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CRYSTAL: Inducing a Conceptual Dictionary [article]

Stephen Soderland, David Fisher, Jonathan Aseltine, Wendy Lehnert
1995 arXiv   pre-print
This paper describes CRYSTAL, a system which automatically induces a dictionary of "concept-node definitions" sufficient to identify relevant information from a training corpus.  ...  One of the central knowledge sources of an information extraction system is a dictionary of linguistic patterns that can be used to identify the conceptual content of a text.  ...  The CRYSTAL dictionary induction tool is one of the rst systems to automatically create a conceptual dictionary from a training corpus.  ... 
arXiv:cmp-lg/9505020v1 fatcat:3rzbbrvzcff2fdjw7ea62mv7mi

Liquid crystal displays

G.P. Crawford
1998 IEEE potentials  
This then was the basic idea of a fi eld to intuitively conceptualize electromagnetism.  ...  91 Stiff But Flexible 97 Liquid Crystal Character 99 Viscosity 100 Elasticity 101 The Induced Dipole Moment 103 References 108 6 Thermodynamics for Liquid Crystals 111 The Three Laws of  ...  But this " ae thereal " view of Nature confounded even its proponents Liquid Crystal Displays, First Edition. Robert H. Chen.  ... 
doi:10.1109/45.721731 fatcat:lqfn44krtnhblfka2yfzbmgxmm

Crystal ball - 2009

2009 Environmental Microbiology Reports  
The essence of this Crystal ball 17  ...  A crystal ball is an instrument which -when used properly -helps to gain information on the past, present or future by other means than common human senses and the standard technologies supporting them  ...  So, at first sight, our crystal ball shows us, looking into the crystal ball.  ... 
doi:10.1111/j.1758-2229.2008.00010.x pmid:23765716 fatcat:a2h7akkx5zg7pntlrwpwjj6rh4

Self-assembly: from crystals to cells

Bartosz A. Grzybowski, Christopher E. Wilmer, Jiwon Kim, Kevin P. Browne, Kyle J. M. Bishop
2009 Soft Matter  
Non-equilibrium SA is discussed as a route to reconfigurable ("adaptive") materials, and its connection to biological systems is emphasized.  ...  The main challenge in SA research is the ability to "program" the properties of the individual pieces such that they organize into a desired structure.  ...  Looking into Webster's dictionary, we learn that assembly is the process of ''fitting together of manufactured parts into a complete machine, structure, or unit of a machine''.  ... 
doi:10.1039/b819321p fatcat:wc7gz4ajs5ef7jzcxmysjtkhb4

Crystal gravity [article]

Jan Zaanen, Floris Balm, Aron J. Beekman
2022 arXiv   pre-print
Such a "crystal gravity" is therefore like the Higgs phase of gravity. The usual Higgs phases are characterized by a special phenomenology.  ...  Only rather recently it was realized in various context that the order parameter of the solid has a relation to Einsteins dynamical space time which is similar to the role of a Higgs field in a Yang-Mills  ...  This is the meaning of the Poisson ratio: upon applying pressure to a solid, next to a volume change it will also induce a shear deformation.  ... 
arXiv:2109.11325v2 fatcat:3pfj6yseqzgitgauxs5xapwt2e

Review article. Voice in global English: unheard chords in crystal loud and clear. David Crystal

R Phillipson
1999 Applied Linguistics  
Many ethical issues are directly related to`world' English, its conceptualization, forms and functions.  ...  The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (1993 edition) glosses it as the spread of American culture as represented by Coca-Cola, and dates it as mid-twentieth century.  ...  NOTE I am very grateful for responses to a first draft of the review to David Graddol, Franc Ëois Grin, Martin Kayman, Miklo  s Kontra, Alastair Pennycook, Bent Preisler, Tove Skutnabb-Kangas, and a very  ... 
doi:10.1093/applin/20.2.265 fatcat:a7of2kbszfdzzaoahy7hhyxaga

Mutation model for nucleotide sequences based on crystal basis [article]

C. Minichini, A. Sciarrino
2005 arXiv   pre-print
A nucleotides sequence is identified, in the two (four) letters alphabet, by the the labels of a vector state of an irreducible representation of U_q(sl(2)) (U_q(sl(2) + sl(2))), in the limit q -> 0.  ...  A master equation for the distribution function is written, where the intensity of the one-spin flip is assumed to depend from the variation of the labels of the state.  ...  (Encyclopedic Dictionary of Mathematics, 1960) ofH.  ... 
arXiv:q-bio/0506010v1 fatcat:ujsfigoyhffopie5abre4c5tui

Modelling bound ligands in protein crystal structures

P. H. Zwart, G. G. Langer, V. S. Lamzin
2004 Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography  
This scoring function combined with a graph-based search technique provides a¯exible model-building scheme and its application shows promising initial results.  ...  An error model of the geometrical features of the molecular structure of a ligand based on a lattice distribution of positional parameters is obtained via simulation and is used for the construction of  ...  Morris and A. Perrakis for stimulating discussions. PHZ thanks K. Cowtan for his help with the use of the Clipper libraries and the EMBL for a PhD fellowship.  ... 
doi:10.1107/s0907444904012995 pmid:15572776 fatcat:jbmru5jicberxo3cnw2ppjftfu

