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Deep neural networks for semantic segmentation always require a large number of samples with pixel-level labels, which becomes the major difficulty in their real-world applications. To reduce the labeling cost, unsupervised domain adaptation (UDA) approaches are proposed to transfer knowledge from labeled synthesized datasets to unlabeled real-world datasets. Recently, some semi-supervised learning methods have been applied to UDA and achieved state-of-the-art performance. One of the mostarXiv:1909.13589v1 fatcat:gxdwr65ekrcjlerssch3izvwnu
more »... r approaches in semi-supervised learning is the entropy minimization method. However, when applying the entropy minimization to UDA for semantic segmentation, the gradient of the entropy is biased towards samples that are easy to transfer. To balance the gradient of well-classified target samples, we propose the maximum squares loss. Our maximum squares loss prevents the training process being dominated by easy-to-transfer samples in the target domain. Besides, we introduce the image-wise weighting ratio to alleviate the class imbalance in the unlabeled target domain. Both synthetic-to-real and cross-city adaptation experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach. The code is released at https://github. com/ZJULearning/MaxSquareLoss.
Recently, Chen et al. (24) claimed that HoxA9 played a significant part in the proliferation and differentiation of leukemia cells in vitro and in vivo. ...doi:10.21037/tcr-21-765 pmid:35116293 pmcid:PMC8797409 fatcat:lbhbzahpt5dc5hwiaeh5tfjnym
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common subtype of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The genomic landscape in Chinese ccRCC needs to be elucidated. Herein, we investigated the molecular features of Chinese ccRCC patients. Genomic profiling of DNA was performed through next-generation sequencing (NGS) in Chinese patients with ccRCC between January 2017 and March 2020. Clinical information including age, gender, and tumor histology was collected. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) stainingdoi:10.3389/fonc.2021.697219 pmid:34568025 pmcid:PMC8459629 fatcat:urap5u2xjfcs7brlg3oj3izpne
more »... r PD-L1 expression was performed using PD-L1 IHC 22C3 pharmDx assay or Ventana PD-L1 SP263 assay. Data analyses were performed using R 3.6.1. A total of 880 Chinese ccRCC patients who have undergone NGS were included in this study. The most common somatic alterations were detected in VHL (59.7%), PBRM1 (18.0%), SETD2 (12.2%), BAP1 (10.2%), and TP53 (9.4%). Compared with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, a higher mutation frequency of VHL (59.7% vs. 50.0%, p < 0.001) and TP53 (9.4% vs. 3.5%, p < 0.001) and a lower mutation frequency of PBRM1 (18.0% vs. 31.0%, p < 0.001) were found in the Chinese cohort. Of the 460 patients who were evaluated for PD-L1 expression, 139 (30.2%) had positive PD-L1 expression. The median tumor mutational burden (TMB) value was 4.5 muts/Mb (range, 0–46.0). Five (0.7%) patients were identified as microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H). Furthermore, 52 (5.9%) patients were identified to carry pathogenic or likely pathogenic germline mutations in 22 cancer predisposition genes. This is the first large-scale comprehensive genomic analysis for Chinese ccRCC patients, and these results might provide a better understanding of molecular features in Chinese ccRCC patients, which can lead to an improvement in the personalized treatment for these patients.
Sepsis is a common clinical disease with high mortality, and patients with sepsis have varied prognoses. Researchers need to explore the underlying mechanisms that determine the prognosis of sepsis. Hence, a mouse model was used to evaluate new potential prognostic markers of sepsis. Mice were randomly divided into low-dose group (n = 3, lipopolysaccharides [LPS], 20mg/kg) and high-dose group (n = 3; LPS, 40mg/kg). Total RNA was extracted from the peripheral blood of mice, and samples were thendoi:10.1042/bsr20202649 pmid:33015708 pmcid:PMC7601352 fatcat:grgahhppbbdetp2quzdi2rmknq
more »... subjected to RNA sequencing. When complete data were normalized, the high-dose group and low-dose group were screened for differentially expressed genes (DEGs, log2FC ≥ 1 and q value ≤ 0.05). DEGs were analyzed by gene ontology enrichment, and potential core genes were screened using protein–protein interaction network (PPI) and weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA). Moreover, the survival data in GSE65682 was used to observe the correlation between core genes and prognosis. A total of 967 DEGs were identified in the low-dose group, of which 390 were upregulated and 577 were downregulated. These genes were mainly enriched in white blood cell activation, lymphocyte activation, immune system response, etc. LCK, ZAP70, ITK, CD247, and DOCK2 were found at the core of PPI network, while WGCNA found that IFI35, ITGB3, and MED25 may be potential core genes. It was demonstrated that CD247, DOCK2, IFI35, ITK, and LCK core genes were positively correlated with prognosis based on GSE65682. CD247, DOCK2, IFI35, ITK, LCK, and MED25 might be important targets affecting the prognosis of sepsis.
