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Functional Adversarial Attacks [article]

Cassidy Laidlaw, Soheil Feizi
2019 arXiv   pre-print
We propose functional adversarial attacks, a novel class of threat models for crafting adversarial examples to fool machine learning models. Unlike a standard ℓ_p-ball threat model, a functional adversarial threat model allows only a single function to be used to perturb input features to produce an adversarial example. For example, a functional adversarial attack applied on colors of an image can change all red pixels simultaneously to light red. Such global uniform changes in images can be
more » ... s perceptible than perturbing pixels of the image individually. For simplicity, we refer to functional adversarial attacks on image colors as ReColorAdv, which is the main focus of our experiments. We show that functional threat models can be combined with existing additive (ℓ_p) threat models to generate stronger threat models that allow both small, individual perturbations and large, uniform changes to an input. Moreover, we prove that such combinations encompass perturbations that would not be allowed in either constituent threat model. In practice, ReColorAdv can significantly reduce the accuracy of a ResNet-32 trained on CIFAR-10. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, combining ReColorAdv with other attacks leads to the strongest existing attack even after adversarial training. An implementation of ReColorAdv is available at https://github.com/cassidylaidlaw/ReColorAdv .
arXiv:1906.00001v2 fatcat:fpd7xyzjqbgdlogxta56o2rvzq

Playing it Safe: Adversarial Robustness with an Abstain Option [article]

Cassidy Laidlaw, Soheil Feizi
2019 arXiv   pre-print
We explore adversarial robustness in the setting in which it is acceptable for a classifier to abstain---that is, output no class---on adversarial examples. Adversarial examples are small perturbations of normal inputs to a classifier that cause the classifier to give incorrect output; they present security and safety challenges for machine learning systems. In many safety-critical applications, it is less costly for a classifier to abstain on adversarial examples than to give incorrect output
more » ... or them. We first introduce a novel objective function for adversarial robustness with an abstain option which characterizes an explicit tradeoff between robustness and accuracy. We then present a simple baseline in which an adversarially-trained classifier abstains on all inputs within a certain distance of the decision boundary, which we theoretically and experimentally evaluate. Finally, we propose Combined Abstention Robustness Learning (CARL), a method for jointly learning a classifier and the region of the input space on which it should abstain. We explore different variations of the PGD and DeepFool adversarial attacks on CARL in the abstain setting. Evaluating against these attacks, we demonstrate that training with CARL results in a more accurate, robust, and efficient classifier than the baseline.
arXiv:1911.11253v1 fatcat:4b3gxaebh5huvbx26qo5tacmwe

Capture, Learning, and Synthesis of 3D Speaking Styles [article]

Daniel Cudeiro, Timo Bolkart, Cassidy Laidlaw, Anurag Ranjan, Michael J. Black
2019 arXiv   pre-print
Audio-driven 3D facial animation has been widely explored, but achieving realistic, human-like performance is still unsolved. This is due to the lack of available 3D datasets, models, and standard evaluation metrics. To address this, we introduce a unique 4D face dataset with about 29 minutes of 4D scans captured at 60 fps and synchronized audio from 12 speakers. We then train a neural network on our dataset that factors identity from facial motion. The learned model, VOCA (Voice Operated
more » ... ter Animation) takes any speech signal as input - even speech in languages other than English - and realistically animates a wide range of adult faces. Conditioning on subject labels during training allows the model to learn a variety of realistic speaking styles. VOCA also provides animator controls to alter speaking style, identity-dependent facial shape, and pose (i.e. head, jaw, and eyeball rotations) during animation. To our knowledge, VOCA is the only realistic 3D facial animation model that is readily applicable to unseen subjects without retargeting. This makes VOCA suitable for tasks like in-game video, virtual reality avatars, or any scenario in which the speaker, speech, or language is not known in advance. We make the dataset and model available for research purposes at http://voca.is.tue.mpg.de.
arXiv:1905.03079v1 fatcat:u4td2t3oivgxljcc7m5mgmroym

Uncertain Decisions Facilitate Better Preference Learning [article]

Cassidy Laidlaw, Stuart Russell
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Cassidy Laidlaw is also supported by a National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate (NDSEG) Fellowship.  ... 
arXiv:2106.10394v2 fatcat:6y76nejxbvddfkte5legwidoai

Perceptual Adversarial Robustness: Defense Against Unseen Threat Models [article]

Cassidy Laidlaw and Sahil Singla and Soheil Feizi
2021 arXiv   pre-print
., 2018) , recoloring (Hosseini and Poovendran, 2018; Laidlaw and Feizi, 2019; Bhattad et al., 2019) , and other modifications Zeng et al., 2019) of an image.  ...  One possible solution is to train against multiple threat models simultaneously (Jordan et al., 2019; Laidlaw and Feizi, 2019; Maini et al., 2019; Tramer and Boneh, 2019) .  ... 
arXiv:2006.12655v4 fatcat:f4wywn2jozfnnhqcgerijw3mju

Page 44 of Theological Review; A Quarterly Journal of Religious Thought and Life Vol. 55, Issue 1 [page]

1971 Theological Review; A Quarterly Journal of Religious Thought and Life  
., and Cassidy, C. E.: Cushing’s syndrome caused by an ACTH- and calcitonin-secreting medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (Abstract).  ...  L., and Laidlaw, J. C.: Non-tumorous “primary” al- dosteronism: I. Type relieved by glucocorticoid (glucocorticoid-remediable aldosteron- ism). Canad. Med. Assoc. J., 101:1, 1969. . Salti, I.  ... 