Relation between crystal structure and optical properties in the correlated blue pigment YIn_1-xMn_xO_3 [article]

Valentin Ransmayr, Jan M. Tomczak, Anna Galler
2022 arXiv   pre-print
A material's properties and functionalities are determined by its chemical constituents and the atomic arrangement in which they crystallize.  ...  theory to treat the quasi-atomic Mn-multiplets at low doping x=0.08) with an effective medium description (Kubelka-Munk model to describe scattering in a milled pigment sample), we find that only a Mn-coordination  ...  Siddall, Pigment Compendium: A Dictionary and Optical Microscopy of Historical Pigments (Routledge, 2008). 2 A. E. Smith, H. Mizoguchi, K. Delaney, N. A. Spaldin,  ... 
arXiv:2208.03997v1 fatcat:zsrywtkdand2bhbykqepzgzkta

Crystallization screening: the influence of history on current practice

Joseph R. Luft, Janet Newman, Edward H. Snell
2014 Acta Crystallographica Section F Structural Biology Communications  
While crystallization historically predates crystallography, it is a critical step for the crystallographic process.  ...  The rich history of crystallization and how that history influences current practices is described. The tremendous impact of crystallization screens on the field is discussed.  ...  The experiments are conceptually simple.  ... 
doi:10.1107/s2053230x1401262x pmid:25005076 pmcid:PMC4089519 fatcat:7uenwlaojngwxaij5qb6xlyaeu

The discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals; a critique of the myths

Paul Forman
1969 Archive for History of Exact Sciences  
LAUE, impatient, put pressure upon FRIEDRICH by inducing PAUL KNIPPI~C to take up the question.  ...  ", and of the conceptual difficulties standing in the way of the observation of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals. II. Why Munich ? The question --"why Munich ?"  ... 
doi:10.1007/bf00327262 fatcat:2rurapbmsrg6reqt3a7zcpha3u

PagP Crystallized from SDS/Cosolvent Reveals the Route for Phospholipid Access to the Hydrocarbon Ruler

Jose Antonio Cuesta-Seijo, Chris Neale, M. Adil Khan, Joel Moktar, Christopher D. Tran, Russell E. Bishop, Régis Pomès, Gilbert G. Privé
2010 Structure  
Restraints for the MPD molecules were modified from the standard Refmac 5 dictionary by removing the torsion and chiral restraints.  ...  It is effective at millimolar concentrations and induces a nonnative structure with a high proportion of a helix, although its mechanism of action is not well understood (Guo et al., 1990; Manning and  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.str.2010.06.014 pmid:20826347 pmcid:PMC5007126 fatcat:avnr7ekr45govhfmou3saz2nya

Knowledge Extraction by Using an Ontology Based Annotation Tool

Maria Vargas-Vera, Enrico Motta, John Domingue, Simon Buckingham Shum, Mattia Lanzoni
2001 International Conference on Knowledge Capture  
The semantic annotation tool contains: an ontology-based mark-up component which allows the user to browse and to mark-up relevant pieces of information; a learning component (Crystal from the University  ...  Our system uses as domain of study "KMi Planet", a Webbased news server that helps to communicate relevant information between members in our institute.  ...  Crystal was able to induce a dictionary of CN definitions for each event in KMi ontology.  ... 
dblp:conf/kcap/Vargas-VeraMDSL01 fatcat:adhs6y5zizas5kjebqoygjvfvq

Simulation of modulated protein crystal structure and diffraction data in a supercell and in superspace

Jeffrey J. Lovelace, Peter D. Simone, Václav Petříček, Gloria E. O. Borgstahl
2013 Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography  
Selection of a model system Orthorhombic profilin-actin crystals can be induced to become incommensurately modulated, with satellite reflections appearing near the periodic main reflections.  ...  In practice, the mmCIF and msCIF dictionaries need to be blended into the same file or a version of the msCIF needs to be adapted to DDL2 for proteins.  ... 
doi:10.1107/s0907444913004630 pmid:23695251 pmcid:PMC4005373 fatcat:3m4aadsfurfstfq3mguqsq7eei

Conceptualizing the metaphors of drug abusers

Monika Gyuró
2016 Topics in Linguistics  
This study analyses recreational drug slang terms found in the Drug Slang Dictionary in order to reveal categories of metaphors involved in drug users' language.  ...  The study also involves drug addicts' narratives to identify conceptual metaphors in their experiences.  ...  Thus, the topics in the dictionary appeared as conceptual metaphors, and the narratives served as evidence.  ... 
doi:10.1515/topling-2016-0006 fatcat:fndxnjphojalfhv7fiv2mnhg2a
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