote the manuscript.  ... 
doi:10.3390/nu6072681 pmid:25045938 pmcid:PMC4113764 fatcat:bnjpyp2awzd3znj7fhw5hs5wje

Impact of post-deposition-annealing on the electrical characteristics of HfOxNy gate dielectric on Ge substrate

Chao-Ching Cheng, Chao-Hsin Chien, Ching-Wei Chen, Shih-Lu Hsu, Ming-Yi Yang, Chien-Chao Huang, Fu-Liang Yang, Chun-Yen Chang
2005 Microelectronic Engineering  
We systematically investigated the effect of post-deposition-annealing (PDA) on the electrical characteristics of Ge MOS capacitors with hafnium-oxynitride gate dielectric. The higher PDA temperature and longer PDA time was found to obtain the lower equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) of HfO x N y /Ge gate stack, however, with a larger hysteresis width. A lower EOT of 19.5 Å with a low leakage current of 1.8 x 10 -5 A/cm 2 at V G = -1V was achieved after 600 C annealing for 5 min. The improved
more » ... citor properties after the PDA may be closely related to the different compositions and thicknesses of the resultant interfacial layers.
doi:10.1016/j.mee.2005.04.033 fatcat:4tu3yszxfzen3apdfenb6nbo2m

The Synergistic Effects of Resveratrol combined with Resistant Training on Exercise Performance and Physiological Adaption

Nai-Wen Kan, Mon-Chien Lee, Yu-Tang Tung, Chien-Chao Chiu, Chi-Chang Huang, Wen-Ching Huang
2018 Nutrients  
The comprehensive studies done on resveratrol (RES) support that this polyphenol has multiple bioactivities and is widely accepted for dietary supplementation. Furthermore, regular exercise is known to have benefits on health and is considered as a form of preventive medicine. Although the vast majority of prior studies emphasize the efficacy of aerobic exercise in promoting physiological adaptions, other types of exercise, such as resistance exercise and high-intensity interval training
more » ... may achieve similar or different physiological outcomes. Few studies have looked into the effectiveness of a combinational, synergistic approach to exercise using a weight-loading ladder climbing animal platform. In this study, ICR mice were allocated randomly to the RES and training groups using a two-way ANOVA (RES × Training) design. Exercise capacities, including grip strength, aerobic performance, and anaerobic performance, were assessed and the physiological adaptions were evaluated using fatigue-associated indexes that were implemented immediately after the exercise intervention. In addition, glycogen levels, muscular characteristics, and safety issues, including body composition, histopathology, and biochemistry, were further elucidated. Synergistic effects were observed on grip strength, anaerobic capacities, and exercise lactate, with significant interaction effects. Moreover, the training or RES may have contributed significantly to elevating aerobic capacity, tissue glycogen, and muscle hypertrophy. Toxic and other deleterious effects were also considered to evaluate the safety of the intervention. Resistance exercise in combination with resveratrol supplementation may be applied in the general population to achieve better physiological benefits, promote overall health, and promote participation in regular physical activities.
doi:10.3390/nu10101360 pmid:30249003 pmcid:PMC6212981 fatcat:esbmxlydfvaprfojbodf5niu4e

Cardiogenic shock in Taiwan from 2003 to 2017 (CSiT-15 study)

Shih-Chieh Chien, Chien-Yi Hsu, Hung-Yi Liu, Chao-Feng Lin, Chung-Lieh Hung, Chun-Yao Huang, Li-Nien Chien
2021 Critical Care  
Background This study investigated temporal trends in the treatment and mortality of patients with cardiogenic shock (CS) in Taiwan in relation to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) accreditation implemented in 2009 and the unavailability of percutaneous ventricular assist devices. Methods Data of patients diagnosed as having CS between January 2003 and December 2017 were collected from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Each case was followed from the date of emergency
more » ... ent arrival or hospital admission for the first incident associated with a CS diagnosis up to a 1-year interval. Measurements included demographics, comorbidities, treatment, mortality, and medical costs. Using an interrupted time-series (ITS) design with multi-level mixed-effects logistic regression model, we assessed the impact of AMI accreditation implementation on the mortality of patients with AMI and CS overall and stratified by the hospital levels. Results In total, 64 049 patients with CS (mean age:70 years; 62% men) were identified. The incidence rate per 105 person-years increased from 17 in 2003 to 25 in 2010 and plateaued thereafter. Average inpatient costs increased from 159 125 points in 2003 to 240 993 points in 2017, indicating a 1.5-fold increase. The intra-aortic balloon pump application rate was approximately 22–25% after 2010 (p = 0.093). Overall, in-hospital, 30-day, and 1-year mortality declined from 60.3%, 63.0%, and 69.3% in 2003 to 47.9%, 50.8% and 59.8% in 2017, respectively. The decline in mortality was more apparent in patients with AMI-CS than in patients with non-AMI-CS. The ITS estimation revealed a 2% lower in-hospital mortality in patients with AMI-CS treated in district hospitals after the AMI accreditation had been implemented for 2 years. Conclusions In Taiwan, the burden of CS has consistently increased due to high patient complexity, advanced therapies, and stable incidence. Mortality declined over time, particularly in patients with AMI-CS, which may be attributable to advancements in AMI therapies and this quality-improving policy.
doi:10.1186/s13054-021-03820-1 pmid:34794502 pmcid:PMC8600726 fatcat:kvnl32umbzdrnnf6xgihem566e

