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Caches and hash trees for efficient memory integrity verification

B. Gassend, G.E. Suh, D. Clarke, M. van Dijk, S. Devadas
The Ninth International Symposium on High-Performance Computer Architecture, 2003. HPCA-9 2003. Proceedings.  
A number of schemes are presented with different levels of integration between the on-processor L2 cache and the hash-tree machinery.  ...  We study the hardware cost of implementing hash-tree based verification of untrusted external memory by a high performance processor.  ...  Our schemes use hash trees and caches to efficiently verify memory.  ... 
doi:10.1109/hpca.2003.1183547 dblp:conf/hpca/GassendSCDD03 fatcat:h36vis2pc5fdnlnadhzgngnwhq

IVEC

Ruirui Huang, G. Edward Suh
2010 Proceedings of the 37th annual international symposium on Computer architecture - ISCA '10  
verification is also required for security, effectively removing the memory and bandwidth overheads (12.5%) of typical ECC schemes.  ...  Integrity verification schemes detect malicious tampering of memory while error correcting codes (ECC) detect and correct random errors.  ...  The use of a counter in GMAC enables efficient operations both for integrity verification and error correction.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1815961.1816015 dblp:conf/isca/HuangS10 fatcat:ngcb3hqprvckbad42ewqapywea

IVEC

Ruirui Huang, G. Edward Suh
2010 SIGARCH Computer Architecture News  
verification is also required for security, effectively removing the memory and bandwidth overheads (12.5%) of typical ECC schemes.  ...  Integrity verification schemes detect malicious tampering of memory while error correcting codes (ECC) detect and correct random errors.  ...  The use of a counter in GMAC enables efficient operations both for integrity verification and error correction.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1816038.1816015 fatcat:arplzhxnbvervms2icfa26kfey

MEM-DnP—A Novel Energy Efficient Approach for Memory Integrity Detection and Protection in Embedded Systems

Satyajeet Nimgaonkar, Mahadevan Gomathisankaran, Saraju P. Mohanty
2013 Circuits, systems, and signal processing  
This paper presents a novel energy efficient approach for MEMory integrity Detection and Protection (MEM-DnP).  ...  The key feature of the proposed MEM-DnP is that it can be adaptively tune a memory integrity verification module by using a sensor module.  ...  In this version, we have discussed in detail the concept of Memory Integrity Verification (MIV) in Section 2, expanded the architecture to include memory operations and the hash address computation algorithm  ... 
doi:10.1007/s00034-013-9621-4 fatcat:t2f7dtuqnjhlbkehzwslnq5ck4

M-MAP: Multi-factor memory authentication for secure embedded processors

Syed Kamran Haider, Masab Ahmad, Farrukh Hijaz, Astha Patni, Ethan Johnson, Matthew Seita, Omer Khan, Marten van Dijk
2015 2015 33rd IEEE International Conference on Computer Design (ICCD)  
We examine certain crucial theoretical and practical implications of composing memory integrity verification and bounds checking protection schemes in a comprehensive system.  ...  Based on these implications, we implement M-MAP with hardware based memory integrity verification and software based bounds checking to achieve a balance between hardware modifications and performance.  ...  Merkle first introduced the idea of a hash tree (Merkle tree) for data integrity verification [28] .  ... 
doi:10.1109/iccd.2015.7357151 dblp:conf/iccd/HaiderAHPJSKD15 fatcat:q3npewmq45fxjbgmzg7g32q4bu

PoisonIvy: Safe speculation for secure memory

Tamara Silbergleit Lehman, Andrew D. Hilton, Benjamin C. Lee
2016 2016 49th Annual IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Microarchitecture (MICRO)  
Encryption and integrity trees guard against physical attacks, but harm performance.  ...  PoisonIvy reduces performance overheads from 40% to 20% for memory intensive workloads and down to 1.8%, on average.  ...  Data en route from memory to the last-level cache must wait for decryption plus integrity verification, which may need data hashes and tree nodes from memory.  ... 
doi:10.1109/micro.2016.7783741 dblp:conf/micro/LehmanHL16 fatcat:vsdc4murjrazxnqefzuko3a3bu

AEGIS

G. Edward Suh, Dwaine Clarke, Blaise Gassend, Marten van Dijk, Srinivas Devadas
2014 25th Anniversary International Conference on Supercomputing Anniversary Volume -  
We describe the architecture for a single-chip aegis processor which can be used to build computing systems secure against both physical and software attacks.  ...  Our architecture assumes that all components external to the processor, such as memory, are untrusted. We show two different implementations.  ...  We would also like to thank Ron Rivest and Krste Asanovic for many constructive comments, as well as all the members of our group who helped proof-read this paper.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2591635.2667184 fatcat:vsxhymcelfbr3pjbxnt2upkw44

