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Can Rules of Inferences Resolve Coordination Ambiguity in Natural Language Requirements Specification?

Sri Fatimah Tjong, Daniel M. Berry
2008 Workshop em Engenharia de Requisitos  
The first author's previous work tried to resolve coordination ambiguity in natural language (NL) requirements specifications (RSs) by using language patterns derived from rules of logic (RLs).  ...  However, a reevaluation of the language patterns show that RLs cannot fully resolve coordination ambiguity in a RS because the coordinators are not always truth functional, due to incompatible interpretations  ...  Introduction Ambiguity in natural language (NL) is a major problem in scientific disciplines and in natural language requirements specifications (RSs).  ... 
dblp:conf/wer/TjongB08 fatcat:kgam3dy64zd3rkfqkda2dm72zy

Attempto - From Specifications in Controlled Natural Language towards Executable Specifications [article]

Rolf Schwitter, Norbert E. Fuchs, (Department of Computer Science, University of Zurich)
1996 arXiv   pre-print
The specification language Attempto Controlled English (ACE) is a subset of natural language that can be accurately and efficiently processed by a computer, but is expressive enough to allow natural usage  ...  To bridge the conceptual gap we propose controlled natural language as a textual view on formal specifications in logic.  ...  However, uncontrolled use of natural language leads to ambiguous, imprecise and unclear specifications.  ... 
arXiv:cmp-lg/9603004v1 fatcat:lc2knd76xndezbnkbsnkq7exi4

NL4DV: A Toolkit for Generating Analytic Specifications for Data Visualization from Natural Language Queries [article]

Arpit Narechania, Arjun Srinivasan, John Stasko
2020 arXiv   pre-print
However, developing visualization NLIs remains a challenging task, requiring low-level implementation of natural language processing (NLP) techniques as well as knowledge of visual analytic tasks and visualization  ...  In response, the toolkit returns an analytic specification modeled as a JSON object containing data attributes, analytic tasks, and a list of Vega-Lite specifications relevant to the input query.  ...  natural language queries for specifying data visualizations.  ... 
arXiv:2008.10723v2 fatcat:3p7e7ah2jzfmxdgswk63rjdfym

Natural Language Specifications in Proof Assistants [article]

Colin S. Gordon, Sergey Matskevich
2022 arXiv   pre-print
However, this only validates truth of a formal claim, which may have been mistranslated from a claim made in natural language.  ...  This is especially problematic when using proof assistants to formally verify the correctness of software with respect to a natural language specification.  ...  Combination Rules Parsing natural language specifications requires automatically applying rules like /-Elim to combine sentence fragments.  ... 
arXiv:2205.07811v1 fatcat:jc4on2o4dfdjfnr2yrcjbdujye

Regulatory Requirements Traceability and Analysis Using Semi-formal Specifications [chapter]

Travis D. Breaux, David G. Gordon
2013 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
In this paper, we report on a computational requirements document expressible using a legal requirements specification language (LRSL).  ...  We show how requirements engineers can codify policy and law using the LRSL and design, debug, analyze, trace, and visualize relationships among regulatory requirements.  ...  Department of Homeland Security (Award #2006-CS-001-000001), Hewlett-Packard Labs (Award #CW267287) and ONR Award #N00244-12-1-0014.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-37422-7_11 fatcat:zbhv2vqhv5hkno34yiqnbpw5um

Eddy, a formal language for specifying and analyzing data flow specifications for conflicting privacy requirements

Travis D. Breaux, Hanan Hibshi, Ashwini Rao
2013 Requirements Engineering  
Using this language, developers can detect conflicting privacy requirements within a policy and enable the tracing of data flows within these policies.  ...  demonstrates the scalability of our formal language toolset to specifications of reasonable size.  ...  Acknowledgments We thank Dave Gordon and Darya Kurilova for their earlier feedback and the Requirements Engineering Lab at Carnegie Mellon University.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s00766-013-0190-7 fatcat:geu6wgt4qfbv3mlmtxpdncsp3y

Formal analysis of privacy requirements specifications for multi-tier applications

Travis D. Breaux, Ashwini Rao
2013 2013 21st IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference (RE)  
To address this problem, we propose a methodology to map policy requirements in natural language to a formal representation in Description Logic.  ...  We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach in an evaluation involving Facebook, Zynga and AOL-Advertising policies.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENT We thank Dave Gordon, Hanan Hibshi and Darya Kurilova for their early feedback, and the Requirements Engineering Lab at Carnegie Mellon University.  ... 
doi:10.1109/re.2013.6636701 dblp:conf/re/BreauxR13 fatcat:udm6p4t5h5ey7nfzvjjdffdacm

