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Molecular Imaging of Brain Tumors and Drug Delivery Using CEST MRI: Promises and Challenges

Jianpan Huang, Zilin Chen, Se-Weon Park, Joseph H. C. Lai, Kannie W. Y. Chan
2022 Pharmaceutics  
Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detects molecules in their natural forms in a sensitive and non-invasive manner.  ...  molecular alterations in the brain.  ...  Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.  ... 
doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics14020451 pmid:35214183 pmcid:PMC8880023 fatcat:hnmtrbprv5chpkp3po5eyrnsum

Non-caloric sweetener provides magnetic resonance imaging contrast for cancer detection

Puneet Bagga, Mohammad Haris, Kevin D'Aquilla, Neil E. Wilson, Francesco M. Marincola, Mitchell D. Schnall, Hari Hariharan, Ravinder Reddy
2017 Journal of Translational Medicine  
Methods: High-resolution nuclear-magnetic-resonance spectroscopy and MR studies on sucralose solution phantom were performed to detect the chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) property of sucralose  ...  For the animal experiments, female Fisher rats (F344/NCR) were used to generate 9L-gliosarcoma model. MRI with CEST experiments were performed on anesthetized rats at 9.4 T MR scanner.  ...  Acknowledgements We acknowledge Damodara Reddy for help with Animal Model preparation and Stephen Pickup for his technical assistance in using the 9.4 T animal MR  ... 
doi:10.1186/s12967-017-1221-9 pmid:28558795 pmcid:PMC5450413 fatcat:3msxf7xz7beyxbgcca5wvrknse

"Molecular" MR imaging at high fields

John C. Gore, Zhongliang Zu, Ping Wang, Hua Li, Junzhong Xu, Richard Dortch, Daniel F. Gochberg
2017 Magnetic Resonance Imaging  
iv) exploiting tissue differences in the exchange rates of molecular species such as amides or hydroxyls and (v) differences in susceptibility.  ...  However, in comparison to nuclear imaging, MRI has relatively poor sensitivity for detecting true molecular changes or for detecting the presence of targeted contrast agents, though these remain under  ...  Acknowledgments This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (grant numbers CA109106 (JCG), EB13659 and NS97821(RD), EB17873 (ZZ), CA168936 (JX) and CA184693 and EB17767 (DFG))  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.mri.2016.12.008 pmid:27939250 pmcid:PMC5660508 fatcat:ffv42tw3vvacfawkekarrwct5i

Salicylic Acid Conjugated Dendrimers Are a Tunable, High Performance CEST MRI NanoPlatform

Wojciech G. Lesniak, Nikita Oskolkov, Xiaolei Song, Bachchu Lal, Xing Yang, Martin Pomper, John Laterra, Sridhar Nimmagadda, Michael T. McMahon
2016 Nano letters (Print)  
Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) is a novel MRI contrast mechanism that is well suited for imaging, however, existing small molecule CEST agents suffer from low sensitivity.  ...  The resulting conjugates produce strong CEST contrast 9.4 ppm from water with the proton exchange tunable from ~1000 s −1 to ~4500 s −1 making these dendrimers well suited for sensitive detection.  ...  Keywords dendrimers; glioblastoma; salicylic acid; chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST); CED CEST imaging is rapidly emerging as a novel MRI contrast mechanism that is useful for molecular imaging  ... 
doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b04517 pmid:26910126 pmcid:PMC4890470 fatcat:yt4gnbwfq5f3fmyjmx6feii7uu

Investigation of optimizing and translating pH-sensitive pulsed-chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging to a 3T clinical scanner

Phillip Zhe Sun, Thomas Benner, Ashok Kumar, A. Gregory Sorensen
2008 Magnetic Resonance in Medicine  
Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI provides a sensitive detection mechanism that allows characterization of dilute labile protons usually undetectable by conventional MRI.  ...  Moreover, the pulsed-CEST sequence was translated to a 3 T clinical scanner and detected pH contrast from the labile creatine amine groups (1.9 ppm).  ...  Dean Sherry from University of Texas at Dallas for kindly sharing with us their MATLAB simulation routines.  ... 
doi:10.1002/mrm.21714 pmid:18816867 pmcid:PMC2678923 fatcat:avz5mwcg7zawffnsutk7edhpze

