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Cache behavior prediction by abstract interpretation [chapter]

Martin Alt, Christian Ferdinand, Florian Martin, Reinhard Wilhelm
1996 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
In this paper, abstract interpretation is applied to the problem of predicting the cache behavior of programs.  ...  Abstract semantics of machine programs are deÿned which determine the contents of caches.  ...  Conclusion and future work We have described semantics-based analysis methods by abstract interpretation that allows one to predict the cache behavior of programs for various types of one-level caches.  ... 
doi:10.1007/3-540-61739-6_33 fatcat:yp5wysuvfbablgel4esuxg7ei4

Cache behavior prediction by abstract interpretation

Christian Ferdinand, Florian Martin, Reinhard Wilhelm, Martin Alt
1999 Science of Computer Programming  
In this paper, abstract interpretation is applied to the problem of predicting the cache behavior of programs.  ...  Abstract semantics of machine programs are deÿned which determine the contents of caches.  ...  Conclusion and future work We have described semantics-based analysis methods by abstract interpretation that allows one to predict the cache behavior of programs for various types of one-level caches.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0167-6423(99)00010-6 fatcat:z4rokhw7zjguzolrzcpom3wb4a

Formal Analysis of Processor Timing Models [chapter]

Reinhard Wilhelm
2004 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
These use Abstract Interpretation to predict the system's behavior on the underlying processor's components and Integer Linear Programming to determine a worst-case path through the program.  ...  The abstract interpretation is based on an abstract processor model that is conservative with respect to the timing behavior of the concrete processor.  ...  They use Abstract Interpretation to predict the system's behavior on the underlying processor's components and Integer Linear Programming to determine a worst-case path through the program [LMW99] .  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-24732-6_1 fatcat:xo3f3th4bzhf7ptlo7acf6onla

Pipeline behavior prediction for superscalar processors by abstract interpretation

Jörn Schneider, Christian Ferdinand
1999 Proceedings of the ACM SIGPLAN 1999 workshop on Languages, compilers, and tools for embedded systems - LCTES '99  
This paper describes a method to predict the behavior of pipelined superscalar processors and reports initial results of a prototypical implementation for the SuperSPARC I processor.  ...  Cache memories, pipelines and parallel functional units are architectural components which are responsible for the speed gain of modern processors.  ...  Pipeline Analysis by Abstract Interpretation Abstract interpretation is a well developed theory of static program analysis [3] .  ... 
doi:10.1145/314403.314432 dblp:conf/lctrts/SchneiderF99 fatcat:va3rs2ufzfbqfn4bpwbnjjltlu

Pipeline behavior prediction for superscalar processors by abstract interpretation

Jörn Schneider, Christian Ferdinand
1999 SIGPLAN notices  
This paper describes a method to predict the behavior of pipelined superscalar processors and reports initial results of a prototypical implementation for the SuperSPARC I processor.  ...  Cache memories, pipelines and parallel functional units are architectural components which are responsible for the speed gain of modern processors.  ...  Pipeline Analysis by Abstract Interpretation Abstract interpretation is a well developed theory of static program analysis [3] .  ... 
doi:10.1145/315253.314432 fatcat:vv6zsa2durbcfbgnjjsjpl42di

Predictable Binary Code Cache: A First Step towards Reconciling Predictability and Just-in-Time Compilation

Adnan Bouakaz, Isabelle Puaut, Erven Rohou
2011 2011 17th IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium  
On the other hand, and more importantly for the system determinism, we show that the behavior of the code cache is predictable: a safe upper bound of the number of function recompilations can be computed  ...  Our work aims at reconciling the two domains, i.e. taking advantage of the portability and performance provided by JIT compilation, while providing predictability guarantees.  ...  The results of an abstract interpretation are invariants for each program point, which are represented by values in the abstract domain D.  ... 
doi:10.1109/rtas.2011.29 dblp:conf/rtas/BouakazPR11 fatcat:bha2hyowo5ette7hdji44v34tq

Verifying Timing Behavior by Abstract Interpretation of Executable Code [chapter]

Christian Ferdinand, Reinhold Heckmann
2005 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
AbsInt's worst-case execution time analyzer aiT can estimate precise and safe upper bounds for the WCETs of program tasks, thus providing the basic input for verifying the real-time behavior of embedded  ...  Each replacement strategy supported by aiT is implemented by a table for line age updates that is interpreted by the cache analyzer. The pipeline analyzers are the most diverse part of aiT.  ...  In contrast, abstract interpretation can be used to efficiently compute a safe approximation for all possible cache and pipeline states that can occur at a program point in any program run with any input  ... 
doi:10.1007/11560548_26 fatcat:zyb7e6qojndftkfufefv7vb6fa

