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Causality in the Context of Multiple Agents [chapter]

Robert Demolombe
2012 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
The formal definition of causality raises non trivial issues in the case of several agents acting together. Several action operators are defined in the semantics of a multi modal logic.  ...  It is refined in a restricted joint operator for cases where several sets of agents cause independently a state of affairs and it is extended to sets of agents who are acting indirectly.  ...  If there are mistakes they are the only responsibility of the author.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-31570-1_1 fatcat:zgmvrqhma5htlfnrgmxkliwpzq

Moral asymmetries in judgments of agency withstand ludicrous causal deviance

Paulo Sousa, Colin Holbrook, Lauren Swiney
2015 Frontiers in Psychology  
The asymmetry in attributions of intentionality was observed at all but the most extreme level of causal deviance, and, as we hypothesized, was mediated by attributions of blame/credit and judgments of  ...  These findings are discussed as they support a multiple-concepts interpretation of the asymmetry, wherein blame renders a naïve concept of intentional action (the outcome matches the intention) more salient  ...  It is plausible that, in the immoral context, the attribution of blame renders the agent more salient as the causal producer of the intended outcome, making deviant causal chains more tolerable and judgments  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01380 pmid:26441755 pmcid:PMC4569814 fatcat:e7dkcntqbvhdlkkgmpuyxf3kda

Bradford Hill's criteria, emerging zoonoses, and One Health

G.V. Asokan, Vanitha Asokan
2016 Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health  
Disease causality theories have moved from one or several agents causing disease in a single species, to one infectious agent causing disease in multiple species-emerging zoonoses.  ...  of the causal mechanism.  ...  Acknowledgments We thank the following from the College of Health Sciences, University of Bahrain: Dr.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.jegh.2015.10.002 pmid:26589252 pmcid:PMC7104114 fatcat:wm2bcqp4uvg7rm3dzqdvwmxria

What About a Reductionist Approach? Comments on Terry Horgan

Christian Sachse
2007 Erkenntnis: An International Journal of Scientific Philosophy  
Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this paper. Bitte Herausgeber bezüglich weiterer Verwendung dieses Artikels kontaktieren.  ...  It is possible that there are differences between this version and the published version. Es ist möglich, dass zwischen dieser und der veröffentlichten Version des Artikels Unterschiede bestehen.  ...  My thanks to the organizers of that conference, and the participants, especially Michael Esfeld, Jens Harbecke, Vera Hoffmann, Terry Horgan and Georg Sparber.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10670-007-9068-8 fatcat:iauw5lprwrbzxbt6wxumk3gi2i

CausalAgents: A Robustness Benchmark for Motion Forecasting using Causal Relationships [article]

Rebecca Roelofs, Liting Sun, Ben Caine, Khaled S. Refaat, Ben Sapp, Scott Ettinger, Wei Chai
2022 arXiv   pre-print
these labels to perturb the data by deleting non-causal agents from the scene.  ...  Specifically, we conduct an extensive labeling effort to identify causal agents, or agents whose presence influences human driver behavior in any way, in the Waymo Open Motion Dataset (WOMD), and we use  ...  agents divided by the number of all context agents) in the scenarios, and the minimum distance from the AV to removed non-causal agents.  ... 
arXiv:2207.03586v1 fatcat:d4ocaisg6fc7zawqmwvtin3iga

On the use of reduction relations to relate different types of agent models

Jan Treur
2011 Web Intelligence and Agent Systems  
Approaches on reduction from philosophical literature are analysed in a formalised manner, and extended by incorporating context-dependency w.r.t. specific makeups for their realisations.  ...  It is shown how these context-dependent reduction approaches can be translated into each other and how they can be applied to relate agent models.  ...  Acknowledgements The paper has benefit from constructive comments by the anonymous reviewers.  ... 
doi:10.3233/wia-2011-0207 fatcat:otroxwyeijgiflwwfoxqh27h7u

Causal Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning: Review and Open Problems [article]

St John Grimbly, Jonathan Shock, Arnu Pretorius
2021 arXiv   pre-print
We highlight key challenges in MARL and discuss these in the context of how causal methods may assist in tackling them. We promote moving toward a 'causality first' perspective on MARL.  ...  This paper serves to introduce the reader to the field of multi-agent reinforcement learning (MARL) and its intersection with methods from the study of causality.  ...  Acknowledgement St John Grimbly acknowledges support from the University of Cape Town and ETDP SETA.  ... 
arXiv:2111.06721v2 fatcat:jm7lrs7mhjd7liy7akos2zk2tu