Mapping Brain Glucose Uptake with Chemical Exchange-Sensitive Spin-Lock Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Tao Jin, Hunter Mehrens, Kristy S Hendrich, Seong-Gi Kim
2014 Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism  
Several findings are apparent from in vivo glucoCESL studies of rat brain at 9.4 Tesla with intravenous injections.  ...  Uptake of administered D-glucose (Glc) or 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) has been indirectly mapped through the chemical exchange (CE) between glucose hydroxyl and water protons using CE-dependent saturation  ...  The authors declare no conflict of interest. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors thank Dr Ping Wang for animal preparation, and Dr Xiaopeng Zong and Professor Julie Price for helpful discussions.  ... 
doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2014.97 pmid:24865996 pmcid:PMC4126103 fatcat:vftxvqtqzvfwvdbkvbnncndwru

Magnetic resonance imaging of glutamate

Kejia Cai, Mohammad Haris, Anup Singh, Feliks Kogan, Joel H Greenberg, Hari Hariharan, John A Detre, Ravinder Reddy
2012 Nature Medicine  
Glutamate, a major neurotransmitter in the brain, shows a pHand concentration-dependent chemical exchange saturation transfer effect (GluCEST) between its amine group and bulk water, with potential for  ...  Here we describe a new MRI technique for imaging glutamate (R.R., K.C., M.H., A.S., F.K. and H.H., unpublished data) based on its chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) effect 11-15 .  ...  Glutamate, a major neurotransmitter in the brain, shows a pHand concentration-dependent chemical exchange saturation transfer effect (GluCEST) between its amine group and bulk water, with potential for  ... 
doi:10.1038/nm.2615 pmid:22270722 pmcid:PMC3274604 fatcat:6xpk3lm6evdgvfipoe2zkhcpjm

Saturation Transfer MRI for Detection of Metabolic and Microstructural Impairments Underlying Neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's Disease

Anna Orzyłowska, Wendy Oakden
2021 Brain Sciences  
In this review we cover ST-MRI studies in both humans and animal models of AD over the past 20 years. A number of magnetization transfer (MT) studies have shown promising results in human brain.  ...  Increased computing power enables more quantitative MT studies, while access to higher magnetic fields improves the specificity of chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) techniques.  ...  The funders had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, or in the decision to publish the results.  ... 
doi:10.3390/brainsci12010053 pmid:35053797 pmcid:PMC8773856 fatcat:6ad7eootjre7bomi4odqrlhnu4

Sugar alcohol provides imaging contrast in cancer detection

Puneet Bagga, Neil Wilson, Laurie Rich, Francesco M. Marincola, Mitchell D. Schnall, Hari Hariharan, Mohammad Haris, Ravinder Reddy
2019 Scientific Reports  
Here, we describe an MRI contrast method for the detection of cancer using a sugar alcohol, maltitol, a common low caloric sugar substitute that exploits the chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST  ...  In glioma carrying rats, administration of maltitol resulted in the elevation of CEST contrast in the tumor region only owing to permeable BBB.  ...  Stephen Pickup and Weixia Liu for their technical assistance in using the 9.4T horizontal bore animal MR scanner. This work was supported by the NIBIB under Grant No.  ... 
doi:10.1038/s41598-019-47275-5 pmid:31366892 pmcid:PMC6668433 fatcat:7jz2ebncbbeq3nwztzdm3mc2gq

Insight into the quantitative metrics of chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging

Hye-Young Heo, Dong-Hoon Lee, Yi Zhang, Xuna Zhao, Shanshan Jiang, Min Chen, Jinyuan Zhou
2016 Magnetic Resonance in Medicine  
Purpose-To evaluate the reliability of four CEST imaging metrics for brain tumors, at varied saturation power levels and magnetic field strengths (3-9.4 T).  ...  In the rat tumor study at 4.7 T, both CESTR and CESTR nr showed clear contrasts in the tumor with respect to the normal tissue across all saturation power levels (0.5-3 µT), while the AREX showed negligible  ...  This work was supported in part by grants from the National Institutes of Health (R01EB009731, R01CA166171, R01NS083435, R21EB015555, and P41EB015909) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China  ... 
doi:10.1002/mrm.26264 pmid:27170222 pmcid:PMC5107181 fatcat:3tw2fmpwv5hajbnlbia3ruauiy

