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Intraoral hydatid cyst: A review

Chandra Shekhar Jha, Rupam Sinha, Suman Sen, Harshvardhan Jha
2019 Journal of Oral Medicine Oral Surgery Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology  
Parasites have always been a point of interest for the medical fraternity. They cause numerous amount of diseases around the globe and are of prime importance of studies of major health organisations like WHO and CDC. Hydatid cyst are one of the commonest occurring cysts affecting the world population. However the oral complications has been less studied because of its rare occurrence in that region. This review article deals with the life cycle, intra oral complications along with diagnosis and treatment of such cysts.
doi:10.18231/j.jooo.2019.002 fatcat:ez3szlwehbaotcrdgmvbcybmgq

Bacteria in oral carcinogenesis

Chandra Shekhar Jha, Rupam Sinha, Soumyabrata Sarkar, Suman Sen, Harshvardhan Jha
2018 Journal of Oral Medicine Oral Surgery Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology  
Cancer is a subject that has got enormous depth and we clinicians are still searching for the end point. The multi centric etiopathogenesis of cancer makes it a field of enormous research. Bacteria meanwhile have been seen to cause or acts as an aggravating stimuli in different cancers of the body including the oro-facial region. Bacteria induce carcinogenesis via chronic inflammation, directly or indirectly via interference, may be by metabolism of potentially carcinogenic substances like
more » ... ldehyde causing mutagenesis. The routes are many but still needs lot of research. This review article deals with the basic knowledge of carcinogenesis caused by bacteria in oro-facial region.
doi:10.18231/2395-6194.2018.0039 fatcat:7x7p35ffybdxvnwbz7uqbq3sce

Estimation of LAI and above-ground biomass in deciduous forests: Western Ghats of Karnataka, India

Rangaswamy Madugundu, Vyjayanthi Nizalapur, Chandra Shekhar Jha
2008 International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation  
The present study deals with the estimation of tree density, basal area, biomass and carbon status with the help of nondestructive allometric equations method in tropical deciduous forest in 0.1 ha permanent plots, established in twenty sites in four districts of state of Madhya Pradesh in central India. The volume of tree was calculated using site specific local or regional volume equation. The biomass of each species was estimated taking tree volume and species specific gravity. The
more » ... ip between basal area and above ground biomass showed positive correlation for all sites and forest types. Field measurements for density ranged from 147 trees ha -1 to 777.5 trees ha -1 while basal area were 0.6 m 2 ·ha -1 to 10.72 m 2 ·ha -1 . The biomass ranged from 3.99 t·ha -1 to 53.90 t·ha -1 and carbon stock from 1.89 t·ha -1 to 25.6 t·ha -1 across the all different study sites. This study concludes that tropical deciduous forests of the studied area in Madhya Pradesh are having strong potential for carbon sequestration. Estimation of above ground tree biomass in the present study provides data for tropical deciduous forests covering a large part (24.66%) of state for further use.
doi:10.1016/j.jag.2007.11.004 fatcat:rxmviipmgvchjcf4ljt4gji7ti

Mucormycosis (Black fungus): An alarming sign for COVID-19 patients

Ritesh Kumar Srivastav, Vishal Kumar Vishwakarma, Shiv Kumar Srivastav, Mahesh Prasad, Tarique Mahmood, Chandra Shekhar Singh, Antesh Jha
2021 IP International Journal of Comprehensive and Advanced Pharmacology  
Mucormycosis (also known as zygomycosis) is a dangerous but uncommon fungal infection caused by a fungus known as mucormycetes. Mucormycosis can be caused by a variety of fungi. Mucormycetes are fungi that belong to the Mucorales scientific order. Molds can be found all over the place. Mucormycosis is a fungal infection that primarily affects persons who have health issues or who use medications that reduce the body's capacity to resist infections and illness. After inhaling fungal spores from
more » ... he air, it most usually affects the sinuses or lungs. The majority of people are unaffected by these fungus. Breathing in mucormycete spores, on the other hand, can induce an infection in the lungs or sinuses, which can spread to other regions of the body in patients with compromised immune systems. It can also happen as a result of a cut, a burn, or another sort of skin injury. The fatality rate varied based on the patient's underlying condition, the type of fungus, and the affected body part (for example, the mortality rate was 46 percent among people with sinus infections, 76 percent for pulmonary infections, and 96 percent for disseminated mucormycosis). Antifungal medicines such as amphotericin-B, isavuconazole, posaconazole, and various combinations are used to inhibit the growth. Mucormycosis was studied for its spread, symptoms, treatment, prevention, and consequences.
doi:10.18231/j.ijcaap.2021.024 fatcat:feyhmioxejaindrfkiy5pqmrdq

