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A disinhibitory mechanism biases Drosophila innate light preference

Weiqiao Zhao, Peipei Zhou, Caixia Gong, Zhenhuan Ouyang, Jie Wang, Nenggan Zheng, Zhefeng Gong
2019 Nature Communications  
Innate preference toward environmental conditions is crucial for animal survival. Although much is known about the neural processing of sensory information, how the aversive or attractive sensory stimulus is transformed through central brain neurons into avoidance or approaching behavior is largely unclear. Here we show that Drosophila larval light preference behavior is regulated by a disinhibitory mechanism. In the disinhibitory circuit, a pair of GABAergic neurons exerts tonic inhibition on
more » ... ne pair of contralateral projecting neurons that control larval reorientation behavior. When a larva enters the light area, the reorientationcontrolling neurons are disinhibited to allow reorientation to occur as the upstream inhibitory neurons are repressed by light. When the larva exits the light area, the inhibition on the downstream neurons is restored to repress further reorientation and thus prevents the larva from re-entering the light area. We suggest that disinhibition may serve as a common neural mechanism for animal innate preference behavior.
doi:10.1038/s41467-018-07929-w fatcat:rg5g564xxrenloieija6yzd56q

Repeated Failure in Reward Pursuit Alters Innate Drosophila Larval Behaviors

Yue Fei, Dikai Zhu, Yixuan Sun, Caixia Gong, Shenyang Huang, Zhefeng Gong
2018 Neuroscience Bulletin  
Animals always seek rewards and the related neural basis has been well studied. However, what happens when animals fail to get a reward is largely unknown, although this is commonly seen in behaviors such as predation. Here, we set up a behavioral model of repeated failure in reward pursuit (RFRP) in Drosophila larvae. In this model, the larvae were repeatedly prevented from reaching attractants such as yeast and butyl acetate, before finally abandoning further attempts. After giving up, they
more » ... ually showed a decreased locomotor speed and impaired performance in light avoidance and sugar preference, which were named as phenotypes of RFRP states. In larvae that had developed RFRP phenotypes, the octopamine concentration was greatly elevated, while tbh mutants devoid of octopamine were less likely to develop RFRP phenotypes, and octopamine feeding efficiently restored such defects. By down-regulating tbh in different groups of neurons and imaging neuronal activity, neurons that regulated the development of RFRP states and the behavioral exhibition of RFRP phenotypes were mapped to a small subgroup of non-glutamatergic and glutamatergic octopaminergic neurons in the central larval brain. Our results establish a model for investigating the effect of depriving an expected reward in Drosophila and provide a simplified framework for the associated neural basis.
doi:10.1007/s12264-018-0248-0 pmid:29951979 fatcat:rweajzmib5gfdjxduwna43njmi

A Post Auto-regressive GAN Vocoder Focused on Spectrum Fracture [article]

Zhenxing Lu, Mengnan He, Ruixiong Zhang, Caixia Gong
2022 arXiv   pre-print
Generative adversarial networks (GANs) have been indicated their superiority in usage of the real-time speech synthesis. Nevertheless, most of them make use of deep convolutional layers as their backbone, which may cause the absence of previous signal information. However, the generation of speech signals invariably require preceding waveform samples in its reconstruction, as the lack of this can lead to artifacts in generated speech. To address this conflict, in this paper, we propose an
more » ... ed model: a post auto-regressive (AR) GAN vocoder with a self-attention layer, which merging self-attention in an AR loop. It will not participate in inference, but can assist the generator to learn temporal dependencies within frames in training. Furthermore, an ablation study was done to confirm the contribution of each part. Systematic experiments show that our model leads to a consistent improvement on both objective and subjective evaluation performance.
arXiv:2204.06086v1 fatcat:ficvsg3kczdhfdpf5bxo37ou6y

