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On the Bahncard Problem [chapter]

Rudolf Fleischer
1998 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
It turns out that the optimal competitive ratio only depends on the price reduction factor (50% for the German Bahncard Problem), but does not depend on the price or validity period of a Bahncard.  ...  For the common traveler, the decision at which time to buy a Bahncard is a typical online problem, because she usually does not know when and where she will travel next.  ...  Acknowledgements We want to thank Kurt Mehlhorn for his comments on a preliminary version of this paper.  ... 
doi:10.1007/3-540-68535-9_10 fatcat:6dvfarzw6nasjmecgkfuyejbhi

On the Bahncard problem

Rudolf Fleischer
2001 Theoretical Computer Science  
It turns out that the optimal competitive ratio only depends on the price reduction factor (50% for the German Bahncard Problem), but does not depend on the price or validity period of a Bahncard.  ...  For the common traveler, the decision at which time to buy a Bahncard is a typical online problem, because she usually does not know when and where she will travel next.  ...  Acknowledgements We want to thank Kurt Mehlhorn for his comments on a preliminary version of this paper.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0304-3975(00)00266-8 fatcat:z57gkwyqyva5riq6gwctnia7q4

Information Complexity of Online Problems [chapter]

Juraj Hromkovič, Rastislav Královič, Richard Královič
2010 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
In a pursuit to overcome these limitations, we propose the notion of information content of algorithmic problems.  ...  Moreover, the linearity constant tends to 0 with growing r: Theorems 3 and 4 suggest that large advice is necessary for Paging if a constant competitive ratio is required.  ...  Now we focus on the opposite end of the competitive ratio spectrum, where the competitive ratio is not a fixed constant.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-15155-2_3 fatcat:kpi3va3eq5gaxlxcstz2a5vvoa

Online Financial Algorithms: Competitive Analysis

Sandeep Kumar, Deepak Garg
2012 International Journal of Computer Applications  
In this paper various Online Algorithms have been reviewed for their efficiency and various alternative measures have been explored for analysis purposes.  ...  Moreover these may involve considering a risk reward framework for improving the competitive ratio.  ...  However competitive ratio is criticized for being crude and unrealistic for use [9] .  ... 
doi:10.5120/4974-7228 fatcat:5s734zztwre37k5q3zl25lmzie

Improving Online Algorithms via ML Predictions

Manish Purohit, Zoya Svitkina, Ravi Kumar
2018 Neural Information Processing Systems  
The main motivation for this line of research is two-fold.  ...  The first is to design new online algorithms that can avoid assuming a worst-case scenario and hence have better performance guarantees both in theory and practice.  ...  We set λ = 0.5 for the deterministic algorithm that guarantees a worst-case competitive ratio of 3.  ... 
dblp:conf/nips/PurohitSK18 fatcat:vjj3kbv5iza5hexrn5morhnagq

Page 51 of American Sportswear & Knitting Times Vol. 42, Issue 9 [page]

1973 American Sportswear & Knitting Times  
This means that the selling prices for the knitter are not decided by consumer demand or tastes in fashion but by the buyers or buying agents in a closely competitive mar- ket.  ...  For the knitting plant, the selling price in- cludes a constant margin of profit which is set regardless of the fashion value of the fabric’s appearance.  ... 

Page 100 of New Outlook Vol. 152, Issue 3 [page]

1929 New Outlook  
The prospects of two companies being equal, he receives more value for his money by buying a stock with a ratio of 10 than one with a ratio of 15.  ...  Page 100 Outlook and Independent >> Price-Earnings Ratios ~~ HE INVESTOR is pay- ing $1.60 today for a share in American in- dustry that he have bought two years ago for $1.00.  ... 