AbstractExpression of kinesin family member 18B (KIF18B), an ATPase with key roles in cell division, is deregulated in many cancers, but its involvement in prostate cancer (PCa) is unclear. Here, we investigated the expression and function of KIF18B in human PCa specimens and cell lines using bioinformatics analyses, immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence microscopy, and RT-qPCR and western blot analyses. KIF18B was overexpressed in PCa specimens compared with paracancerous tissues and wasdoi:10.1038/s41419-021-03582-2 pmid:33753726 fatcat:ldk62r4dgzg2tnth7l5sihk4py
more »... ssociated with poorer disease-free survival. In vitro, KIF18B knockdown in PCa cell lines promoted cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, and inhibited cell apoptosis, while KIF18B overexpression had the opposite effects. In a mouse xenograft model, KIF18B overexpression accelerated and promoted the growth of PCa tumors. Bioinformatics analysis of control and KIF18B-overexpressing PCa cells showed that genes involved in the PI3K–AKT–mTOR signaling pathway were significantly enriched among the differentially expressed genes. Consistent with this observation, we found that KIF18B overexpression activates the PI3K–AKT–mTOR signaling pathway in PCa cells both in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, our results suggest that KIF18B plays a crucial role in PCa via activation of the PI3K–AKT–mTOR signaling pathway, and raise the possibility that KIF18B could have utility as a novel biomarker for PCa.
MicroRNAs (miRs) play important roles in modulating gene expression during the processes of tumorigenesis and tumor development. Previous studies have found that miR-145 is down-regulated in the stomach neoplasm and is related to tumor migration and invasion. However, both the molecular mechanism and function of miR-145 in gastric cancer remain unclear. The present study is the first demonstration of the significant down-regulation of miR-145 expression in infiltrative gastric cancer compareddoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0126890 pmid:26010149 pmcid:PMC4444015 fatcat:unuwdn6ttvfyzhvw6uf5lclpqe
more »... expanding gastric cancer. Additionally, correlation analyses revealed strong inverse correlations between miR-145 and FSCN1 expression levels in infiltrative gastric cancer. Furthermore, we demonstrated that miR-145 directly targets FSCN1 and suppresses cell migration and invasion in gastric cancer. Knocking down the expression of FSCN1 led to the suppression of migration and invasion in gastric cancer cells, and re-expressing FSCN1 in miR-145-overexpressing cells reversed their migration and invasion defects. Thus, we concluded that miR-145 regulates cell migration and invasion in gastric cancer primarily by directly targeting FSCN1.
Jiang-long Du 1 Peng Ma 1 Chen Wang 1 Yan Zeng 2 Yu-jia Xue 1 Xue-cai Yang 1 Xue-mei Wan 1 Fan-fan Chang 1 Tian-yu Zhao 1 Xiao-ye Jia 1 Hai-zhen Wang 3 Jing Liu 4 Zhong-ren Ma 1 Xin Cao ... 1, 2 Kui-zheng Cai is a positive regulator of type I interferon signalling. ...doi:10.1111/jcmm.14483 pmid:31270922 pmcid:PMC6714170 fatcat:wxzc5japdjcgfhdyycgmc3faly
Starting from 2-aminonaphthalene-1,4-dione and o-dibromoarene, palladium-catalyzed one-pot synthesis of carbazolequinone was examined in detail. With PdCl 2 as the catalyst, 2-dicyclohexylphosphino-2',4',6'-triisopropylbiphenyl (Xphos) as ligand and K 2 CO 3 as base in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) at 160 ℃ for 72 h, the annulation reaction afforded the corresponding product by N-H/C-H double arylation process in 81% yield. With different o-dihaloarenes, a series of carbazolequinone derivativesdoi:10.6023/cjoc201909040 fatcat:s2j5yewmcjd6jlsoeik6gbctfm
more »... re synthesized to examine the scope and limitation of the above method, and the structure of products was characterized by 1 H NMR and 13 C NMR spectra.