Line-scan focal modulation microscopy

Shilpa Pant, Caixia Li, Zhiyuan Gong, Nanguang Chen
2017 Journal of Biomedical Optics  
We report the development of a line-scan focal modulation microscope (LSFMM) that is capable of highspeed image acquisition (>40 fps) with uncompromised optical sectioning capability. The improved background rejection and axial resolution of this imaging modality, enabled by focal modulation, are quantified with threedimensional imaging data obtained from fluorescent beads. The signal-to-background ratio for the LSFMM system is one-to two-orders of magnitude higher than that for line-scanning
more » ... nfocal systems when imaging deep (up to 100 μm) into a turbid medium of optical properties similar to biological tissues. The imaging performance of LSFMM, in terms of both spatial and temporal resolutions, is further demonstrated with in vivo imaging experiments with live zebrafish larvae.
doi:10.1117/1.jbo.22.5.050502 pmid:28549085 fatcat:etlr5ykacje35myjzgokq3mkpq

Turns with multiple and single head cast mediate Drosophila larval light avoidance

Weiqiao Zhao, Caixia Gong, Zhenhuan Ouyang, Pengfei Wang, Jie Wang, Peipei Zhou, Nenggan Zheng, Zhefeng Gong, Christian Wegener
2017 PLoS ONE  
(WMV) Supervision: Nenggan Zheng, Zhefeng Gong. Validation: Weiqiao Zhao, Caixia Gong, Jie Wang, Peipei Zhou. Visualization: Nenggan Zheng, Zhefeng Gong.  ...  Writing -original draft: Nenggan Zheng, Zhefeng Gong. Writing -review & editing: Nenggan Zheng, Zhefeng Gong.  ... 
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0181193 pmid:28700684 pmcid:PMC5507455 fatcat:b3o2spiaefdrxcfy6b7exqntie

Towards End-to-End Code-Switching Speech Recognition [article]

Ne Luo, Dongwei Jiang, Shuaijiang Zhao, Caixia Gong, Wei Zou, Xiangang Li
2018 arXiv   pre-print
Code-switching speech recognition has attracted an increasing interest recently, but the need for expert linguistic knowledge has always been a big issue. End-to-end automatic speech recognition (ASR) simplifies the building of ASR systems considerably by predicting graphemes or characters directly from acoustic input. In the mean time, the need of expert linguistic knowledge is also eliminated, which makes it an attractive choice for code-switching ASR. This paper presents a hybrid
more » ... n based end-to-end Mandarin-English code-switching (CS) speech recognition system and studies the effect of hybrid CTC-Attention based models, different modeling units, the inclusion of language identification and different decoding strategies on the task of code-switching ASR. On the SEAME corpus, our system achieves a mixed error rate (MER) of 34.24%.
arXiv:1810.13091v2 fatcat:3r7evbvkg5d6hgxttaeymavqfa

Improving Prosody for Unseen Texts in Speech Synthesis by Utilizing Linguistic Information and Noisy Data [article]

Zhu Li, Yuqing Zhang, Mengxi Nie, Ming Yan, Mengnan He, Ruixiong Zhang, Caixia Gong
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Recent advancements in end-to-end speech synthesis have made it possible to generate highly natural speech. However, training these models typically requires a large amount of high-fidelity speech data, and for unseen texts, the prosody of synthesized speech is relatively unnatural. To address these issues, we propose to combine a fine-tuned BERT-based front-end with a pre-trained FastSpeech2-based acoustic model to improve prosody modeling. The pre-trained BERT is fine-tuned on the polyphone
more » ... sambiguation task, the joint Chinese word segmentation (CWS) and part-of-speech (POS) tagging task, and the prosody structure prediction (PSP) task in a multi-task learning framework. FastSpeech 2 is pre-trained on large-scale external data that are noisy but easier to obtain. Experimental results show that both the fine-tuned BERT model and the pre-trained FastSpeech 2 can improve prosody, especially for those structurally complex sentences.
arXiv:2111.07549v1 fatcat:yyq53ir4xrhdlmk32d432mppjm

A simplified image fusion technique with sensor spectral response

Qiang Zhou, Peng Gong, Ziqi Guo, Caixia Liu, Wei Fu, Baogang Zhang
2010 2010 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium  
doi:10.1109/igarss.2010.5648857 dblp:conf/igarss/ZhouGGLFZ10 fatcat:nom5guupn5bedobnrlhw276eya

