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Can search systems detect users' task difficulty?

Jingjing Liu, Chang Liu, Jacek Gwizdka, Nicholas J. Belkin
2010 Proceeding of the 33rd international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in information retrieval - SIGIR '10  
Two behavioral signals: document dwell time and number of content pages viewed per query, were found to be able to help the system detect when users are working with difficult tasks.  ...  In this paper, we report findings on how user behaviors vary in tasks with different difficulty levels as well as of different types.  ...  More work is needed to explore behavioral signals for systems to learn dynamically if users are dealing with a difficult task so that they can adapt search towards the user's specific situation.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1835449.1835645 dblp:conf/sigir/LiuLGB10 fatcat:amc2c2v6bbfyxgy5ppgbmtgg5m

Dynamic difficulty using brain metrics of workload

Daniel Afergan, Evan M. Peck, Erin T. Solovey, Andrew Jenkins, Samuel W. Hincks, Eli T. Brown, Remco Chang, Robert J.K. Jacob
2014 Proceedings of the 32nd annual ACM conference on Human factors in computing systems - CHI '14  
From these physiological signals, we can adapt a simulation in order to optimize workload in real-time, which allows the system to better fit the task to the user from moment to moment.  ...  Our results show that we can use fNIRS brain sensing to detect task difficulty in real-time and construct an interface that improves user performance through dynamic difficulty adjustment.  ...  Physiologically-sensed signals represent user state and can provide additional, implicit input to systems.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2556288.2557230 dblp:conf/chi/AferganPSJHBCJ14 fatcat:z7rfjjldnnepvl3o7xcbluxasm

Deterrence's Difficulty

Neal Kumar Katyal
1997 Michigan law review  
strategy to increase search costs.  ...  This provides some incentive to dealers to concentrate on heavy users.  ... 
doi:10.2307/1290124 fatcat:lutwgu4msfgatknle3euhibm2a

Driving difficulties in Parkinson's disease

Matthew Rizzo, Ergun Y. Uc, Jeffrey Dawson, Steven Anderson, Robert Rodnitzky
2010 Movement Disorders  
Linkages between cognitive abilities measured by neuropsychological tasks, and driving behavior assessed using driving simulators, and natural and naturalistic observations in instrumented vehicles, can  ...  This includes driver performance monitoring devices, collision alerting and warning systems, road design, and graded licensure strategies.  ...  IVs equipped to detect RF signals associated with possible cell phone use (without recording conversations) can assess potential driver distraction and risk acceptance.  ... 
doi:10.1002/mds.22791 pmid:20187237 pmcid:PMC3108508 fatcat:pbb6strgfbgivlnl7my52tqaje

Analysis of difficulties in Web use for elderly people

R. Fukuda, H. Bubb
2002 Gerontechnology  
Unfortunately, many users have experienced difficulty and frustration using these systems.  ...  The initial study examined if older adults encounter difficulty using real world telephone menu systems and to gather data on menu usability. Six real world telephone menu systems were examined.  ...  Emergency call systems (systems based on human bio signals, user adaptation, location-aware systems). Gerontechnology 2002; 2(1): 147. Author Address: Dovestrasse 6, Sekr.  ... 
doi:10.4017/gt.2002. fatcat:sx54l7i32ngyjmcwvm42wzpusa

Pushing Boulders Uphill: The Difficulty of Network Intrusion Recovery

Michael E. Locasto, Matthew Burnside, Darrell Bethea
2009 USENIX Large Installation Systems Administration Conference  
We do so as a way to expose the difficulties -both technical and human -inherent in intrusion recovery. Most network users take a "secure" network infrastructure for granted.  ...  We conclude with lessons learned and some detailed suggestions for tools that can help bridge this gap. "Damage control is much easier when the actual damage is known.  ...  We suggest the concept of a decision surface composed of process clocks (a visual representation of task complexity using an estimate of task difficulty to shade in a graph node) as one way to achieve  ... 
dblp:conf/lisa/LocastoBB09 fatcat:tg7bqeieqvd53mg7kmcdszjlsu

Exploring the Impact of Video on Inferred Difficulty Awareness

Jason Carter, Mauro Carlos Pichiliani, Prasun Dewan
2018 European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work  
does not detect difficulties of "calm" programmers, who do not change postures when they are in difficulty; (c) log-mining alone (using a group model) does not detect difficulties of programmers who pause  ...  We performed experiments to determine how well difficulty can be automatically inferred by mining the interaction log and/or videos of programmers.  ...  There has been some research on automatically detecting off-task work (Baker 2007 , Cetintas, Si et al. 2009 ) but it is targeted at math tutoring systems and makes use of tutor-specific features such  ... 
doi:10.18420/ecscw2018_9 dblp:conf/ecscw/CarterPD18 fatcat:w5g542ja6bgytlaahpi7dsndca