AEGIS

G. Edward Suh, Dwaine Clarke, Blaise Gassend, Marten van Dijk, Srinivas Devadas
2003 Proceedings of the 17th annual international conference on Supercomputing - ICS '03  
We describe the architecture for a single-chip aegis processor which can be used to build computing systems secure against both physical and software attacks.  ...  Our architecture assumes that all components external to the processor, such as memory, are untrusted. We show two different implementations.  ...  We would also like to thank Ron Rivest and Krste Asanovic for many constructive comments, as well as all the members of our group who helped proof-read this paper.  ... 
doi:10.1145/782814.782838 dblp:conf/ics/SuhCGDD03 fatcat:qxgo3jshfng5vkowxbifl7go44

Towards fast hardware memory integrity checking with skewed Merkle trees

Jakub Szefer, Sebastian Biedermann
2014 Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Hardware and Architectural Support for Security and Privacy - HASP '14  
To counter this, hardware memory integrity checking schemes have been proposed, and realized in a number of security microprocessor architectures.  ...  Merkle trees, and they do not require more storage than full, balanced Merkle trees.  ...  Works on memory integrity checking in computer systems, such as in [11] , presented numerous designs for hash tree based schemes for memory integrity verification: chash, mhash or ihash; in addition to  ... 
doi:10.1145/2611765.2611774 dblp:conf/isca/SzeferB14 fatcat:rtn7h7gen5hfthgwq2v7lzyx2u

Hardware Mechanisms for Memory Authentication: A Survey of Existing Techniques and Engines [chapter]

Reouven Elbaz, David Champagne, Catherine Gebotys, Ruby B. Lee, Nachiketh Potlapally, Lionel Torres
2009 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
After a description of the active attacks that threaten memory integrity, this paper surveys existing cryptographic techniques -namely integrity trees -allowing for memory authentication.  ...  Existing techniques for memory authentication that are not based on trees are described and their performance/security trade-off is discussed.  ...  We also discussed the impact of operating system compromise on hardware integrity verification engine and presented an existing solution for secure and efficient application memory authentication despite  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-01004-0_1 fatcat:jmwvo4qelzeo7p7ayai6xqjerq

Update the Root of Integrity Tree in Secure Non-Volatile Memory Systems with Low Overhead [article]

Jianming Huang, Yu Hua
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Data integrity is important for non-volatile memory (NVM) systems that maintain data even without power.  ...  After NVM system failures and reboots, the integrity tree root is responsible for providing a trusted execution environment.  ...  Integrity Verification Data integrity verification is important for system security.  ... 
arXiv:2103.03502v1 fatcat:qs3wtvj7bzhfhcifcnkyyve3gy

Security Approaches for Information-Centric Networking [chapter]

Walter Wong, Maurcio Ferreira
2012 Applied Cryptography and Network Security  
The Cache Memory is responsible for storing the data itself and the initial version is implemented as a hash table.  ...  The CRs are able to route and cache pieces of content in their internal memory for some amount of time.  ...  It will also be useful for faculty members of graduate schools and universities.  ... 
doi:10.5772/35557 fatcat:m5psjnyqhvh3vnfqytatfht5qm

CryptoPage: An Efficient Secure Architecture with Memory Encryption, Integrity and Information Leakage Protection

Guillaume Duc, Ronan Keryell
2006 Proceedings of the Computer Security Applications Conference  
Several secure computing hardware architectures using memory encryption and memory integrity checkers have been proposed during the past few years to provide applications with a tamper resistant environment  ...  We propose the CRYPTOPAGE architecture which implements memory encryption, memory integrity protection checking and information leakage protection together with a low performance penalty (3 % slowdown  ...  The authors wish to thank Jacques Stern for his valuable comments on this project, Sylvain Guilley and Renaud Pacalet for their insightful discussions in the GET-TCP project.  ... 
doi:10.1109/acsac.2006.21 dblp:conf/acsac/DucK06 fatcat:f4mt32yzfnfi7fecobzlqitsj4

Transparent code authentication at the processor level

A.O. Durahim, E. Savaş, B. Sunar, T.B. Pedersen, Ö. Kocabaş
2009 IET Computers & Digital Techniques  
The performance analysis shows that, under mild assumptions, the presented technique introduces negligible overhead for even moderate cache sizes.  ...  We present a lightweight authentication mechanism which verifies the authenticity of code and thereby addresses the virus and malicious code problems at the hardware level eliminating the need for trusted  ...  Acknowledgement The authors would like to thank the anonymous referees for their helpful comments.  ... 
doi:10.1049/iet-cdt.2007.0122 fatcat:yzgxjqyqwvbr7lcs7o3fbsxvpm

FastAD

Paul T. Stanton, Benjamin McKeown, Randal Burns, Giuseppe Ateniese
2010 ACM SIGOPS Operating Systems Review  
Our contributions include defining on-disk, block-oriented data structures and algorithms for authenticated directories that exceed memory capacity and optimizations that reduce the I/O required to insert  ...  We develop techniques that make authenticated directories efficient and scalable toward the goal of managing tens of billions of objects in a single directory.  ...  and integrity of the data using the identifier, path, and hash.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1740390.1740401 fatcat:kmu6de3u55eghigtxyfloselju
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