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Indicators and Criteria of Consciousness in Animals and Intelligent Machines: An Inside-Out Approach

Cyriel M. A. Pennartz, Michele Farisco, Kathinka Evers
2019 Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience  
Instead of proposing criteria that would each define a "hard" threshold for consciousness, we outline six indicators: (i) goal-directed behavior and model-based learning; (ii) anatomic and physiological  ...  Instead of assessing machine consciousness by a brief Turing-type of test, evidence for it may gradually accumulate when we study machines ethologically and across time, considering multiple behaviors  ...  the way humans reach classification, based in part on our abilities for generalization, conceptual learning and selective attention (Schmidhuber, 2015; Lake et al., 2017) .  ... 
doi:10.3389/fnsys.2019.00025 pmid:31379521 pmcid:PMC6660257 fatcat:4xe3mmhkdbeqdoy4q7vuwrksem

Consciousness and Hyletics in Humans, Animals and Machines [chapter]

Angela Ales Bello
2017 Representation and Reality in Humans, Other Living Organisms and Intelligent Machines  
Criteria for Animal Consciousness and across time, considering multiple behaviors that require flexibility, improvisation, spontaneous problem-solving and the situational conspectus typically associated  ...  Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience | 1 July 2019 | Volume 13 | Article 25 Pennartz et al.  ...  the way humans reach classification, based in part on our abilities for generalization, conceptual learning and selective attention (Schmidhuber, 2015; Lake et al., 2017) .  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-43784-2_12 fatcat:paurmkjwfjhdxjq3xhoqd5lmkm

Deep Reinforcement Learning and its Neuroscientific Implications [article]

Matthew Botvinick, Jane X. Wang, Will Dabney, Kevin J. Miller, Zeb Kurth-Nelson
2020 arXiv   pre-print
In the present review, we provide a high-level introduction to deep RL, discuss some of its initial applications to neuroscience, and survey its wider implications for research on brain and behavior, concluding  ...  Deep RL offers a comprehensive framework for studying the interplay among learning, representation and decision-making, offering to the brain sciences a new set of research tools and a wide range of novel  ...  also accounts for the role of a wide range of brain structures in reward-driven learning and decision making (Stachenfeld et al., 2017; Botvinick et al., 2009; O'Reilly & Frank, 2006; Gläscher et al.,  ... 
arXiv:2007.03750v1 fatcat:nl6ggmxli5fjlnub6y2w6nnvpe

Intelligence Augmentation: Towards Building Human- machine Symbiotic Relationship

Lina Zhou, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Souren Paul, Haluk Demirkan, Lingyao (Ivy) Yuan, Jim Spohrer, Michelle Zhou, Julie Basu, Northern Kentucky University, University of Washington Tacoma, Iowa State University, IBM (+2 others)
2021 AIS Transactions on Human-Computer Interaction  
Although IA has not gained momentum until recent years, the idea that machines can amplify human abilities has existed for many decades.  ...  These advances have caused many to fear that machines will surpass human intelligence and dominate humans.  ...  We also thank Dongsong Zhang for his constructive suggestions and Adam LeBrocq for his thoughtful edits and comments.  ... 
doi:10.17705/1thci.00149 fatcat:evjwzwp2cra3tbf37s6chcsyuu

Philosophy of Computer Science

William J. Rapaport
2005 Teaching Philosophy  
[Denning et al., 2017] .  ...  Newell, Perlis, & Simon address this in their Objection 4: "The computer is such a novel and complex instrument that its behavior is subsumed under no other science" [Newell et al., 1967 [Newell et al  ...  for such a machine must be based on what is now called 'machine learning': "If the machine were able in some way to 'learn by experience' it would be much more impressive" (p. 257).  ... 
doi:10.5840/teachphil200528443 fatcat:tqbgz4unajgpladtqmui7feae4

Live Wires: A History of Electronic MusicLive Wires: A History of Electronic Music by Daniel Warner. Reaktion Books, London, U.K., 2017. 205 pp., illus. Trade. ISBN: 978-1780238241

John F. Barber
2018 Leonardo: Journal of the International Society for the Arts, Sciences and Technology  
I sat down to read this ChildArt issue about art and the brain a few days after I learned of Marian Diamond's (1926-2017) death [1] .  ...  Klingan et al. connect these ideas with the mutability and transformation of a history of imagination.  ... 
doi:10.1162/leon_r_01677 fatcat:y7n63wrsbjbthkefkjtf6ratwm

Improving Mental Health Services: A 50-Year Journey from Randomized Experiments to Artificial Intelligence and Precision Mental Health

Leonard Bickman
2020 Administration and Policy in Mental Health  
I focus on the potential contributions of artificial intelligence and precision mental health to improving mental health services.  ...  I identify exemplars from the emerging literature on artificial intelligence and precision approaches to treatment in which there is an attempt to personalize or fit the treatment to the client in order  ...  reflect on my career and on their experiences with me.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10488-020-01065-8 pmid:32715427 pmcid:PMC7382706 fatcat:6rvh3a2uhjdkhgb2iwuabqos24

Explanation in Human-AI Systems: A Literature Meta-Review, Synopsis of Key Ideas and Publications, and Bibliography for Explainable AI [article]