A high-quality sponge gourd (Luffa cylindrica) genome

Haibin Wu, Gangjun Zhao, Hao Gong, Junxing Li, Caixia Luo, Xiaoli He, Shaobo Luo, Xiaoming Zheng, Xiaoxi Liu, Jinju Guo, Junqiu Chen, Jianning Luo
2020 Horticulture Research  
Sponge gourd (Luffa cylindrica) is an important cultivated vegetable and medicinal plant in the family Cucurbitaceae. In this study, a draft genome sequence of the sponge gourd inbred line P93075 was analyzed. Using Illumina, PacBio, and 10× Genomics sequencing techniques as well as new assembly techniques such as FALCON and chromatin interaction mapping (Hi-C), a chromosome-scale genome of approximately 656.19 Mb, with an N50 scaffold length of 48.76 Mb, was generated. From this assembly,
more » ... 8 protein-coding gene loci were identified, and 63.81% of the whole-genome consisted of transposable elements, which are major contributors to the expansion of the sponge gourd genome. According to a phylogenetic analysis of conserved genes, the sponge gourd lineage diverged from the bitter gourd lineage approximately 41.6 million years ago. Additionally, many genes that respond to biotic and abiotic stresses were found to be lineage specific or expanded in the sponge gourd genome, as demonstrated by the presence of 462 NBS-LRR genes, a much greater number than are found in the genomes of other cucurbit species; these results are consistent with the high stress resistance of sponge gourd. Collectively, our study provides insights into genome evolution and serves as a valuable reference for the genetic improvement of sponge gourd.
doi:10.1038/s41438-020-00350-9 pmid:32821411 pmcid:PMC7395165 fatcat:siyoiu7paza57j2fbyulctamae

Manganese nanodepot augments host immune response against coronavirus

Yizhe Sun, Yue Yin, Lidong Gong, Zichao Liang, Chuanda Zhu, Caixia Ren, Nan Zheng, Qiang Zhang, Haibin Liu, Wei Liu, Fuping You, Dan Lu (+1 others)
2020 Nano Reseach  
Interferon (IFN) responses are central to host defense against coronavirus and other virus infections. Manganese (Mn) is capable of inducing IFN production, but its applications are limited by nonspecific distributions and neurotoxicity. Here, we exploit chemical engineering strategy to fabricate a nanodepot of manganese (nanoMn) based on Mn2+. Compared with free Mn2+, nanoMn enhances cellular uptake and persistent release of Mn2+ in a pH-sensitive manner, thus strengthening IFN response and
more » ... citing broad-spectrum antiviral effects in vitro and in vivo. Preferentially phagocytosed by macrophages, nanoMn promotes M1 macrophage polarization and recruits monocytes into inflammatory foci, eventually augmenting antiviral immunity and ameliorating coronavirus-induced tissue damage. Besides, nanoMn can also potentiate the development of virus-specific memory T cells and host adaptive immunity through facilitating antigen presentation, suggesting its potential as a vaccine adjuvant. Pharmacokinetic and safety evaluations uncover that nanoMn treatment hardly induces neuroinflammation through limiting neuronal accumulation of manganese. Therefore, nanoMn offers a simple, safe, and robust nanoparticle-based strategy against coronavirus.
doi:10.1007/s12274-020-3243-5 pmid:33391623 pmcid:PMC7770383 fatcat:7z2susfuqvbtjce3qb2i7iwszq

Metabolomic Characterizations of Liver Injury Caused by Acute Arsenic Toxicity in Zebrafish

