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Themes, scenes, and taste in the history of Japanese garden art

1988 ChoiceReviews  
However the general characteristics of this work, set up to be an heroic journal, do not make it very reliable as an, historic source. 86 Neither can a record of the ground breaking ceremonies performed  ...  At certain disturbances in the capital city the court called in support from provincial warrior clans.  ...  These perennial ceremonies find their origin in folk rituals concerned with the agricultural cycles of the year, and in Chinese court observances that served to back up the emperor's mandate to rule.  ... 
doi:10.5860/choice.26-1947 fatcat:bwk53jo7izajpmnnet32jsazkm

Diverging deep learning cognitive computing techniques into cyber forensics

NicksonM. Karie, VictorR. Kebande, H.S. Venter
2019 Forensic Science International: Synergy  
DL uses some machine learning techniques to solve problems through the use of neural networks that simulate human decision-making.  ...  Such solutions can range from, reducing bias in forensic investigations to challenging what evidence is considered admissible in a court of law or any civil hearing and many more.  ...  Acknowledgements The Authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers that gave constructive review of this paper.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.fsisyn.2019.03.006 pmid:32411955 pmcid:PMC7219168 fatcat:zm2ytqyl5nhdnibrjbmldibmqe

Artificial Intelligence as an Anti-Corruption Tool (AI-ACT) – Potentials and Pitfalls for Top-down and Bottom-up Approaches [article]

Nils Köbis, Christopher Starke, Iyad Rahwan
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Finally, we venture a look into the future and flesh out key questions that need to be addressed to develop AI-ACT while considering citizens' views, hence putting "society in the loop".  ...  Summarizing existing efforts to use AI-based anti-corruption tools (AI-ACT), we introduce a conceptual framework to advance research and policy.  ...  In short, AI can make autonomous decisions about corruption (risks) based on Big Data.  ... 
arXiv:2102.11567v1 fatcat:dfivhoyskncpnawo6oplgn6744

Legal Engineering of the Anti-Abuse Rule in ATAD: Architecture of the Regression Tree Model

Kaido Künnapas
2021 TalTech Journal of European Studies  
While the best method for create a reliable algorithm is a decision tree type model, the inner ambiguity of the general anti-abuse test prevents using the full benefits of automation of tax laws.  ...  The purpose of this article is to design a decision tree type model for the test and address the main challenges of such a model, both from the perspective of the clarity of concepts and the quality of  ...  Automated decision-making systems in law can counteract to such negative effects.  ... 
doi:10.2478/bjes-2021-0015 fatcat:tu4abgbc4jh23a2z7dfj7oacmq

Inquiry and Deliberation in Judicial Systems: The Problem of Jury Size [chapter]

Staffan Angere, Erik J. Olsson, Emmanuel J. Genot
2016 Logic, Argumentation & Reasoning  
Moreover, while it is in principle always better to have a larger jury, given a >50% required majority, the value of having more than 12-15 jurors is likely to be negligible.  ...  We provide a Bayesian model of deliberating juries that allows for computer simulation for the purpose of studying the effect of jury size and required majority on the quality of jury decision making.  ...  Our main idea is that a juror's trust in a source (own inquiry or other jurors) can be represented as a credence in the reliability of the source.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-20762-9_3 fatcat:h3hbspw3zjfzxpulh4qo4nfahq

Key Considerations for the Responsible Development and Fielding of Artificial Intelligence [article]

Eric Horvitz, Jessica Young, Rama G. Elluru, Chuck Howell
2021 arXiv   pre-print
The Key Considerations were developed with a lens for adoption by U.S. government departments and agencies critical to national security.  ...  We describe critical challenges and make recommendations on topics that should be given priority consideration, practices that should be implemented, and policies that should be defined or updated to reflect  ...  Special thanks to Caroline Danauy for legal analysis and editorial review.  ... 
arXiv:2108.12289v1 fatcat:howvfaog6vfqpiel6vhlqeie7a

Artificial Intelligence in Critical Infrastructure Systems

Phil Laplante, Ben Amaba
2021 Computer  
But even a trained human can be inefficient or make mistakes due to various psychological conditions; this is where AI can play an important role, eliminate such mistakes, and be more efficient than humans  ...  JONATHON BARKLEY: The operation of a critical system normally requires a human intervention to detect/diagnose a problem and then make a decision and/or take action, for example, acting as a pilot or a  ...  In theory, yes, because you could fire or (if military) court-martial a human. Can you punish "a toaster"? Who is to blame if the "toaster" kills the wrong person?  ... 
doi:10.1109/mc.2021.3055892 fatcat:q5eed6j3tbagtjgoomgnjhvbrm

Machine justice: Governing security through the bureaucracy of algorithms

Rik Peeters, Marc Schuilenburg
2018 Information Polity  
As a consequence, human interference in decision-making procedures is eliminated.  ...  Moreover, the sheer volume of data necessary to make a reliable prediction 'can overwhelm the critical signals in a fog of possible correlations' (Crawford, 2014) .  ... 
doi:10.3233/ip-180074 fatcat:6iqub4emnrhsnibgdhttv3peye