Compositional specification of commercial contracts

Jesper Andersen, Ebbe Elsborg, Fritz Henglein, Jakob Grue Simonsen, Christian Stefansen
2006 International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer (STTT)  
We present a declarative language for compositional specification of contracts governing the exchange of resources.  ...  A variety of (real) contracts can be expressed in such a fashion as to support their integration, management and analysis in an operational environment that  ...  as given by the inference rules of Fig. 3 .  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10009-006-0010-1 fatcat:by3awqq4cbgbfgcc2icknliepy

CASL: the Common Algebraic Specification Language

Egidio Astesiano, Michel Bidoit, Hélène Kirchner, Bernd Krieg-Brückner, Peter D. Mosses, Donald Sannella, Andrzej Tarlecki
2002 Theoretical Computer Science  
The Common Algebraic Speciÿcation Language (CASL) is an expressive language for the formal speciÿcation of functional requirements and modular design of software.  ...  The major issues that had to be resolved in the design process are indicated, and all the main concepts and constructs of CASL are brie y explained and illustrated -the reader is referred to the CASL Language  ...  Acknowledgements This paper has been written by the coordinators of the CoFI Working Group. We  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0304-3975(01)00368-1 fatcat:w6rcgk5xwjgf7nzlcyhqrcf2gu

Algebraic specification and functionals for transformational program and meta program development [chapter]

Bernd Krieg-Brückner
1989 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
A uniform treatment of algebraic specification is presented to formalise data, programs, transformation rules, in fact the program development process itself.  ...  Formal requirement specifications are the basis for constructing correct and efficient programs by gradual transformation.  ...  Perhaps the approach can be used to formalise rules and inference tactics in knowledge based systems.  ... 
doi:10.1007/3-540-50940-2_26 fatcat:4udql5ygazcvhn5ag2f6nxfmkm

Mining incoherent requirements in technical specifications: Analysis and implementation

Patrick Saint-Dizier
2018 Data & Knowledge Engineering  
We also thanks the companies who gave us access to their requirement documents in spite of their high confidentiality.  ...  The syntactic structure of requirements is very regular and follows general rules of simplified language, for example, passives are not allowed, negation as well as complex coordinations must be avoided  ...  Dislog (Discourse in Logic) is the language designed for writing rules and lexical data.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.datak.2018.05.006 fatcat:ibi4x3wfbbbilbbn5c4gx6c5em

Mechanisms of Cognitive Development: Domain-General Learning or Domain-Specific Constraints?

Vladimir M. Sloutsky
2010 Cognitive Science  
Acknowledgments Preparation of this paper was supported by NSF BSC 0414302 and SBE 0541957. An earlier version of the paper was presented in a symposium at the Psychonomic Society in November 2007.  ...  More information about the laboratory can be found at  ...  Rather, today's language is the product of yesterday's learners; and hence language acquisition requires coordinating with those learners.  ... 
doi:10.1111/j.1551-6709.2010.01132.x pmid:21564246 fatcat:onw6a66a5jgb3mvwu27isjvuxy

Usage Control Specification, Enforcement, and Robustness: A Survey [article]

Ines Akaichi, Sabrina Kirrane
2022 arXiv   pre-print
In order to better understand the potential of various usage control proposals, we collate and categorize usage control requirements, compare the predominant usage control frameworks based on said requirements  ...  The management of data and digital assets poses various challenges, including the need to adhere to legal requirements with respect to personal data protection and copyright.  ...  In our case, the (usage control) specification requirement encapsulates other fine-grained requirements related to usage control specification, such as the expressiveness of the usage control policy language  ... 
arXiv:2203.04800v1 fatcat:36nf3ltgsjdjzntvinrpdg5x6u

Symmetric Non-Rigid Structure from Motion for Category-Specific Object Structure Estimation [article]

Yuan Gao, Alan Yuille
2016 arXiv   pre-print
In particularly, we show that by rotating the coordinate system, the energy can be decoupled into two independent terms, which still exploit symmetry, to apply matrix factorization separately on each of  ...  This paper addresses the estimation of 3D structures of symmetric objects from multiple images of the same object category, e.g. different cars, seen from various viewpoints.  ...  can also be easily inferred.  ... 
arXiv:1609.06988v1 fatcat:szvkqfraprdiddaxn2qwo6drui

On specification and the senses

T A Stoffregen, B G Bardy
2001 Behavioral and Brain Sciences  
The existence of specificity in the global array is consistent with the idea of direct perception, and so poses a challenge to traditional, inference-based theories of perception and cognition.  ...  In this target article we question the assumption that perception is divided into separate domains of vision, hearing, touch, taste, and smell.  ...  Flynn for help with concepts of receptor anatomy, John Pittenger for help with the independent specification hypothesis, Patricia E.  ... 
pmid:11530542 fatcat:jagif63hanfwxl6aecocjxq7d4
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