Investigating the 7th February, 2021 Landslide Triggered Flash Flood in the Himalayan Region Using Geospatial Techniques

Giribabu Dandabathula, Srinivasa Rao Sitiraju, Chandra Shekhar Jha
2021 European Journal of Environment and Earth Sciences  
On 7th February 2021 just before noon, news reports came in regarding a flash flood in Rishi Ganga/Dhauli Ganga River in Chamoli district of Uttarakhand state, India. This brief report puts forth the probable causes for this flash flood that has originated in the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve using geospatial datasets and techniques. Datasets obtained from MODIS, Sentinel-2B, SRTM, ICESat-2 and ERA5 have been effectively utilized to infer the details about this event. Slow drizzle to severe
more » ... all has been witnessed during 3rd to 6th February 2021 in various parts of the Himalayan region; even the Rishi Ganga witnessed a heavy snowfall during this time. Data acquired on 10th February shows a scar developed due to a landslide on the shoulder of Ronti Mountain that was situated on the western rim of the Nanda Devi sanctuary. There was a gradual rise in temperature on 7th February 2021 at the surroundings of Ronti Mountain that consequently led to a landslide. The landslide perpetuated a movement under the influence of gravity from ~5900 m to ~3900 m with a mass envelope of ~0.290 km² and a velocity of 198 m/s that may have taken ~20 seconds to hit the Ronti bank. Due to the virtue of heat energy generated during this process resulted in contributing huge moraine filled flood water, that has accelerated towards the downstream of Rishi Ganga River and there after Dhauli Ganga River. Elevation profiles from the ICESat-2 and satellite imageries confirm the pre-existing conditions of landslide that is inclusive of weathering and erosion that led to the unstable condition at transportation back-slope of the Ronti Mountain. The triggering factors that influenced this landslide event and related causes were investigated in this study and reported herewith.
doi:10.24018/ejgeo.2021.2.4.170 fatcat:eon3f5qgvjczvajjxe4awtad34

Eddy covariance based methane flux in Sundarbans mangroves, India

Chandra Shekhar Jha, Suraj Reddy Rodda, Kiran Chand Thumaty, A K Raha, V K Dadhwal
2014 Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences, Earth and Planetary Sciences  
We report the initial results of the methane flux measured using eddy covariance method during summer months from the world's largest mangrove ecosystem, Sundarbans of India. Mangrove ecosystems are known sources for methane (CH 4 ) having very high global warming potential. In order to quantify the methane flux in mangroves, an eddy covariance flux tower was recently erected in the largest unpolluted and undisturbed mangrove ecosystem in Sundarbans (India). The tower is equipped with eddy
more » ... iance flux tower instruments to continuously measure methane fluxes besides the mass and energy fluxes. This paper presents the preliminary results of methane flux variations during summer months (i.e., April and May 2012) in Sundarbans mangrove ecosystem. The mean concentrations of CH 4 emission over the study period was 1682 ± 956 ppb. The measured CH 4 fluxes computed from eddy covariance technique showed that the study area acts as a net source for CH 4 with daily mean flux of 150.22 ± 248.87 mg m −2 day −1 . The methane emission as well as its flux showed very high variability diurnally. Though the environmental conditions controlling methane emission is not yet fully understood, an attempt has been made in the present study to analyse the relationships of methane efflux with tidal activity. This present study is part of Indian Space Research Organisation-Geosphere Biosphere Program (ISRO-GBP) initiative under 'National Carbon Project'.
doi:10.1007/s12040-014-0451-y fatcat:dp2pwqxdhbfbxfmnr4vpgbubvi

Spatio-Temporal Characterization of Agriculture Residue Burning in Punjab and Haryana, India, Using MODIS and Suomi NPP VIIRS Data