Reduction Relations for Agent Models

Jan Treur
2008 2008 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence and Intelligent Agent Technology  
Approaches on reduction from philosophical literature are analysed in a formalised manner, and extended by incorporating context-dependency w.r.t. specific makeups for their realisations.  ...  It is shown how these context-dependent reduction approaches can be translated into each other and how they can be applied to relate agent models.  ...  In general such a changed makeup S' can be a realisation of the same or of another higher-level agent model.  ... 
doi:10.1109/wiiat.2008.273 dblp:conf/iat/Treur08 fatcat:nx4dv3fnxfepvimpzaqxmtkhuy

Formalizing the Role of Agent-Based Modeling in Causal Inference and Epidemiology

Brandon D. L. Marshall, Sandro Galea
2014 American Journal of Epidemiology  
Agent-Based Models and Causal Inference 93 Am J Epidemiol. 2015;181(2):92-99 Agent-Based Models and Causal Inference 95 Am J Epidemiol. 2015;181(2):92-99 Agent-Based Models and Causal Inference 97 Am J  ...  Filipe Monteiro for his assistance in preparing the manuscript, including support related to the development of mathematical notation used throughout.  ...  Portions of this research have been presented at the American Public Health Association annual meeting, November 2-6, 2013, Boston, Massachusetts, and at the 46th annual meeting of the Society for Epidemiologic  ... 
doi:10.1093/aje/kwu274 pmid:25480821 pmcid:PMC4351348 fatcat:xzatb5uycjaezdpnwrjfm4msz4

Collaborating with Multiple Distributed Perspectives and Memories [chapter]

Anthony J. Ford, Alice M. Mulvehill
2009 Social Computing and Behavioral Modeling  
Includes the recorded experiences of a particular operator or a set of operators in a given problem solving context.  ...  no two experiences are exactly the same Approach: • Planning agents contribute and understand unique experiences in a group context.  ...  Experimental Results • Our results show the combination of policies was disadvantageous. • A possible explanation is the failure of the individual experiences to capture more sophisticated causal linkages  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-0056-2_12 fatcat:7oma4ntyivfdlbtpph5cxwy3du

Page 562 of Biological Reviews Vol. 89, Issue 3 [page]

2014 Biological Reviews  
context of agent—environment coupling.  ...  The very idea of the framework is to create experiments and computer simulations which share common grounding and related contexts to discover the causal factors in systems that lead to robust behaviour  ... 

Opportunity or dead end? Rethinking the study of entrepreneurial action without a concept of opportunity

John Kitching, Julia Rouse
2016 International Small Business Journal  
Our central criticism is that the concept of opportunity cannot refer simultaneously, without contradiction, to a social context offering profit-making prospects, to particular practices, and to agents  ...  and cultural causal powers.  ...  ontology, intended to capture the multiple causal powers generating actions/event.  ... 
doi:10.1177/0266242616652211 fatcat:m6r3ntl2qfe6fh4avonlhue7jm

Social Causality and Responsibility: Modeling and Evaluation [chapter]

Wenji Mao, Jonathan Gratch
2005 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Modeling the underlying process and inferences of social causality can enrich the cognitive and social functionality of intelligent agents.  ...  Social causality, in contrast to physical causality, seeks to attribute cause and responsibility to social events, and accounts for how an intelligent entity makes sense of the social behavior of others  ...  In contrast, social causality, both in theory and as practiced in everyday folk judgments and in the legal system, emphasizes multiple causal dimensions, incorporates epistemic variables, and distinguishes  ... 
doi:10.1007/11550617_17 fatcat:4y4udlwuordrxeaf7juaffozf4

Mechanism-based theorizing and generalization from case studies

Petri Ylikoski
2018 Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A  
Generalization from a case study is a perennial issue in the methodology of the social sciences.  ...  The case study is one of the most important research designs in many social scientific fields, but no shared understanding exists of the epistemic import of case studies.  ...  Social scientists refer to causal mechanisms, both in the context of explaining particular causal outcomes and in the context of developing theories about social mechanisms.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.shpsa.2018.11.009 pmid:31818414 fatcat:z4dj2wv6ffd35m4v37h3oxkyf4

Learning without Knowing: Unobserved Context in Continuous Transfer Reinforcement Learning [article]

Chenyu Liu, Yan Zhang, Yi Shen, Michael M. Zavlanos
2021 arXiv   pre-print
For example, the context can represent the mental view of the world that an expert agent has formed through past interactions with this world.  ...  And the use of causal bounds reduces the exploration variance and, therefore, improves the learning rate.  ...  Acknowledgments This work is supported in part by AFOSR under award #FA9550-19-1-0169 and by NSF under award CNS-1932011.  ... 
arXiv:2106.03833v1 fatcat:mb5mqrhm6zdilncl5ltqj5fkhu
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