Shane T. Mueller, Robert R. Hoffman, William Clancey, Abigail Emrey, Gary Klein
2019 arXiv   pre-print
The Report encapsulates the history of computer science efforts to create systems that explain and instruct (intelligent tutoring systems and expert systems).  ...  This is an integrative review that address the question, "What makes for a good explanation?" with reference to AI systems. Pertinent literatures are vast. Thus, this review is necessarily selective.  ...  Klein et al. and Johnson et al. build on Clark's (1996) linguistic concept of common ground as a framework for understanding team coordination.  ... 
arXiv:1902.01876v1 fatcat:glklvdwc2rbdzgteew4ttfjz2q

The Now-or-Never bottleneck: A fundamental constraint on language

Morten H. Christiansen, Nick Chater
2015 Behavioral and Brain Sciences  
This is "Chunk-and-Pass" processing. Similarly, language learning must also occur in the here and now, which implies that language acquisition is learning to process, rather than inducing, a grammar.  ...  We argue that, to deal with this "Now-or-Never" bottleneck, the brain must compress and recode linguistic input as rapidly as possible.  ...  Commentary/Christiansen & Chater: The Now-or-Never bottleneck: A fundamental constraint on language BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES, 39 (2016) WM.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0140525x1500031x pmid:25869618 fatcat:n5cecbsddvdgbcwid5w2gmr6ay

Painful intelligence: What AI can tell us about human suffering [article]

Aapo Hyvärinen
2022 arXiv   pre-print
Even frustration is fundamentally an error signal that the system uses for learning.  ...  While AI uses machine learning, humans and animals adapt by a combination of evolutionary mechanisms and ordinary learning.  ...  A typical example is bird's feathers, which probably first evolved to keep the birds warm, and only later turned out to be useful for flying. 27 (Zeng et al., 2017; Su et al., 2015; Tan et al., 2017; Guidotti  ... 
arXiv:2205.15409v1 fatcat:5ikr7yjzibhbrozfjper6zydea

Asking the right questions about the psychology of human inquiry: Nine open challenges

Anna Coenen, Jonathan D. Nelson, Todd M. Gureckis
2018 Psychonomic Bulletin & Review  
Perhaps the most successful and influential account of such abilities is the Optimal Experiment Design (OED) hypothesis, which argues that humans intuitively perform experiments on the world similar to  ...  The ability to act on the world with the goal of gaining information is core to human adaptability and intelligence.  ...  Acknowledgements We thank Neil Bramley, Justine Hoch, Doug Markant, Greg Murphy, and Marjorie Rhodes for many helpful comments on a draft of this paper.  ... 
doi:10.3758/s13423-018-1470-5 pmid:29869025 fatcat:y426o6ul3vgc3hwfvrfb6rv6dy

Why do we remember? The communicative function of episodic memory

Johannes B. Mahr, Gergely Csibra
2017 Behavioral and Brain Sciences  
Episodic memory has been analyzed in a number of different ways in both philosophy and psychology, and most controversy has centered on its self-referential, autonoetic character.  ...  Here, we offer a comprehensive characterization of episodic memory in representational terms and propose a novel functional account on this basis.  ...  in Tulving's Behavioral and Brain Science (BBS) article (Tulving 1984) .  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0140525x17000012 pmid:28100294 pmcid:PMC5404722 fatcat:x3ffv2qlyjcila7t25miugmsie

Conviction Narrative Theory: A Theory of Choice Under Radical Uncertainty

Samuel G. B. Johnson, Avri Bilovich, David Tuckett
2022 Behavioral and Brain Sciences  
Evidence from many areas of the cognitive, behavioral, and social sciences supports this basic model, including lab experiments, interview studies, and econometric analyses.  ...  Whereas most theories of choice assume that people rely on (potentially biased) probabilistic judgments, such theories cannot account for adaptive decision-making when probabilities cannot be assigned.  ...  the members of UCL's Centre for the Study of Decision-Making Uncertainty, for useful comments, encouragement, and discussion.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0140525x22001157 pmid:35634729 fatcat:y34tve3eave6pehz6c35kmj7xe

Transactional Scripts in Contract Stacks

Shaanan Cohney, David A. Hoffman
2020 Social Science Research Network  
Haque et al., supra note 52, at 34. 71.  ...  ELIZABETH MERTZ, THE LANGUAGE OF LAW SCHOOL: LEARNING TO "THINK LIKE A LAWYER" (2007) (providing the classic text on how law students are taught to think and argue in distinctive ways). 51.  ...  We argue for an alternative approach, which first, claims transactional code, commentary, and logs as a part of the contractual stack, capable of expressing meaning about the parties' intent.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.3523515 fatcat:6hmzdomnavbsno6qstkyn3tudm

A Lattice of Chemicalized Kinship

Rachel Lee
2020 Catalyst Feminism Theory Technoscience  
This essay introduces fourteen essays and artworks comprising this issue's Special Section, Critical Commentary, Critical Perspectives, Lab Meeting, and Cover Art that address the topic of Chemical Entanglements  ...  are propelled by biopolitical systems that extend or curtail relationality amongst humans, other species, and the environment.  ...  My gratitude goes to all of the researchers and artists published in this issue, and to Anne Pollock and Deboleena Roy for their insightful comments on earlier drafts of this introduction. Notes  ... 
doi:10.28968/cftt.v6i1.33904 fatcat:ypdjwmrgvbbcxnt5uvv42vm2nm
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