Dynamic Difficulty Adjustment (DDA) in Computer Games: A Review

Mohammad Zohaib
2018 Advances in Human-Computer Interaction  
The features such as frequency, starting levels, or rates can be set only at the beginning of the game by choosing a level of difficulty.  ...  Dynamic difficulty adjustment (DDA) is a method of automatically modifying a game's features, behaviors, and scenarios in real-time, depending on the player's skill, so that the player, when the game is  ...  The results indicated that f NIRS brain sensing can be used to detect real-time task difficulty and an interface constructed that enhances user performance by DDA. Fernandez et al.  ... 
doi:10.1155/2018/5681652 fatcat:2yopa4sq3vcqzppgrnwkat2ikm

External Assistance Techniques That Target Core Game Tasks for Balancing Game Difficulty

Jawad Jandali Refai, Scott Bateman, Michael W. Fleming
2020 Frontiers in Computer Science  
Our approach involves identifying the fundamental actions players perform in many games— core tasks —such as signal detection, reaction time, or pointing, we can identify a range of EA techniques that  ...  core task: Visual Search .  ... 
doi:10.3389/fcomp.2020.00017 fatcat:43tjstpinffqpkyjbjcmpnm4ou

What Makes a UI Simple? Difficulty and Complexity in Tasks Engaging Visual-Spatial Working Memory

Maxim Bakaev, Olga Razumnikova
2021 Future Internet  
Tasks that imply engagement of visual-spatial working memory (VSWM) are common in interaction with two-dimensional graphical user interfaces.  ...  The latter was further used in the formulation of index of difficulty and throughput for VSWM-engaging tasks, which we proposed by analogy with the infamous Fitts' law.  ...  Among other things, they can predict the time spent by users in tasks of various difficulties so that the verification of UIs can be carried out without studies with the actual users [2, 4] .  ... 
doi:10.3390/fi13010021 fatcat:rlst7y5b7vazxjp5scwbh3p5ne

Multimedia polysensory integration training system dedicated to children with educational difficulties

Michal Lech, Bozena Kostek, Andrzej Czyzewski
2015 Journal of Intelligent Information Systems  
This paper aims at presenting a multimedia system providing polysensory training for pupils with educational difficulties.  ...  The system architecture, video processing methods, therapeutic exercises and guidelines for children's interaction with the system are presented.  ...  This Section describes how standard computer vision tools can be used to track the human body and to detect pupil's basic behaviors.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10844-015-0390-3 fatcat:mleliq6eqbhfdo6y2g5tny5osa

The effects of task difficulty on visual search strategy in virtual 3D displays

M. Pomplun, T. W. Garaas, M. Carrasco
2013 Journal of Vision  
Previous results suggest that increasing task difficulty leads to more systematic search paths.  ...  Analyzing the factors that determine our choice of visual search strategy may shed light on visual behavior in everyday situations.  ...  If a search target is defined by a feature in a single stimulus dimension, it can be detected based on the information in a single feature map and can be detected very efficiently-it ''pops out.''  ... 
doi:10.1167/13.3.24 pmid:23986539 pmcid:PMC3756766 fatcat:dnw45gs55jcejiukki35hpfzvi

On the Difficulty of FSM-based Hardware Obfuscation

Marc Fyrbiak, Sebastian Wallat, Jonathan Déchelotte, Nils Albartus, Sinan Böcker, Russell Tessier, Christof Paar
2018 Transactions on Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems  
The contribution of our work is threefold: First, we demonstrate how high-level control path information can be automatically extracted from third-party, gate-level netlists.  ...  These control signals define the circuit's behavior.  ...  Note that a value of 1 implies a strong control behavior, whereas a value of 0 implies no control behavior. We remove any candidate which possesses a value of 0 for all control signals.  ... 
doi:10.13154/tches.v2018.i3.293-330 dblp:journals/tches/FyrbiakWDABTP18 fatcat:kztdtiqgjrbb3io3voapa4eqci

Classifying the difficulty levels of working memory tasks by using pupillary response

Hugo Mitre-Hernandez, Jorge Sanchez-Rodriguez, Sergio Nava-Muñoz, Carlos Lara-Alvarez
2022 PeerJ  
Knowing the difficulty of a given task is crucial for improving the learning outcomes. This paper studies the difficulty level classification of memorization tasks from pupillary response data.  ...  Developing a difficulty level classifier from pupil size features is challenging because of the inter-subject variability of pupil responses.  ...  Some tools (e.g., surveys) can be used to predict the cognitive load caused by a task in a specific group.  ... 
doi:10.7717/peerj.12864 pmid:35368339 pmcid:PMC8973468 fatcat:r4rcen6h45ed7opdo4dahxizuy

Real-World Data Difficulty Estimation with the Use of Entropy

Przemysław Juszczuk, Jan Kozak, Grzegorz Dziczkowski, Szymon Głowania, Tomasz Jach, Barbara Probierz
2021 Entropy  
This article investigates the possibilities of using the entropy measure as an indicator of data difficulty.  ...  Characteristics selection: Selecting characteristics that can be useful for user behavior analysis. 6.  ...  User behavior analysis: Studying the behavior of different users for selecting dominant ones (i.e., the characteristics that change significantly from one behavior to another).  ... 
doi:10.3390/e23121621 pmid:34945927 pmcid:PMC8700715 fatcat:sfudesums5ef5ojfjzrhctb6yq
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