Kiran Chand Thumaty, Suraj Reddy Rodda, Jayant Singhal, Rajashekar Gopalakrishnan, Chandra Shekhar Jha, Gururao Diwakar Parsi, Vinay Kumar Dadhwal
2015 Current Science  
Agriculture residue (in the form of stubble) burning is commonly practised in the northern states of India along the Indian part of the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP), predominantly in the states of Punjab and Haryana. In the present study, we characterize spatiotemporal patterns of stubble burning in Punjab and Haryana states of India, using active fire data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership -Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer
more » ... Suite (Suomi NPP-VIIRS) for kharif cropping season (September-November) 2014. Analysis of active fire locations derived from MODIS and VIIRS during September-November 2014 suggest intense practice of stubble burning in the study area with total fire detections going up to 15,222 (MODIS) and 15,568 (VIIRS). Comparative analysis of MODIS and VIIRS active fire detections suggested that VIIRS is more sensitive with higher detection capability. Further, grid-based (5  5 km) analysis of fire patterns, viz. total fire detections, fire frequency and total fire intensity using temporal (kharif season for 2004-2014) MODIS active fire locations suggest intense burning activity in the central and southern districts of Punjab during the study period. Temporal analysis of MODIS active fire locations (2004-2014) suggests a transition of decrease to increase in the total number of fire detections during October to November respectively, during 2004 through 2014.
doi:10.18520/v109/i10/1850-1868 fatcat:4vnhin7o6zhmlhaqcx7lxdapra

Efficacy and Safety of Amphotericin B Emulsion versus Liposomal Formulation in Indian Patients with Visceral Leishmaniasis: A Randomized, Open-Label Study

Shyam Sundar, Krishna Pandey, Chandreshwar Prasad Thakur, Tara Kant Jha, Vidya Nand Ravi Das, Neena Verma, Chandra Shekhar Lal, Deepak Verma, Shahnawaz Alam, Pradeep Das, Elodie Ghedin
2014 PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases  
India is home to 60% of the total global visceral leishmaniasis (VL) population. Use of long-term oral (e.g. miltefosine) and parenteral drugs, considered the mainstay for treatment of VL, is now faced with increased resistance, decreased efficacy, low compliance and safety issues. The authors evaluated the efficacy and safety of an alternate treatment option, i.e. single infusion of preformed amphotericin B (AmB) lipid emulsion (ABLE) in comparison with that of liposomal formulation (LAmB).
more » ... hods: In this multicentric, open-label study, 500 patients with VL were randomly assigned in a 3:1 ratio to receive 15 mg/kg single infusion of either ABLE (N = 376) or LAmB (N = 124). Initial cure (Day 30/45), clinical improvement (Day 30) and long term definitive cure (Day 180) were assessed. Findings: A total of 326 (86.7%) patients in the ABLE group and 122 (98.4%) patients in the LAmB group completed the study. Initial cure was achieved by 95.9% of patients in the ABLE group compared to 100% in the LAmB group (p = 0.028; 95% CI: 20.0663, 20.0150). Clinical improvement was comparable between treatments (ABLE: 98.9% vs. LAmB: 98.4%). Definitive cure was achieved in 85.9% with ABLE compared to 98.4% with LAmB. Infusion-related pyrexia (37.2% vs. 32.3%) and chills (18.4% vs. 18.5%) were comparable between ABLE and LAmB, respectively. Treatment-related serious adverse events were fewer in ABLE (0.3%) compared to LAmB (1.6%). Two deaths occurred in the ABLE group, of which one was probably related to the study drug. Nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity was not observed in either group. Conclusions: ABLE 15 mg/kg single infusion had favorable efficacy and was well tolerated. Considering the demographic profile of the population in this region, a single dose treatment offers advantages in terms of compliance, cost and applicability.
doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003169 pmid:25233346 pmcid:PMC4169371 fatcat:fiwfnblf5nbr5dmjxpeejs4g4y

Analysis of carbon dioxide, water vapour and energy fluxes over an Indian teak mixed deciduous forest for winter and summer months using eddy covariance technique