Page 371 of Illinois Medical Journal Vol. 75, Issue 4 [page]

1939 Illinois Medical Journal  
Dudley, Laidlaw, Trevan, and Booek; Jour. of Physiol., lvii: 1923, 4. M. Maton: 5. Nuyons, Bouckaert, and Sierens: de Biol., xc: 366, 1924. 6. Vischer and Green: 1924, 502. 7.  ...  Cassidy, Dworkin, and Finney: siol., Lxxiii: 417. 11. Olmstead: Amer. Jour. of Physiol., lxix: 137. 12. Krogh: Physiol. Rev., iv: 21. 13. Huxley and Fulton: Nature cxiii: 234. Compt. rendu.  ... 

Page 44 of Catholic School Journal Vol. 65, Issue 2 [page]

1965 Catholic School Journal  
Laidlaw History Series By Gobel et al. Pub. in 1964-65 by LAIDLAW Bros. Titles: Builders of America, Gr.  ...  Long Ago in the Old World Textbook By Cassidy & Southworth. $4.52. CHartes E. MERRILL. For Gr. 6-8. Western civilization from earliest time to the discovery of America.  ... 

Page 48 of Catholic School Journal Vol. 64, Issue 2 [page]

1964 Catholic School Journal  
LAIDLAW. The third book in the Laidlaw History Series for Catholic Schools.  ...  Long Ago in the Old World By Cassidy & Southworth. $4.52. Cuartes E. MERRILL. SPELLING Sound and Sense in Spelling Series By Madden e¢ al. (Prices not set.) Harcourt.  ... 

New Fellows 2009

2009 Psychiatric bulletin of the Royal College of Psychiatrists  
Browning Dr Malcolm Scott Bruce Professor Edward Thomas Bullmore Dr Gerard Michael Burke Dr Sarah Jane Burlinson Dr Walter Busuttil Dr Kay Callender Dr Penelope Marian Campling Dr Geraldine Mary Cassidy  ...  Chandrapala Wijewardena Dr Catherine Jane Wurr Dr Ka Chee Yip doi: 10.1192/pb.bp.109.025809 Nidhi Gupta Specialty Registrar in Forensic Psychiatry, Montpellier Unit,Wotton Lawn Hospital, Gloucester, *James Laidlaw  ... 
doi:10.1192/pb.bp.109.025809 fatcat:u2c67n6fu5cnfpauga5ihqcage

Page 437 of American Spirit Vol. 53, Issue 7 [page]

1919 American Spirit  
John Laidlaw Buel, Litchfield; State Vice Regent, Mrs. Charles H. Bissell, Southington; State Redcord- ing Secretary, Mrs. Starr C.  ...  Porter Cassidy, of Roger Sherman Chapter; Miss Katherine Wil- bor, Esther Stanley Chapter. Four hundred and seventy-three mothers gave 538 sons to the service.  ... 

Correction

2009 Psychiatric bulletin of the Royal College of Psychiatrists  
Browning Dr Malcolm Scott Bruce Professor Edward Thomas Bullmore Dr Gerard Michael Burke Dr Sarah Jane Burlinson Dr Walter Busuttil Dr Kay Callender Dr Penelope Marian Campling Dr Geraldine Mary Cassidy  ...  Chandrapala Wijewardena Dr Catherine Jane Wurr Dr Ka Chee Yip doi: 10.1192/pb.bp.109.025809 Nidhi Gupta Specialty Registrar in Forensic Psychiatry, Montpellier Unit,Wotton Lawn Hospital, Gloucester, *James Laidlaw  ... 
doi:10.1192/pb.bp.109.33.6.239 fatcat:ncs3memzmfa23dikak6gfzaxay

Page 47 of Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences Vol. 36, Issue 1 [page]

1980 Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences  
Laidlaw, F.P. Gomes and W.E. Kerr, Genetics 4/, 179 (1956). J. Woyke, J. apic. Res. 4, 7 (1965). E.M. Rash, J.D. Cassidy and R.C. King, Chromosoma 59, 323 (1977). A.C. Longwell and S.S.  ... 

Page 7 of Social Work Education Reporter Vol. 10, Issue 5 [page]

1962 Social Work Education Reporter  
Two research grants have been awarded by the Laidlaw Founda- tion of Toronto to Dr. BENJAMIN SCHLESINGER and to Professor BERNARD LAPPIN.  ...  Tulane University: HELEN CASSIDY returned at the beginning of September from a year's teaching in Spain; DIANE BERNARD resigned in July to study for a doctorate in social work at Bryn Mawr.  ... 

Page 1803 of The Lancet Vol. 1, Issue 4060 [page]

1901 The Lancet  
Laidlaw, J. W. Linnell and 8. G. Macdonald, St. John's; J. Mellanby, B.A., Emmanuel; H. W. Moxon and 8. B. Priston, St. John’s; J. N. Robins, B.A, Christ's; EB. F. Skinner, Corpus Christi; J. M.  ...  Cassidy, Sidney Sussex; A. de C. OC. Charles, Magdalene; H. J. Clarke and ©. St. A. Coles, Trinity ; G. W. Craig and R. Davies-Colley, Emmanuel; H. EB. T. Dawes, St. John’s; W. F.  ... 
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