Branch target buffers: WCET analysis framework and timing predictability

Daniel Grund, Jan Reineke, Gernot Gebhard
2011 Journal of systems architecture  
To obtain tight bounds, a WCET analysis has to consider micro-architectural features like caches, branch prediction, and branch target buffers (BTB).  ...  We propose more predictable designs, which improve obtainable WCET bounds by up to 20%, reduce analysis time considerably, and simplify the analysis.  ...  Hence, technically speaking, the results of a cache analysis are the invariants that are established by the abstract cache sub-domain of the abstract interpretation.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.sysarc.2010.05.013 fatcat:ev6dufkq7faoxkev5ugegg2fcm

Branch Target Buffers: WCET Analysis Framework and Timing Predictability

Daniel Grund, Jan Reineke, Gernot Gebhard
2009 2009 15th IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications  
To obtain tight bounds, a WCET analysis has to consider micro-architectural features like caches, branch prediction, and branch target buffers (BTB).  ...  We propose more predictable designs, which improve obtainable WCET bounds by up to 20%, reduce analysis time considerably, and simplify the analysis.  ...  Hence, technically speaking, the results of a cache analysis are the invariants that are established by the abstract cache sub-domain of the abstract interpretation.  ... 
doi:10.1109/rtcsa.2009.8 dblp:conf/rtcsa/GrundRG09 fatcat:iaubfhv2bbhbbhhzs4zannbk5i

Determining Bounds on Execution Times [chapter]

Reinhard Wilhelm
2009 Industrial Information Technology  
In modern microprocessor architectures, caches, pipelines, and all kinds of speculation are key features for improving (average-case) performance.  ...  A lack of precision in the predicted timing behaviour may lead to a waste of hardware resources, which would have to be invested in order to meet the requirements.  ...  Cache-Behaviour Prediction Abstract Interpretation [CC77] is used to compute invariants about cache contents.  ... 
doi:10.1201/9781439807637.ch9 fatcat:v2xveguwx5co5p2ydhxwabpucy

A Survey on Static Cache Analysis for Real-Time Systems

Mingsong Lv, Nan Guan, Jan Reineke, Reinhard Wilhelm, Wang Yi
2015 Leibniz Transactions on Embedded Systems  
These estimates are then used to predict the timing behavior of the overall system.  ...  Then, the discussion is extended to cache analysis in complex execution environment, followed by a survey of existing tools based on static techniques for cache analysis.  ...  Abstract-Interpretation-Based Approaches The first cache analysis based on abstract interpretation (AI) was proposed by Ferdinand and Wilhelm in the 1990s [1, 38] .  ... 
doi:10.4230/lites-v003-i001-a005 dblp:journals/lites/LvGRW016 fatcat:ax5h3hurpbekjo52thkaduwtki

Static Timing Analysis – What is Special? [chapter]

Jan Reineke, Reinhard Wilhelm
2015 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
This article considers the properties of this application of abstract interpretation that differ from those in the standard applications of abstract interpretation in compilation and in verification.  ...  interpretation is successfully used for determining execution-time bounds of real-time programs.  ...  Conclusions We have shown how the architectural basis of static timing analysis influences the character of static timing analysis, which includes a particular instance of abstract interpretation as its  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-27810-0_4 fatcat:h4im5k3amzhdhlnijfxlhgrxxm

Pipeline Modeling for Timing Analysis [chapter]

Marc Langenbach, Stephan Thesing, Reinhold Heckmann
2002 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Our tool is, to the best of our knowledge, the first one that can determine a safe and rather precise WCET bound for a processor that has caches and pipelines and performs branch prediction and instruction  ...  Obtaining safe upper bounds for these times by measuring actual executions is rarely possible, since the worst case input is normally not known.  ...  In [5] Ferdinand presents a method for static cache and pipeline analysis based on abstract interpretation.  ... 
doi:10.1007/3-540-45789-5_22 fatcat:jpnzqddkpfdh5krowlhspsdiei

Abstract Interpretation under Speculative Execution [article]

Meng Wu, Chao Wang
2019 arXiv   pre-print
To fill the gap, we propose a method to make abstract interpretation sound under speculative execution. There are two contributions.  ...  Our experiments show that the new method, while guaranteed to be sound under speculative execution, outperforms state-of-the-art abstract interpretation techniques that may be unsound.  ...  Preliminaries We review the basics of abstract interpretation, as well as the cache, branch prediction, and speculative execution.  ... 
arXiv:1904.11170v2 fatcat:kqvzq77axvcybn4v3o2p33mha4

Testing Implementation Soundness of a WCET Analysis Tool [chapter]

Reinhard Wilhelm, Markus Pister, Gernot Gebhard, Daniel Kästner
2020 A Journey of Embedded and Cyber-Physical Systems  
It is an abstract interpretation of the program's execution on the underlying cache and pipeline architecture.  ...  The correctness proofs of the method have been conducted by Thesing [14] based on the theory of abstract interpretation.  ...  Open Access This chapter is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits use, sharing, adaptation,  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-030-47487-4_2 fatcat:qvnt6ltauzcjjpmtgro7r3tpa4
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