CHANDRA SHEKHAR JHA, KIRAN CHAND THUMATY, SURAJ REDDY RODDA, AJIT SONAKIA, VINAY KUMAR DADHWAL
2013 Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences, Earth and Planetary Sciences  
In the present study, we report initial results on analysis of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), water vapour (H 2 O), and energy fluxes (sensible and latent heat flux) over teak mixed deciduous forests of Madhya Pradesh, central India, during winter (November 2011 and January 2012) and summer (February-May 2012) seasons using eddy covariance flux tower datasets. During the study period, continuous fast response measurements of CO 2 , H 2 O and heat fluxes above the canopy were carried out at 10 Hz and
more » ... eraged for 30 minutes. Concurrently, slow response measurements of meteorological parameters are also being carried out. Diurnal and seasonal variations of CO 2 , H 2 O and heat fluxes were analysed and correlated with the meteorological variables. The study showed strong influence of leaf off and on scenario on the CO 2 , H 2 O and energy fluxes due to prevalence of deciduous vegetation type in the study area. Maximum amount of CO 2 was sequestered for photosynthesis during winter (monthly mean of −25 μmol/m 2 /s) compared to summer (monthly mean of −2 μmol/m 2 /s). Energy flux analysis (weekly mean) showed more energy being portioned into latent heat during winter (668 W/m 2 ) and sensible heat during summer (718 W/m 2 ).
doi:10.1007/s12040-013-0350-7 fatcat:cue3g5mpebf7peh5smy4dlcjra

Former Head of Rasa Shastra, Former Dean of Faculty of Ayurveda

Chandra Shekhar, C Jha, Chandra Shekhar, Junior Resident
Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm   unpublished
Here, an acidic fermentative preparation named as Kanji (comes under Shukta Sandhana varga) is prepared for the internal administration. Three different batches of Kanji have been made from the different Ayurvedic texts in the amount of 1545 ml, 1790 ml and 3950 ml. Total duration taken was 12 days, 15 days and 20 days respectively. On the other hand, as said in the Ayurvedic classics the internal administration of Kanji directly affects the working of Agni (digestive power) and Agni is the
more » ... cause for the origin of all types of diseases. These diseases are directly or indirectly related with the inappropriate running of the Agni. Today, it is necessary to standardize the Ayurvedic formulations before its internal use. Hence the prepared samples of Kanji were evaluated on the basis of maximum possible number of biomarkers, analytical parameters (Organo-leptic characteristics, pH, specific gravity, total solid content, total ash, total acidity and total soluble solids) and methods for analysis with the help of different types of analytical tools.
fatcat:h2dzfkhsave5zjnqlt2jmb3yi4

8-2-16 マングローブ林土壌からのメタン放出と水圏環境化学性の影響(8-2 地球環境,2016年度佐賀大会)

犬伏 和之, 新井 宏徳, 吉岡 遼, Minh Vo Quang, Tuan Vo Quoc, Tinh Tran Kim, Phu Truong Quoc, Chandra Shekhar Jha, Suraj Reddy Rodda, 間野 正美
2016 Abstracts of the Annual Meetings, Japanese Society of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition  
doi:10.20710/dohikouen.62.0_170_1 fatcat:lpql7ugrwfcarilvb5br6v4maq

High throughput detection and genetic epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 using COVIDSeq next generation sequencing [article]

Rahul C. Bhoyar, Abhinav Jain, Paras Sehgal, Mohit Kumar Divakar, Disha Sharma, Mohamed Imran, Bani Jolly, Gyan Ranjan, Mercy Rophina, Sumit Sharma, Sanjay Siwach, Kavita Pandhare (+45 others)
2020 bioRxiv   pre-print
The rapid emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as a global pandemic affecting millions of individuals globally has necessitated sensitive and high-throughput approaches for the diagnosis, surveillance and for determining the genetic epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2. In the present study, we used the COVIDSeq protocol, which involves multiplex-PCR, barcoding and sequencing of samples for high-throughput detection and deciphering the genetic epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2. We used the approach
more » ... n 752 clinical samples in duplicates, amounting to a total of 1536 samples which could be sequenced on a single S4 sequencing flow cell on NovaSeq 6000. Our analysis suggests a high concordance between technical duplicates and a high concordance of detection of SARS-CoV-2 between the COVIDSeq as well as RT-PCR approaches. An in-depth analysis revealed a total of six samples in which COVIDSeq detected SARS-CoV-2 in high confidence which were negative in RT-PCR. Additionally, the assay could detect SARS-CoV-2 in 21 samples and 16 samples which were classified inconclusive and pan-sarbeco positive respectively suggesting that COVIDSeq could be used as a confirmatory test. The sequencing approach also enabled insights into the evolution and genetic epidemiology of the SARS-CoV-2 samples. The samples were classified into a total of 3 clades. This study reports two lineages B.1.112 and B.1.99 for the first time in India. This study also revealed 1,143 unique single nucleotide variants and added a total of 73 novel variants identified for the first time. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the COVIDSeq approach for detection and genetic epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2. Our analysis suggests that COVIDSeq could be a potential high sensitivity assay for the detection of SARS-CoV-2, with an additional advantage of enabling genetic epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2.
doi:10.1101/2020.08.10.242677 fatcat:6k6neffh4nafvelf6lnnubrkoi