Combining guaranteed and spot markets in display advertising: selling guaranteed page views with stochastic demand [article]

Bowei Chen, Jingmin Huang, Yufei Huang, Stefanos Kollias, Shigang Yue
2019 arXiv   pre-print
We take the advertisers' purchasing behaviour into consideration, i.e., risk aversion and stochastic demand arrivals, and present a scalable and efficient algorithm for the optimal solution.  ...  In this paper, we present a dynamic programming model to study how an online publisher should optimally allocate and price page views between guaranteed and spot markets.  ...  web page for a single page view is auctioned off separately so that each independent auction is a single-item auction.  ... 
arXiv:1708.01348v4 fatcat:myi4o5cgefbfhiybktb2fhns3m

Page 398 of The Accounting Review Vol. 11, Issue 4 [page]

1936 The Accounting Review  
It presents a thorough discussion of ratio analysis, the formulation of an index from the ratios, testing the ratios against those derived from common-size state- ments and ratios found to be common in  ...  398 tral division of a chain which exercises the management, buying, warehousing, transportation and financial func- tions has an average expense of approximately 6.5% of sales.  ... 

Combinatorial Online Optimization in Real Time [chapter]

Martin Grötschel, Sven O. Krumke, Jörg Rambau, Thomas Winter, Uwe T. Zimmermann
2001 Online Optimization of Large Scale Systems  
Optimization is the task of finding an optimum solution to a given problem. When the decision variables are discrete we speak of a combinatorial optimization problem.  ...  Such a problem is online when decisions have to be made before all data of the problem are known.  ...  It is easy to see that any deterministic algorithm has a competitive ratio at least (2 − 1/B). Any competitive algorithm must buy skis at some point in time.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-662-04331-8_33 fatcat:sbn7zuddmfbphmeq6dbrvasvom

Page 287 of POWER Vol. 89, Issue [page]

1945 POWER  
Write for copy of 96-page catalog P-450, containing complete information. | A 8 TEC E REEVES-equipped machines have complete speed adjustability—not just a few speeds but any speed between predetermined  ...  A new era of building and construction, of mak- ing and selling things for better living has begun. The old American Spirit of Competition is to bloom again.  ... 

Migrating and replicating data in networks

Marcin Bienkowski
2011 Computer Science - Research and Development  
We review classic results on the file allocation, the page migration, and the page replication problems in a model in which the total cost of communication is subject to optimization.  ...  We survey data management problems in the light of competitive analysis.  ...  General networks The asymptotic competitive ratios for various types of adversaries for the page migration problem in dynamic networks are given in Table 4 .  ... 
doi:10.1007/s00450-011-0150-8 fatcat:hxceydmn4bblznm5m2mjeummoy

Competitive Optimal On-Line Leasing

R. El-Yaniv, R. Kaniel, N. Linial
1999 Algorithmica  
, or to buy it for a larger amount P.  ...  Using the competitive ratio as a performance measure this paper is concerned with determining the optimal competitive on-line policy for the leasing problem.  ...  Denote by OPT An on-line algorithm ALG is c-competitive (or "attains a competitive ratio c") if there exists a constant α such that, for each input I , ALG(I ) ≤ c · OPT(I ) + α.  ... 
doi:10.1007/pl00009279 fatcat:5pzf2gqdarbgvezbwknqsxyswe

Teece's Competing Through Innovation

Herbert J. Hovenkamp
2013 Social Science Research Network  
On the competitive side, the ability to interconnect freely would reduce the incentive of competitive exchange carriers to develop these elements for themselves.  ...  Recent decisions placing a value on FRANDencumbered patents suggest a ratio between patentee's claimed value and judicially determined value exceeding 2000-to-1.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.2368567 fatcat:agcr5h5dyvdhbhxpsgl5vujv2i

Online algorithms for market clearing

Avrim Blum, Tuomas Sandholm, Martin Zinkevich
2006 Journal of the ACM  
For maximizing profit, we show that no incentive-compatible algorithm can achieve a sublinear competitive ratio, even if only one buy bid and one sell bid are alive at a time.  ...  For maximizing the number of trades, we present a simple greedy algorithm that achieves a factor of 2 competitive ratio if no money-losing trades are allowed.  ...  The authors would like to thank Ke Yang for a number of helpful suggestions.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1183907.1183913 fatcat:zggpj32szjbuhol3jcyvgyhxfq
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