MRI Reporter Genes

A. A. Gilad, K. Ziv, M. T. McMahon, P. C.M. van Zijl, M. Neeman, J. W.M. Bulte
2008 Journal of Nuclear Medicine  
accumulate iron as a contrast agent, and artificial proteins for imaging based on chemical exchange saturation transfer.  ...  These genes encode for proteins that emit light, bind radiolabeled probes, or, as covered in this review, modulate MRI contrast.  ...  Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) is a new type of MRI contrast that has been developed; it relies on the chemical exchange of protons of solutes such as contrast agents with bulk water (8)  ... 
doi:10.2967/jnumed.108.053520 pmid:18997049 pmcid:PMC2730187 fatcat:3sk2wuy72fadfnq47xvmfcc5ru

Amide Proton Transfer Imaging in Clinics: Basic Concepts and Current and Future Use in Brain Tumors and Stroke

Ji Eun Park, Geon-Ho Jahng, Ha-Kyu Jeong
2016 Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology  
A new class of contrast agents for MRI based on proton chemical exchange dependent saturation transfer (CEST). J Magn Reson 2000; 143:79-87 60. Jin T, Wang P, Zong X, Kim SG.  ...  APT imaging is a subset of the chemical exchange saturation transfer mechanism, which can offer unique image contrast by selectively saturating protons in target molecules that get exchanged with protons  ... 
doi:10.3348/jksr.2016.75.6.419 fatcat:7bx476wokrh5hntqsahtc6ntyq

In vitro and in vivo comparison of MRI chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) properties between native glucose and 3‐O‐Methyl‐D‐glucose in a murine tumor model

Annasofia Anemone, Martina Capozza, Francesca Arena, Sara Zullino, Paola Bardini, Enzo Terreno, Dario Livio Longo, Silvio Aime
2021 NMR in Biomedicine  
D-Glucose and 3-O-Methyl-D-glucose (3OMG) have been shown to provide contrast in magnetic resonance imaging-chemical exchange saturation transfer (MRI-CEST) images.  ...  The glucoCEST contrast enhancement in the tumor region following intravenous administration (at the 3 g/kg dose) was comparable for both molecules: 1%-2% at 3 T and 2%-3% at 7 T.  ...  A first demonstration was provided when D-Glucose chemical exchange saturation transfer (glucoCEST) showed enhanced contrast in two human breast cancer cell lines orthotopically implanted in mice, in agreement  ... 
doi:10.1002/nbm.4602 pmid:34423470 pmcid:PMC9285575 fatcat:o6imjydcwbdfjnedjm65eq4w6y

Toward 20 T magnetic resonance for human brain studies: opportunities for discovery and neuroscience rationale

Thomas F. Budinger, Mark D. Bird, Lucio Frydman, Joanna R. Long, Thomas H. Mareci, William D. Rooney, Bruce Rosen, John F. Schenck, Victor D. Schepkin, A. Dean Sherry, Daniel K. Sodickson, Charles S. Springer (+3 others)
2016 Magnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine  
for the nuclear fusion endeavors support the feasibility of a human brain MRI and MRS system with 1 ppm homogeneity over at least a 16-cm diameter volume and a bore size of 68 cm.  ...  An initiative to design and build magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) instruments at 14 T and beyond to 20 T has been underway since 2012.  ...  Chemical exchange saturation transfer The improved sensitivity and spectral resolution of high-magnetic-field MRI/MRS enables quantification of brain metabolism of neurotransmitters such as glutamine,  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10334-016-0561-4 pmid:27194154 pmcid:PMC5538368 fatcat:sbjidd4fyjfojiszbcbbbq2jea

MRI contrasts in high rank rotating frames

Timo Liimatainen, Hanne Hakkarainen, Silvia Mangia, Janne M.J. Huttunen, Christine Storino, Djaudat Idiyatullin, Dennis Sorce, Michael Garwood, Shalom Michaeli
2014 Magnetic Resonance in Medicine  
Consistent with such feature, an increased grey/ white matter contrast was observed in human and rat brain as n increased.  ...  In the present study, the RAFF method is extended for generating MRI contrasts in rotating frames of ranks 1 ≤ n ≤ 5. The developed method is entitled RAFF in rotating frame of rank n (RAFFn).  ...  The T RAFFn values were longer in the human brains at 4-T than in the rat brains in vivo and ex vivo at 9.4-T.  ... 
doi:10.1002/mrm.25129 pmid:24523028 pmcid:PMC4130909 fatcat:yvngngkisfbplckkrpoew5ssxy
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