Towards Transparency by Design for Artificial Intelligence

Heike Felzmann, Eduard Fosch-Villaronga, Christoph Lutz, Aurelia Tamò-Larrieux
2020 Science and Engineering Ethics  
With the rise of artificial intelligence (AI) and the ability of AI systems to make automated and self-learned decisions, a call for transparency of how such systems reach decisions has echoed within academic  ...  To address this tension, we first conduct a review of transparency, analyzing its challenges and limitations concerning automated decision-making practices.  ...  We understand automated decision-making (ADM) as a subpart of AI, an automated process with no human involvement to reach a decision (Karanasiou and Pinotsis 2017; ICO 2020) .  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11948-020-00276-4 pmid:33196975 fatcat:xl6o3tcxxrd5zhzr37k4oqpicy

Ask Not What AI Can Do, But What AI Should Do: Towards a Framework of Task Delegability [article]

Brian Lubars, Chenhao Tan
2019 arXiv   pre-print
We consider four high-level factors that can contribute to a delegation decision: motivation, difficulty, risk, and trust.  ...  We find little preference for full AI control and a strong preference for machine-in-the-loop designs, in which humans play the leading role.  ...  (e.g., in committing another crime or missing the court date), to help judges make decisions about bail, sentencing, or parole media civic Responding to 911-police incident reports, similar to what a patrol  ... 
arXiv:1902.03245v2 fatcat:2tw43zyx6nayzbr7nb3pej7qje

Reporting on Decision-Making Algorithms and some Related Ethical Questions [article]

Benoît Otjacques
2019 arXiv   pre-print
The latest trend is now to deliver one single integrated report where all stakeholders of the company can easily connect all facets of the business with their impact considered in a broad sense.  ...  Next, we identify some recent initiatives by various stakeholders to define a global ethical framework for AI.  ...  A group of AI systems composed of safe AI systems can become dangerous in some circumstances.  ... 
arXiv:1911.05731v1 fatcat:qf5knbnal5ayvl323rfbl2yt4y

OSTP-AWhite House Office of Science and Technology Policy Request for Information on the Future of Artificial Intelligence

Kris Kitchen
2017 Figshare  
Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee (http://secondmachineage.com), and by Frey and Osborne (2013) that AI and autonomous systems may replace humans in a large fraction of current jobs, on a timescale that  ...  Parties should recognize that if scientists and technologists are worried about losing what they perceive as a race to reach a threshold power in an AI system, they will have more incentives to cut corners  ...  In specialized domains, AI technologies can sometimes perform faster and better than humans. They can be used to generate new insights, support human decision making, or make autonomous decisions.  ... 
doi:10.6084/m9.figshare.4640305 fatcat:26aelpe4ejbupao5yh2mys2pzq

Artificial Intelligence Applications in Military Systems and Their Influence on Sense of Security of Citizens

Marta Bistron, Zbigniew Piotrowski
2021 Electronics  
Attention was paid mainly to the use of AI algorithms in cybersecurity, object detection, military logistics and robotics.  ...  The basic problems related to ethics in the application of artificial intelligence and issues of responsibility for errors made by autonomous systems are discussed.  ...  Using bioinspired robots in military operations can become the new standard of warfare in a short time.  ... 
doi:10.3390/electronics10070871 fatcat:4ygv4bn6jjenbjamht5pagwy6y

From the Myth of Babel to Google Translate: Confronting Malicious Use of Artificial Intelligence – Copyright and Algorithmic Biases in Online Translation Systems

Shlomit Yanisky-Ravid, Cynthia Martens
2019 Social Science Research Network  
These AI systems have become ubiquitous and are poised to revolutionize human communication across the globe.  ...  Promising increased fluency across cultures by breaking down linguistic barriers and promoting cross-cultural relationships in a way that many civilizations have historically sought and struggled to achieve  ...  supported by Supreme Court decisions and statements from Congress, which carved out special exceptions to copyright law to benefit the disabled.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.3345716 fatcat:xydcfpcbobbk7gai57x2zoll7e

Argumentation schemes and generalisations in reasoning about evidence

Henry Prakken, Chris Reed, Douglas Walton
2003 Proceedings of the 9th international conference on Artificial intelligence and law - ICAIL '03  
In particular, Wigmore's method for charting evidence and its use by modern legal evidence scholars is studied in order to give a formal underpinning in terms of logics for defeasible argumentation.  ...  Two notions turn out to be crucial, viz. argumentation schemes and empirical generalisations.  ...  Sense-making systems (see e.g., Kirschner et al. 2003) do not themselves reason to solve a problem. Instead, the goal of such software is to support humans in making sense of a problem.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1047788.1047794 dblp:conf/icail/PrakkenRW03 fatcat:fwz6bcfgqbblfi5hy5ett5lldm
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