Caixia Li, Ping Li, Yee Min Tan, Siew Hong Lam, Eric C. Y. Chan, Zhiyuan Gong, Zhan Yin
2016 PLoS ONE  
Arsenic is one of the most common metalloid contaminants in groundwater and it has both acute and chronic toxicity affecting multiple organs. Details of the mechanism of arsenic toxicity are still lacking and profile studies at metabolic level are very limited. Using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy (GC/MS), we first generated metabolomic profiles from the livers of arsenic-treated zebrafish and identified 34 significantly altered metabolite peaks as potential markers,
more » ... four prominent ones: cholic acid, glycylglycine, glycine and hypotaurine. Combined results from GC/MS, histological examination and pathway analyses suggested a series of alterations, including apoptosis, glycogenolysis, changes in amino acid metabolism and fatty acid composition, accumulation of bile acids and fats, and disturbance in glycolysis related energy metabolism. The alterations in glycolysis partially resemble Warburg effect commonly observed in many cancer cells. However, cellular damages were not reflected in two conventional liver function tests performed, Bilirubin assay and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) assay, probably because the short arsenate exposure was insufficient to induce detectable damage. This study demonstrated that metabolic changes could reflect mild liver impairments induced by arsenic exposure, which underscored their potential in reporting early liver injury.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0151225 pmid:26967897 pmcid:PMC4788152 fatcat:qgkxwirmzze2bg3ohhgcjca4z4

CSB-PGBD3 Mutations Cause Premature Ovarian Failure

Yingying Qin, Ting Guo, Guangyu Li, Tie-Shan Tang, Shidou Zhao, Xue Jiao, Juanjuan Gong, Fei Gao, Caixia Guo, Joe Leigh Simpson, Zi-Jiang Chen, James M. Ford
2015 PLoS Genetics  
Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a rare, heterogeneous disorder characterized by cessation of menstruation occurring before the age of 40 years. Genetic etiology is responsible for perhaps 25% of cases, but most cases are sporadic and unexplained. In this study, through whole exome sequencing in a non-consanguineous family having four affected members with POF and Sanger sequencing in 432 sporadic cases, we identified three novel mutations in the fusion gene CSB-PGBD3. Subsequently functional
more » ... studies suggest that mutated CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein was impaired in response to DNA damage, as indicated by delayed or absent recruitment to damaged sites. Our data provide the first evidence that mutations in the CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein can cause human disease, even in the presence of functional CSB, thus potentially explaining conservation of the fusion protein for 43 My since marmoset. The localization of the CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein to UVAinduced nuclear DNA repair foci further suggests that the CSB-PGBD3 fusion protein, like many other proteins that can cause POF, modulates or participates in DNA repair.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1005419 pmid:26218421 pmcid:PMC4517778 fatcat:rnomde3khfgrffkmkftk6qw2xm

Clinical efficacy of regional citrate anticoagulation in continuous renal replacement therapy: systematic review and meta-analysis

Hong Chang, Yueying Gong, Caixia Li, Zengwen Ma
2021 Annals of Palliative Medicine  
A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to explore the clinical efficacy and coagulation function of regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) in continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in critically ill patients, to provide an effective treatment options for CRRT in severe patients. The English databases Embase, Medline, PubMed, Ovid, Springer, and Web of Science were searched to screen for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on RCA in the CRRT treatment of critically ill
more » ... published before June 1, 2020. Meta analysis using the RevMan5.3 provided by the Cochrane collaboration network. The search terms included "citrate anticoagulation", "patient in severe condition", "CRRT", "clinical effect", and "coagulation function". ten articles meeting requirements were included, comprising 1,411 subjects. Meta-analysis results showed that after treatment, total calcium/ionized calcium (totCa/ionCa) [mean difference (MD) =0.05; 95% confidence interval (CI): (-0.02 to 0.12); Z=1.31; P=0.19], prothrombin time [MD =4.51; 95% CI: (2.77, 6.24); Z=5.10; P<0.00001], activated partial thromboplastin time [MD =2.56; 95% CI: (1.17, 3.95); Z=3.61; P=0.0003], and thrombin time [MD =4.22; 95% CI: (2.07, 6.36); Z=3.85; P=0.0001] all increased. However, platelet count [MD =-5.75; 95% CI: (-8.85, -2.64); Z=3.63; P=0.0003], cystatin [MD =-0.39; 95% CI: (-0.63, -0.15); Z=3.22; P=0.001], alanine aminotransferase [MD =-17.63; 95% CI: (-20.09, -15.16); Z=14.02; P<0.00001], aspartate aminotransferase [MD =-6.49; 95% CI: (-11.94, -1.04); Z=2.33; P=0.02], creatinine [MD =-3.70; 95% CI: (-5.08, -2.32); Z=5.24; P<0.00001], and total bilirubin [MD =-3.65; 95% CI: (-5.91, -1.40); Z=3.18; P=0.001] all decreased. Except for totCa/ionCa, the differences in other indicators were not statistically significant compared with the control group. RCA can significantly improve the clinical efficacy and blood coagulation indicators of CRRT for severely ill patients.
doi:10.21037/apm-21-1693 pmid:34488381 fatcat:7pagb2ky7venddayapr6m6hsxa