High throughput detection and genetic epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 using COVIDSeq next-generation sequencing

Rahul C Bhoyar, Abhinav Jain, Paras Sehgal, Mohit Kumar Divakar, Disha Sharma, Mohamed Imran, Bani Jolly, Gyan Ranjan, Mercy Rophina, Sumit Sharma, Sanjay Siwach, Kavita Pandhare (+45 others)
2021 PLoS ONE  
The rapid emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as a global pandemic affecting millions of individuals globally has necessitated sensitive and high-throughput approaches for the diagnosis, surveillance, and determining the genetic epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2. In the present study, we used the COVIDSeq protocol, which involves multiplex-PCR, barcoding, and sequencing of samples for high-throughput detection and deciphering the genetic epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2. We used the approach on
more » ... 752 clinical samples in duplicates, amounting to a total of 1536 samples which could be sequenced on a single S4 sequencing flow cell on NovaSeq 6000. Our analysis suggests a high concordance between technical duplicates and a high concordance of detection of SARS-CoV-2 between the COVIDSeq as well as RT-PCR approaches. An in-depth analysis revealed a total of six samples in which COVIDSeq detected SARS-CoV-2 in high confidence which were negative in RT-PCR. Additionally, the assay could detect SARS-CoV-2 in 21 samples and 16 samples which were classified inconclusive and pan-sarbeco positive respectively suggesting that COVIDSeq could be used as a confirmatory test. The sequencing approach also enabled insights into the evolution and genetic epidemiology of the SARS-CoV-2 samples. The samples were classified into a total of 3 clades. This study reports two lineages B.1.112 and B.1.99 for the first time in India. This study also revealed 1,143 unique single nucleotide variants and added a total of 73 novel variants identified for the first time. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the COVIDSeq approach for detection and genetic epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2. Our analysis suggests that COVIDSeq could be a potential high sensitivity assay for the detection of SARS-CoV-2, with an additional advantage of enabling the genetic epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0247115 pmid:33596239 pmcid:PMC7888613 fatcat:lf7boixozzdt3k2gsqom3jxhz4

Page 314 of National Union Catalog Vol. 49, Issue [page]

1963 National Union Catalog  
Jha Sardar, 1875-1960. 1, Title. | Tilia trensditereseg: Rishtrenirmata Seredire Pateis: | DS481.P3585 S A 66-6218 PL 480: I-H-2580 Shastri, Chandra Shekhar, ed. see Tulasiddsa, 1532-1623. 11964, Kavitavali  ...  Shastri, Chandra Shekhar. | wresfratn acere ote. Bere arate oreft. (2. deren, we Freeh, arareAt ore aretrezet ere (1963) | nme lua, facsim., ports. 22 cm. Bibliography : p. (243, | 1.  ... 

Author Index

2013 Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences, Earth and Planetary Sciences  
Chandra Shekhar Analysis of carbon dioxide, water vapour and energy fluxes over an Indian teak mixed deciduous forest for winter and summer months using eddy covariance technique 1259 Jha C S see  ...  Chandra Shekhar 1259 Romshoo S A see Badar Bazhiga 433 Roy Rakesh see Guha A 1013 Rudraswami N G see Reshma K 1161 Saha D K see Jana P K 239 Saha Puspendu Varying frontal thrust spacing  ... 
doi:10.1007/s12040-013-0384-x fatcat:bqk7qfhbs5f65chehvqnprcmn4
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