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of add-on Yang-Xue-Qing-Nao granules (YXQN) on sleep dysfunction in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). ... Black circles indicate the Yang-Xue Qing-Nao granule (YXQN) group, white circles indicate the placebo group and white squares indicate the control group. ... As a CM compound for treating headache and dizziness associated with serious sleep disturbances, Yang-Xue-Qin-Nao granules (YXQN) attenuate cerebral microcirculatory disturbances during ischemia-reperfusion ...doi:10.1186/1749-8546-8-14 pmid:23890176 pmcid:PMC3733743 fatcat:amilr5kufjd5tam32uu2hm325q
A new phenolic glycoside derivative, saproglucoside (1), along with five known phenolic glycoside derivatives (2–6) were isolated from the stems of Saprosma merrillii. The structure of the new compound 1 was determined by 1D and 2D NMR as well as by HRESIMS and hydrolysis. The inhibitory activities of all compounds against seven pathogenic bacteria and two cancer cell lines were evaluated.doi:10.6084/m9.figshare.3425726.v1 fatcat:licw4up65baknb6aovreymnaui
Connexin 43, a gap junction protein, coordinates cell-to-cell communication and adhesion. Altered Connexin 43 expression associated with cancer development and progression. In this study, we assessed Connexin 43 expression for association with clinicopathological features and biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy. Pathological specimens were collected from 243 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy and from 60 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients todoi:10.18632/oncotarget.11231 pmid:27623212 pmcid:PMC5341890 fatcat:tozfyiqjardv7hohobigqudgp4
more »... onstruct tissue microarrays and immunohistochemical analysis of Connexin 43 expression. Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariable Cox proportion hazard model were performed to associate Connexin 43 expression with postoperative biochemical recurrence-free survival (BFS). Connexin 43 expression was significantly reduced or lost in tumor tissues compared to that of BPHs (39.1% vs. 96.7%, P<0.001). Reduced Connexin 43 expression was associated with high levels of preoperative PSA, high Gleason score, advanced pT stage, positive surgical margin, extracapsular extension, and seminal vesicle invasion (P < 0.05, for all). Kaplan-Meier curves showed that reduced Connexin 43 expression was associated with shortened postoperative BFS (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that reduced Connexin 43 expression, high Gleason score and advanced pT stage were independent predictors for BFS of patients (P < 0.05). Connexin 43 expression was significantly reduced or lost in prostate cancer tissues, which was associated with advanced clinicopathological features and poor BFS of patients after radical prostatectomy.
To verify that the trabecular meshwork (TM) in the wall of the eyeball consists of smooth muscle fibers instead of collagen fibers or endothelial cells. Eighteen fresh eyeballs from 3 rabbits, 3 SD rats and 3 mice were sectioned along the sagittal plane and sliced after paraffin embedding for HE staining, VG staining, Masson staining, α-SMA immunohistochemistry or CD31 immunohistochemistry. These slices were observed under microscope and the structure of the TM was compared with those ofpmid:29070474 pmcid:PMC6743950 fatcat:mstdmtmp2rgqpjegv544lfgn54
more »... collagen fibers, ciliary muscles and endothelial cells. HE staining of the eyeball slices from the 3 animal species resulted in purplish red staining of the TM, which was highly consistent with ciliary muscle fibers. The cell?like structures on the surface of the TM were not clearly outlined, with flat nuclei showing a dark purple staining; these structures did not show obvious boundaries from the TM. Ciliary muscle fibers, which were smooth muscle cells in nature, were aligned in bundles in various directions. The longitudinally sectioned cells were flat and contained purplish cytoplasm and highly flattened nuclei. Scleral collagen fibers were stained dark red with a few fibroblasts sandwiched among them. The long axis of the fibroblasts was in parallel with that of the collagen fibers. The outline of the fibroblast was not clear and the nucleus was flat in dark blue. The vascular endothelial cells presented with different morphologies and contained light purplish cytoplasm and dark nuclei, protruding into the vascular cavity. VG staining of the TM revealed a pale red filamentous structure, and the collagen fibers were stained bright red. Masson staining of the TM showed a reticular structure consisting mainly of dark red fibers intermingled with thin green fibers. Scleral collagen fibers presented with a cord?like green wavy structure. The endothelial cells were green and flat, while the ciliary smooth muscle fibers were purple. In immunohistochemistry for α?SMA, the TM and the ciliary smooth muscle fibers showed a strong positivity in the cytoplasm, while the scleral collagen fibers and vascular endothelial cells showed negative staining; immunohistochemistry for CD31 showed no obvious positive staining in the TM, collagen fibers or ciliary smooth muscle cells from all the animals in spite of slight differences among them. The TM consists mainly of smooth muscle fibers with a thin layer of peripheral endomysium without endothelial cells.
Additional file 1: Figure S1. Logo of conserved motifs in Fig. 2. Figure S2. Putative cis-elements in the 1.5 kb promoter region of FvPMEs. Figure S3. QRT-PCR analysis of transcript levels of ripening-related genes in fruit of transient overexpression or silencing of FvPMEs.doi:10.6084/m9.figshare.11557344.v1 fatcat:zprifl4n6jgllm5ylhl2bafqzi
These staircases were interleaved randomly and varied independently (Xue et al., 2008) . Each participant finished 4 blocks of 64 trials, with each block lasting approximately 10 min. ... In particular, a recent transcranial current stimulation study showed that anodal stimulation of the right IFG enhanced both reactive and proactive inhibitory control (Cai et al., 2015) . ...doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.04.010 pmid:27083527 fatcat:24asywquxzah5b5x65vkqnt7um
Table 2 2 (continued) Reference Jiang et al., 2015 Cai et al., 2019 Cai et al., 2019 Cai et al., 2019 Cai et al., 2019 Cai et al., 2019 Cai et al., 2019 Cai et al., 2019 Cai et al., 2019 Cai et al., 2019 ... ., 2014; Cai et al., 2019) . ...doi:10.1016/j.exer.2019.107778 pmid:31472110 fatcat:yvswzzszdfccvoayibwp5qtoxe
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