Low-temperature growth of perpendicular FePt films

Yun-Chung Wu, Chih-Huang Lai, Chao-Chien Chiang, R.T. Huang
2005 IEEE transactions on magnetics  
L1 0 FePt films with high perpendicular coercivity were successfully fabricated by using Cr 65 Mo 15 Mn 20 underlayers with subsequent forming gas (Ar 95% + H 2 5%) annealing. To adjust the strain energy and the orientation of FePt, Fe and Pt intermediate layers were used. Samples annealed at 275 C with thin Pt layers ( 5 nm) show relatively small coercivity due to the stabilizing effects from the underlayers. With the increasing thickness of Pt, the strain was locally released and the (111)
more » ... ins appeared. The nucleation of the ordered L1 0 FePt phase accompanied the formation of the FePt (111) phase, resulting in a high coercivity but deteriorated perpendicular anisotropy. To maintain the (001) preferred orientation with high coercivity, the sample with a 3.5-nm Pt layer was annealed at 350 C. The coercivity as high as 8400 Oe was realized. Index Terms-Cr 65 Mo 15 Mn 20 , FePt, forming gas annealing, perpendicular media.
doi:10.1109/tmag.2005.855269 fatcat:a5eimn3qkjhd5e2c6fwduiinui

Blood Absolute T Cell Counts may Predict 2-Month Treatment Response in Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis

Yung-Che Chen, Huang-Chih Chang, Chung-Jen Chen, Shih-Feng Liu, Chien-Hung Chin, Chao-Chien Wu, Tung-Ying Chao, Chien-Hao Lie, Chin-Chou Wang, Meng-Chih Lin
2010 Disease Markers  
and objective:Little is known about the usefulness of lymphocyte subsets as early predictors of anti-tuberculosis (TB) treatment response in immuno-competent patients.Methods:Among a total of 64 patients with culture positive pulmonary TB, 29 remained sputum smear/culture positive or had delayed resolution on CXR (slow responders (SR)), and 35 had sputum culture conversion to negative and rapid resolution on CXR (fast responders (FR)) after two months of anti-tuberculosis treatment. Clinical
more » ... ameters and lymphocyte subsets were investigated.Results:A larger proportion of patients in the SR group had cavities on CXR, bilateral lung involvement, positive acid-fast bacilli stains, and complaint of cough at diagnosis than those in the FR group. Absolute counts of CD3+T cells (p= 0.016) and CD8+T cells (p= 0.012) at diagnosis were both significantly higher in the SR group. This trend was present throughout the 6-month treatment course. Absolute T cell counts (odds ratio (OR) 1.002, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0–1.004), positive sputum acid fast bacilli stain (OR 6.69, 95% CI 1.37–32.77) and bilateral lung involvemment on CXR (OR 13.114, 95% CI 1.87–92.14) at diagnosis were independent predictors for a slow response. Combining these three predictors, a prediction score (PS) could be calculated to display an optimal discrimination for slow response (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.855,p< 0.001) whereas absolute T cell counts yielded the highest discriminative value on an individual level (AUC = 0.676,p= 0.015).Conclusions:A higher T cell count at diagnosis in patients with TB may predict a slow response to two months of treatment. The calculation of a PS further increased predictive accuracy and performance.
doi:10.1155/2010/246451 pmid:20683148 pmcid:PMC3833334 fatcat:rl7hsbncm5fyfk3zqywx6tyuiy
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