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Character mapping and cladogram comparison versus the requirement of total evidence: does it matter for polychaete systematics?

Kirk Fitzhugh
2014 Memoirs of Museum Victoria  
The intent of abduction is to offer at least tentative causal accounts that explain character data.  ...  Keywords abductive inference, biological systematics, cladograms, phylogenetic hypotheses, requirement of total evidence "The requirement of total evidence is not itself controversial."  ...  (not abductive evidence).  ... 
doi:10.24199/j.mmv.2014.71.07 fatcat:m762kn5zhnhazdiojuuex56bie

Evidence for Evolution Versus Evidence for Intelligent Design: Parallel Confusions

Kirk Fitzhugh
2010 Evolutionary biology  
This clarification provides a strong criterion for showing the inability of an ID theory to be of utility in the ongoing process of acquiring causal understanding, that is the hallmark of science.  ...  These three classes of inference being abduction, deduction, and induction, respectively.  ...  Yet, I think that the scientific enterprise is directed towards the goal of bringing problems to an empirical resolution, or setting them aside when this cannot be done.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11692-010-9088-1 fatcat:5e2jdwa2ojdzvjcxu6jeavgfcm

Abductive Reasoning: Challenges Ahead

Atocha Aliseda
2009 THEORIA : an International Journal for Theory, History and Fundations of Science  
These contributions raise fundamental questions concerning the conjectural character of abduction, its psychological status, its logical and computational structure as well as its role as inference to  ...  The purpose of this piece is to provide a critical analysis on some key aspects of abduction, as conceived by several researchers through my book Abductive Reasoning.  ...  even more evident the artificial character of the old discovery-justification dichotomy.  ... 
doi:10.1387/theoria.446 doaj:e7f7025a69584860b0976cb940a097e6 fatcat:wtdp5hzd7fc2rpeqgdwcccmgeq

Во канцеларијата на доктор Хаус: лекции по абдуктивно расудување

Ана Димишковска
2018 Годишен зборник на Филозофскиот факултет/The Annual of the Faculty of Philosophy in Skopje  
Abduction, often defined as inference to the best explanation, is a type of reasoning that is employed in situations where there is some kind of puzzling evidence, which is to be explained by the best  ...  Amongst the different fields of application of abductive reasoning, the medical field plays an especially important role, primarily in its diagnostic aspect, where an accurate diagnosis of the cause of  ...  theory that would explain some complex data, usually of unexpected or anomalous character.  ... 
doi:10.37510/godzbo1871023d fatcat:ygmp72oqtral7ggufnx4vuvk54

Page 196 of Philosophy of Science Vol. 26, Issue 3 [page]

1959 Philosophy of Science  
Others are primarily abductive or hypothetical. Here he distinguishes hypothesis from theory as an argument resting on slight evidence from one that is well established (2.638).  ...  196 OTTO BIRD Peirce comments most directly on the methodological character of induction and abduction when he analyses the method of science at work.  ... 

Is There Abduction in Aristotle? Peirce, Eco, and Some Further Remarks

Giampaolo Proni
2016 Ocula  
The purpose of this article is to extend and refine the inquiry, trying to answer the question "Did Aristotle know Abductive reasoning?"  ...  Umberto Eco (1983), investigates, following Peirce, the presence of abductive elements in Aristotle, and extends Peirce's scope, finding more traces of hypothetical logic.  ...  Hypothesis has been called an induction of characters.  ... 
doi:10.12977/ocula83 fatcat:avoiu3fxbrhfvk5ihjbbfjvmiq

Page 90 of Therapeutic Gazette Vol. 36, Issue 2 [page]

1912 Therapeutic Gazette  
Indeed, I believe that I am safe in saying that the only evidence upon which the bursitis theory can be justified is that of Codman. It is of such a character that it must be reckoned with.  ...  In trying to establish the capsule theory it became necessary to combat the prevailing one, and my efforts were directed chiefly against Codman’s evidence.  ... 

Hypothetico-deductivism in systematics: fact or fiction?