Forest Canopy Height Extraction in Rugged Areas With ICESat/GLAS Data

Xiaoyi Wang, Huabing Huang, Peng Gong, Caixia Liu, Congcong Li, Wenyu Li
2014 IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing  
Geoscience Laser Altimeter System data have been widely used in forest canopy height extraction. It is still challenging over rugged areas. In this paper, we propose a forest canopy height extraction method consisting of the Savitzky-Golay filter and fitting, Sigbeg determination based on the fitting results, and slope correction for rugged areas, particularly for slopes ranging from 5 • to 15 • . The method was applied to both the Xinlin Forest, China, and Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica.
more » ... The performance of this method was validated by field measurement and Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor data. The goodness of fit (R 2 ) reached 0.73 and 0.78, respectively, and root-mean-squared errors (RMSEs) were 2.27 and 3.75 m over the two areas, respectively. Index Terms-Forest inventory, global forest monitoring.
doi:10.1109/tgrs.2013.2283272 fatcat:s6vuqqotvfe4veq6ojrc3dge2u

Development of a Convenient In Vivo Hepatotoxin Assay Using a Transgenic Zebrafish Line with Liver-Specific DsRed Expression

Xiaoyan Zhang, Caixia Li, Zhiyuan Gong, Sheng-Ping Lucinda Hwang
2014 PLoS ONE  
Previously we have developed a transgenic zebrafish line (LiPan) with liver-specific red fluorescent protein (DsRed) expression under the fabp10a promoter. Since red fluorescence in the liver greatly facilitates the observation of liver in live LiPan fry, we envision that the LiPan zebrafish may provide a useful tool in analyses of hepatotoxicity based on changes of liver red fluorescence intensity and size. In this study, we first tested four well-established hepatotoxins (acetaminophen,
more » ... n, isoniazid and phenylbutazone) in LiPan fry and demonstrated that these hepatotoxins could significantly reduce both liver red fluorescence and liver size in a dosage-dependent manner, thus the two measurable parameters could be used as indicators of hepatotoxicity. We then tested the LiPan fry with nine other chemicals including environmental toxicants and human drugs. Three (mefenamic acid, lindane, and arsenate) behave like hepatotoxins in reduction of liver red fluorescence, while three others (17b-estradiol, TCDD [2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin] and NDMA [N-nitrosodimethylamine]) caused increase of liver red fluorescence and the liver size. Ethanol and two other chemicals, amoxicillin (antibiotics) and chlorphenamine (pain killer) did not resulted in significant changes of liver red fluorescence and liver size. By quantitative RT-PCR analysis, we found that the changes of red fluorescence intensity caused by different chemicals correlated to the changes of endogenous fabp10a RNA expression, indicating that the measured hepatotoxicity was related to fatty acid transportation and metabolism. Finally we tested a mixture of four hepatotoxins and observed a significant reduction of red fluorescence in the liver at concentrations below the lowest effective concentrations of individual hepatotoxins, suggesting that the transgenic zebrafish assay is capable of reporting compound hepatotoxicity effect from chemical mixtures. Thus, the LiPan transgenic fry provide a rapid and convenient in vivo hepatotoxicity assay that should be applicable to high-throughput hepatotoxicity test in drug screening as well as in biomonitoring environmental toxicants.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0091874 pmid:24626481 pmcid:PMC3953600 fatcat:w52aejwvt5czfjmy3m2rm4fchu
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