Olivier Rieppel
2008 Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia  
What is required in addition is the causal grounding of character statements in theories of inheritance, development and function.  ...  The principle of total evidence has been invoked to render inductive inference an argument as strong as it can be, but for this to be the case the total evidence must also be relevant evidence, i.e., evidence  ...  An anonymous reviewer provided important comments on an earlier draft of the paper. All remaining flaws are, of course, my own responsibility.  ... 
doi:10.1590/s0031-10492008002300001 fatcat:lc37krbukfdwbik6ndhgwumunq

Diagrams, iconicity, and abductive discovery

Sami Paavola
2011 Semiotica: Journal of the International Association for Semiotic Studies  
Both abduction and diagrammatic reasoning bring in elements of discovery but it is not clear if abduction should be a part of a fully developed diagrammatic system or not for Peirce.  ...  This relates to Peirce's way of interpreting abduction in his later writings. Iconicity and perceptual elements as a basis for discoveries are analyzed, both in deductive and abductive reasoning.  ...  This abductive or interpretative character of perception is evident in reversible figures (like the Necker Cube) where the same visual data can be interpreted in various ways (see EP 2: 228, 1903; see  ... 
doi:10.1515/semi.2011.057 fatcat:6tcutc22afgpdbsj54jjmm5l3y

Abducting Economics

James J. Heckman, Burton Singer
2017 The American Economic Review  
JEL codes: B41, C18 Abduction is the process of generating and choosing models, hypotheses and data analyzed in response to surprising findings. All good empirical economists abduct.  ...  It asks the analyst to engage models and data in an iterative dynamic process, using multiple models and sources of data in a back and forth where both models and data are augmented as learning evolves  ...  Admissible evidence includes both received and revised theory and new facts.  ... 
doi:10.1257/aer.p20171118 pmid:29430020 pmcid:PMC5804814 fatcat:dtqtdnv5ffavjbdvnsam34ngru

Eco and Peirce on Abduction

Francesco Bellucci
2018 European Journal of Pragmatism and American Philosophy  
, and qualitative induction, which is an induction about characters.  ...  is, at bottom, an induction about characters rather than about things.  ... 
doi:10.4000/ejpap.1122 fatcat:seysi76ebzfspiuyr6zpxzjvay

Who's who in Magelona: phylogenetic hypotheses under Magelonidae Cunningham & Ramage, 1888 (Annelida: Polychaeta)

Kate Mortimer, Kirk Fitzhugh, Ana Claudia dos Brasil, Paulo Lana
2021 PeerJ  
The phylogenetic inferences were performed to causally account for 176 characters distributed among 79 subjects, and produced 2,417,600 cladograms, each with 404 steps.  ...  As such, the latter name is an empirically empty placeholder, but because of the binomial name requirement mandated by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, the definition is identical to  ...  Abductive ''support'' lacks that qualification, and character data are not test evidence.  ... 
doi:10.7717/peerj.11993 pmid:35070516 pmcid:PMC8759375 fatcat:m23ntzgypncincvtr27t32krzm

Toward a Computational Theory of Evidence-Based Reasoning for Instructable Cognitive Agents [article]

Gheorghe Tecuci, Dorin Marcu, Mihai Boicu, Steven Meckl, Chirag Uttamsingh
2019 arXiv   pre-print
for evidence-based reasoning tasks.  ...  Evidence-based reasoning is at the core of many problem-solving and decision-making tasks in a wide variety of domains.  ...  The trustworthiness of the source depends on source's character (What evidence do we have about this source's character and honesty?)  ... 
arXiv:1910.03990v1 fatcat:arniie53ovbbrmgfaz5qieogua

On the metaphysics of (epistemological) logical anti-exceptionalism

Evelyn Fernandes Erickson
2021 Principia: An International Journal of Epistemology  
as evidence for this revision.  ...  A recent logical anti-exceptionalist trend proposes that logical theories are revisable in the same manner as scientific theories, either on grounds of the method of theory selection or on what counts  ...  abduction. 8 If one wishes to use an abducted-like methodology on a priori evidence, such method would need to be independently motivated, or supported by very strong realist assumptions about the structure  ... 
doi:10.5007/1808-1711.2021.e80109 fatcat:quhlzbcg4zhblprdb4bvhpyhgi

Page 57 of Psychological Abstracts Vol. 82, Issue 1 [page]

1995 Psychological Abstracts  
It is argued that Twemlow’s discus- sion of abductions, “fantasy-prone” witnesses, and the debate about the positive or negative character of abductions and NDEs would be less confused if he adopted the  ...  Also, Twemlow failed to address a crucial difference between NDEs and abductions, namely that, unlike NDEs, abduction accounts often include claims of physical evidence. 471. Gotlib, David.  ... 
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